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QE 681 Q73™"""'*«™'«y Library 

Tlje Jurassic rocks of Britaln.Pub. by 

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The present work, forming the fourth vohime of the Mouo- 
graph on the Jurassic Eocks of Britain, contains an account by 
Mr. H. B. Woodward of the Lower Oolitic Eocks of England 
lying to the south of the Yorkshire district already described in 
the first volume. 

The same general plan of treatment has been continued as was 
adopted in describing the Lias. Each sub-division of the Lower 
Oolitic series is first sketched in regard to its leading stratlgraphical 
and palaeontological characters, and then local details are given 
to illustrate the variations which the strata present as they are 
followed along the strike across the country. A general 
description follows of the influence of the Lower Oolitic rocks upon 
the scenery and the soils of the districts where they occur ; their 
economic products are then enumerated, and an account is added of 
their relation to the question of water-supply. 

In the Preface to Volume III. attention was called to various 
early geological maps of the Jurassic areas of England, and likewise 
to the maps of the Geological Survey. In regard to the Memoirs 
of the Survey much assistance has been derived from them by 
Mr. Woodward in the preparation o£ the present volume, 
especially from those dealing with the Lower Oolitic rocks, by 
Prof. Hull, Prof. Green, Prof. Judd, Mr. Ussher, and Mr, Jukes- 

Besides the large number of stratlgraphical sub-divisions 
generally recognised in the series of formations described in the 
following chapters, many more have been based by palaeontological 
writers upon the local horizons of species. The number and real 
value oF such palaeontological zones and horizons must obviously 
depend a good deal upon individual views concerning species. 
In adopting broad palaeontological sub-divisions rather than 
minutely defined and often merely local zone?, Mr. Woodward has 
been guided by the evidence he has Ueen able himself to gather 
from a careful study of the sections in the field, together with the aid 
supplied by the palaeontological determinations made for him by his 
colleagues, Messrs. G. Sharman and E, T. Newton. In this general 
Memoir, which is intended to present a broad but detailed picture 
of the subject of which it treats, it would obviously be impossible to 
enter into such minute particulars as are mainly of local interest, 
or belong rather to the domain of the specialist in some restricted 
field of palseontolo^cal research. 

The literature of the subject, probably more extensive than that 
of the LiaSj has so far as is possible been attentively studied. It la 
intended that a full bibliography shall appear in the next volume 
which, treating of the Middle and Upper Oolites, will conclude the 
account of the Jurassic rocks of England and Wales. 

E 75928. Wt, 26326. a 2 


Amidst the work of the oiaer observers , the original labours of 
William Smith, which must always hold the foremost place, are 
commemorated in the names given by him to many of the chief 
sub-divisions of the Oolites. He was followed by Oonybeare, 
Buckland, Lonsdale, John Phillips, and Murchison. The 
writings of these geologists on the Oolites were largely strati- 
graphical. To a succeeding generation we owe the determination 
of the chief palasontological horizons, and among those no longer 
living we are indebted mainly to James Buckman, Thomas 
Wright, John Lycett, John Morris, Samuel Sharp, and Edwin 
Witchell. Among living geologists who have largely added to 
our knowledge of the Jurassic rocks, the names of Mr. W. H. 
Hudleston and of Mr. S. S. Buckman, who have done so much in 
the Inferior Oolite, should be specially mentioned. 

In the field Mr. Woodward has received much friendly personal 
assistnnce from the Rev. H. H. Winwood of Bath, Mr. S. S. 
Buckman of Stonehouse, Mr. W. 0. Lucy of Gloucester, Mr. E. 
Wethered of Cheltenham, Prof. Allen Harker of Cirencester, 
Mr. T. J. Slatter of Evesham, Mr. E. A. Walford of Banbury, 
and Mr. Beeby Thornpson of Northampton. From their 
published papers great help has likewise been derived, as will be 
seen from the references to these throughout the volume. 

The fossils collected by the author, excepting only such forms 
as could be safely identified in the field, have been named by 
Messrs. Sharman and Newton ; who now perform the duties 
which were formerly discharged so well by Mr. Etheridge for 
the earlier Jurassic Memoirs, 

Mr. Teall has examined and reportetl upon a large number of 
microscopic sections of Oolitic rocks, and we are under obligations 
to Mr. J. H. Player for some analyses of Fuller's Earth. 

For some of the illustrations in this volume, as will be seen 
from the list in the Table of Contents, we have to acknowledge 
the courtesy of the Council of the Geological Society in per- 
mitting the use of blocks from the Quarterly Journal of the 
Society, and of Dr. Henry Woodward in supplying others from 
the Official Guides to the Department of Geology in the British 
Museum. A few cliches appear from my text book of 
■Geology, and some of the cuts are reproduced from former Survey 
Memoirs, But most of the figures of fossils have been engraved for 
this work, the sources from which the drawings were made being 
acknowledged in the List of Illustrations. 

Aech. Geikie, 

Director-Gener'al . 

Geological Survey Office, 

28, Jermyn Street, London, 

17 th January 1894. 



Pbepacb, by the Dikectob-Geneeajl ... - iii 


Introduction -..- ...] 

The term Oolitic — General Character and TMokness of the 

Books — Physical Ooaditiong of the Period — Sequence of 

Strata and Extent of the Formations - - - 1 

Table showing the Sub-divisions of the Oolitic Series . - 4 

" Tripartite " Series .... .5 

Oolitic Books ....... 6 

Petrological notes on the Oolitic Rocks by Mr. J. J. H. Teall : — 
The Limestones ; Oolitic Grains ; Organic Fragments ; Non- 
calcareous Detrital Material ; Matrix ; Origin of Oolite 

Grains ....... 8 

Sandstones ...... 12 

Colour of Bocks ....... 13 

Stratigraphical characters of Oolitic rocks - - - 14 

Pisolite ........ 14 

Origin of Oolite and of strata associated with Oolitic lime- 
stones ........16 

Fossils of the Oolitic Series .... 21 

Table of some leading Zonal and Characteristic Fossils of the 

Oolitic Strata .--..-- 24 

Explanation of Plates . - . - 27 


Infekiob Oolite Seeies (Bajocian). 

General Account oe the Strata: — - - - - 31 
Organic Eemains -.....-35 

Zones ..-..--. 37 

Table of the chief sub-divisions of the Inferior Oolite Series - 38 

Midford Sand (Passage Beds) - - - - - 39 

Zonea of Ammonites jitrensis axid A. opdlmiis - - - 39 

List of Fossils from the Midford Sand - - - 42 

Inferior Oolite (Lower Division) - ... 45 

Zone of Ammomtes MurcMsonce (with List of Fossils) . - 45 

Inferior Oolite (Upper Division) - . . . - 48 

Zone of Ammonites hwm/phriesianus (with List of Fossils) - 48 

Zone of Ammwnites ParMnsoni (with List of Fossils) - - 51 

Inperior Oolite Series — Local Details : — 

1. Dorset, Somerset, and the Cotteswolds : — - - - - 52 
Inferior Oolite and Midpord Sand, Bridport (Coast Sections) 

to Beaminster - - - - - - - 54 

List of Fossils from the Inferior Oolite Series of South Dorset- 64 

jrewkeme to Stoford near Yeovil - - - - 67 

List of Fossils from the Inferior Oolite Series near Crewkerne 69 

Yeovil to Milbome Port - - - - - - 74 

List of Fossils from the Inferior Oolite Series near Sherborne, 

Dorset .-..----81 
Milbome Port to Doulting, Glastonbury, Brent Knoll, and 

the Mendips .-.--..83 
List of Fossils from the Inferior Oolite Series near Castle Gary 

and Bruton - - - - - - -85 

Oldford near Frome to Bath and Dundry - - . 92 



Infebiob Oolite Sebies — Local Details (continued). 

Ootteswold Hills — Bath to Stinchcombe ... 102 

The Ootteswold Sands and Glotjcestehshihe Cephalopoda 

Bed - - - .... 103 

Iiist of Fossils from the Cotteswold Sands and Gloucestershire 

Cephalopoda Bed - - - - - - 106 

Cotteswold Hills — Dursley to Leckhampton ... 110 

Local divisions of Inferior Oolite Series : — 

Pea Gkit Series .-.-... Ill 

List of Fossils from the Pea Grit Series ... 114 

Fbeestones and Oolite Maul - . - . - 114 

List of Fossils from the Oolite Marl ... - 115 

Bagstones ....... 116 

List of Fossils from the Gryphite Grit . . - 117 

List of Fossils from the Upper Trigonia Grit - . . 118 
List of Fossils from the Clypens Grit - . .118 

Northern and Eastern Cotteswolds — Cleeve CJond, Bredon Hill, 

Chipping Campden, and Burford .... 125 


IsPBEiOB Oolite Series — Local Details {continued). 

2. Oxfordshire. 

Chipping Norton to Fawler and Banbury ... 146 
Local divisions of the Inferior Oolite Series . .148 

Chipping Norton Limestone .... 149 


Inpebioe Oolite Series — Local Details (continued), 

3. Northamptonshire, Rutlandshire, and Lincolnshire. 

General Account op the Strata .... 165 
Northampton Sand and Lower Estuarine Series- • 166 

List of Fossils from the Northampton Sand . - 167 

COLLYWESTON SlaTE - - . - - - 170 

List of Fossils from the OoUyweston Slate . . 171 

Lincolnshire Limestone . - - - 171 

List of Fossils from the Lincolnshire Limetone - - 174 

Local Details : — 

Kings Sutton to Towoester and Stony Stratford . - 175 

Duston, and Northampton to Maidwell ... 179 

Wellingborough, Kettering, and Rockingham - - 187 

Uppingham to Stamford ..... 194 

Inferior Oolite Series — Local Details (continued)., 

Ketton and Stamford to Cottesmore .... 204 

Waltham-on-the-Wolds, Great Ponton, Ancaster, and Sleaford 207 

Sleaford to Lincoln .... . 214 

Lincoln to Kirton Lindsey and Winteringham - . - 217 
Local Divisions of the Inferior Oolite Series in North Lincoln- 
shire - ...... 219 

HiBALDSTow Beds ....... 221 

KiETON Beds ...-.,. 221 

List of Fossils from the Kirton and Hibaldstow Beds - . 222 


Great Oolite Series (Batuonias). 

1. Dorsetshire to Oxfordshire. 
FdllOnian or Filler's Earth Ol*.y and Rock : — 

General Account op the Strata : — - . . . 228 

List of Fossils from the Fuller's Earth formation . 2:i0 


■B^iLONiAN OR Fuller's Earth Clay and Eock (continiMd). Page 

Local Details: — 

Bridport and Weymouth to Crewkerne - - - . 233 

List of Fossils from Burton Bradstock and Bype - - 234 

Shprborne to East Cranmore .... - 235 

List of Fossils from Thomford, Milbome Port, Charleton Hore- 

thorne, and Shepton Montague .... 237 

FrometoBath ....... 238 

List of Fossils from Frome ..... 239 

List of Fossils from "Widoombe and Bath ... 241 

Bath and the Cotteswold Hills to Chipping Norton - - 243 


Great Oolite Semes. 

Great Oolite and Stoneseield Slate : — 

General Accomrr or the Strata: — .... 248 

Organic Bemains - - .... 250 

List of Fossils from the Great Oolite .... 252 

Zones ........ 253 

Local Details: — 

Bradford.on.Avon to Bath ..... 254 

Relations of Great Oolite to FuUer's Earth and Forest Marble - 254 

Bath, Corsham, and Marshfield to Nailsworth ... 266 

List of Fossils from Corsham and Tatton Keynell - . 269 


Great Oolite and Stoneseield Slate — Local Details (continued). 

Minchinhampton, Tetbury, and Cirencester ... 271 
Cirencester to Sevenhampton, Salperton, Nannton, and Stow- 

OD-the-Wold ....... 286 

Dagham Stone .... ... 286 

List of Fossils from Serenhampton, Kyneton, Salperton, Naun- 

ton, and Eyeford ...... 296 

Fairford, Northleach, Burford, and Wychwood Forest - . 296 


Great Oolite and Stoneseield Slate — Local Details {continued). 

SioHESPiELD Slate ...... 310 

Organic Remains .-.-.-. 312 

List of Fossils from the Stonesfield Slate ... 314 

Woodstock ------- 319 

Chadlington, Chipping Norton, Tadmarton, and Banbury - 324 

Great Oolite Series. 

Forest Maeble and Bradford Clay (Bradpobbian) : — 

General Account op the Strata: — .... 338 

Organic Remains ...... 333 

List of Fossils from the Forest Marble .... 340 

Local Details: — 

Weymouth to Bridport ..-.-. 341 

List of Fossils from South Dorsetshire .... 344 

Beaminster to Sherborne ..... 346 

Sherborne to Winoanton ...... 347 

List of Fossils from Templecombe .... 348 

Wincantou to Frome ...... 348 


FoEEST Maeble and Beadfoed Olat (BEAnroEDiAN) — Local Dbtailb 

Frome to Charterhouse Hinton - - . - . 349 

Hinton Sand and Sandstone .... - 351 

Bradford-on-Avon to Corsham - . . l 352 

Beabjqed Olat ....... 352 

List of Fossils from the Bradford Olay ... - 353 

List of Fossils from Oorsham ..... 357 

Oorsham to Malmesbury ...... 357 

Swindon and the London area ..... 359 

List of Fossils from Swindon , . . . . 359 

Cirencester and Tetbury ...... 362 

List of Fossils from Cirencester ..... 363 

Cirencester to Fairford and Burford .... 369 

Wychwood Forest to Witney and Woodstock ... 372 

Chipping Norton to Epwell ..... 375 

Islip, Bicester, and Buckingham .... 376 


Geeai Oolite Sbeies : — 

2. Northamptonshire to Lincolnshire. 

GtEneeal Accouht oe the Steata : — 

Upper Bstuauine Seeies . 
List of Fossils .... 

Geeat Oolite Limestone 
List of Fossils ... 

Great Oolite Clat (Bliswoeth Clay) 
List of Fossils ... 

Local Details : — 

Aynho to Brackley and Buckingham 
Buckingham to Silverstone, Stony Stratford, 

PagneU - - - 

Newport PagneU to Olney and Bedford 
Towcester to Stowe-nine-churches 
Eoade and Ellsworth to Northampton 
List of Fossils from Duston 
Northampton to Rockingham Forest 
Northampton to Thrapston, Oundle, and King's 
Ketton to Peterborough and Stamford 
Stamford to Castle Bytham 
Castle Bytham to Sleaford 
Sleaford to Greetwell and Winterton 

and Newport 

Oliffe ■ 








Geeat Oolite Series. 
Corner ASH : — 

Genbeal Account op the Strata : — . . - - 431 

Organic Remains ....... 432 

List of Fossils ....... 434 

Local Details : — . 

Weymouth to Bridport ...... 435, 

List of Fossils from Weymouth ..... 437 

Rampisham to Sherborne and Temple Combe ... 437 

List of Fossils from Closeworth ..... 438 

List of Fossils from Templecombe .... 439 

Wincanton to Trowbridge and Bradford.on-Avon - "• . 439 

List of Fossils from Road, Hilperton, and Semington - . 440 

Bradford-on-Avon to Chippenham, Malmesbury, and Kemble - 440 

Cirencester to Fairford, and Swindon .... 443 


doRUBRASH — Local Detaiis (continued). 

List of Fossils from Cirencester, Fairford, and Swindon (well) 

Fairford to "Witney, and Woodstock - . . - 

List of Fossils from Woodstock - - - - 

Tslip to Bicester, BackinghEim, and Newport Pagnell - 

Bedford to Oiindle and Stilton 

List of Fossils from Susliden, Oundle, and Stilton 

Peterborough to Sleaford . - - . 

Sleaford to Sudbrook, Appleby, and Winterton 

List of Fossils from Sudbrook Park .... 





Form of the Ground 

- 459 

Superficial Accumulations and Drift 

- 462 

Landslips ..-.-- 

. 464 

Soils :— - - - 


Inferior Oolite Series . . - 

- 465 

Fullonian or Fuller's Earth Formation 


Upper Estuarine Series 

- 467 

Grreat Oolite .... 

- 467 

Forest Marble 

- 468 

Great Oolite Clay 

- 469 

Oornbrash - ... 

- 469 


Economic Peoducis: — 
Building Stones : — 

Inferior Oolite Series - 

Northampton Sand 

Inferior Oolite, &c. 

Lincolnshire Limeatone 

Great Oolite 

Forest Marblo 

Road Metal 
Stone-tiles or " Slates '' : — 

Northampton Sand 

Collyweston Slates 

Inferior Oolite - 

Stonesfield Slates 

Forest Marble - 
Sandstones and Sauds 
Lime and Cement - 
Fuller's Earth 

Brickearth, Potter's Clay, &c. 
Lignite and Bituminous Shale 
Iron Ores - 

Northamptonshire Iron-ore 
Miscellaneous Iron-ores - 
Ochre ... 

Miscellaneous Minerals - 




Springs and Water Supply - 

Disappearance of Streams — Swallet-holos. 
Inferior Oolite Series - - 

Great Oolite Series 

,E 75928. 



Springs and Watek Supply (continued). 

Bfeservoirs and Ornamental "Waters 
Springs .... 
Holy Wells 
Petrifying Springs 
Chalybeate Springs 
Saline Springs 






Catalogue of Possils from the Lower Oolitic Kocks of England. - 617 
Index. ....... 601 



Fig. 1. Microscopic Structure of Oolitic Limestone. (After 

Sorby.) (Geikie, Text-Book of Geology, Ed. 2, p. 120) 7 

„ 2. Ammonites striatulus. Sow. (After Sowerby) - - 43 
,, 3. Ammonites jurensis, Ziet. (Geikie, Text-Book of 

Geology, Ed. 2, p. 793) 43 

,, 4. Ammonites insignis, Scbiib. (After d'Orbigny) - - 43 
,, 5. Ammonites torulosus, Ziet. (Geikie, Text-Book of 

Geology, Ed. 2, p. 794) 43 

,, 6. Ammonites opalinus, Eein. (After S. S. Buckman) - 43 
,, 7. Belemnites i/rregwlaris, Schloth. (Geikie, Text-Book of 

Geology, Ed. 2, p. 780) 43 

„ 8. Trigonia denticulata, Ag. (After Lycett) - - 44 

,, 9. Trigonia striata, Sow. (After Lycett) - - - 44 

,, 10. Modiola soweriyana, d'Orb. (After Morris and Lycett) - 44 

„ 11. Pholadomyafidicula, Sow. (Museum of Practical Geology) 44 

„ 12. Astarte elegans, Sow. (After Morris and Lycett) - - 44 

„ 13. ^■uic'uZa ftraamiiM-iemsts, Phil. (After Morris and Lycett - 44 

,, 14. Bhynchonelh cynocephala, Eich. (After Davidson) - 44 

,, 15. AnvmonitesSowerhyi,M.i\\eT. (After d'Orbigny) - - 46 

,, 16. Ammonites MurchisoncB, Sow. (After d'Orbigny) - 46 

,, 17. Ammonites humphriesianus. Sow. (After d'Orbigny) - 46 

„ 18. Ammonites conca/vus. Sow. (After S. S. Buckman) - 46 
„ 19. Oypricardia cordiformis, Desh. (Museum of Practical 

Geology) -..-...47 

,, 20. Astarte excavata, Sow. ^ (After Sowerby) - - - 47 

„ 21. Ceromya bajociana, d'Orb. (After Morris and Lycett - 47 

„ 22. Nerinma cvngenda, Phil. (After Hudleston) - 47 

,, 23. Terebratula fimibi-ia, Sow. (After Davidson) - - 47 

,, 24. StomechiMus germ/inans, Phil. (After Wright) - - 47 

,, 26. Pygaster semisuleatus, Phil. (After Wright) - - 47 

,, 26. Ammonites Parhinsoni, Sow. (After d'Orbigny) - - 50 

i, 27. Terebratula PhilKpsi, Morris. (After Davidson) - - 50 

„ 28. Terebraltda globata, Sow. (After Davidson) - - 50 

„ 29. Zhynchonellaspinosa, Schloth. (After Davidson) - 50 

„ 30. Ch^eusPloti, Klein. (After Wright) - - - 50 
,, 31. Diagram-section to show the main sub-divisions in the 
Inferior Oolite Series, from Bridport in Dorsetshire, 

to Leckhampton, near Cheltenham - - - 53 
,, 32. Section from Bridport Harbour to Cliff End, near 

Burton Bradstock, Dorsetshire - - - - 55 

„ 33. Cliffs east of Bridport Harbour - - - - 56 

,, 34. Section in Eailway-cutting west of Orewkerne Station 68 

,, 35. Section in Brickyard, Crewkeme - - - - 69 
„ 36. Railway-cutting at Bradford Abbas, near Sherborne, 

Dorsetshire - - - - - 77 

„ 37. Section on Nunney Common, near Frome - - 90 
„ 38. Section showing overlap in the Jurassic Beds along the 
eastern borders of the Mendip Hills. (De la Beche, 

Geol. Observer, p. 486) ... - . 91 
„ 39. Section near the Bridge at Murdercombe, near Frome. 
(De la Beche. Mem. Geol. Survey, vol. i. fig. 42, 

p. 288) 91 

„ 40. Diagram-section from Stroud to Cirencester. (H.B.W., 

Proc. Geol Assoc, vol. X., p. 162) - - - 109 
E 75928. C 



Fig. 41. Diagram-section from Leckhampton to Uley Bury. 
(E. Witcliell, Quart Journ. Q-eol. Soc, vol. xlii., 

p. 266) 112 

„ 42. Sections along the Midland and South- Western Junction 
Eailway between Andoversford and Chedworth, Glou- 
cestershire ...... 128 

„ 43. Sections along the Banbury and Cheltenham Railway 
between Andoversford and Bourton-on-the-Water, 
Gloucestershire ------ 131 

„ 44. Outcrop of Pea G^rit, at Oleeve Hill, near Cheltenham. 

(From a Photograph by Mr. E. Wethered) - - 134 

,, 45. Section across Bredon Hill, Gloucestershire. (Prof. E. 

Hull, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xi., p. 480) - 139 

.;, 46. Diagram-section from the Cotteswold Hills to Fawler in 

Oxfordshire - - - - - -150 

,', 47. Section south-west of Chadlington Down Farm, south of 

Chipping Norton - - - - - 162 

,, 41. Section in a pit at the Race- course, Northampton. (Prof. 

J. W. Judd, Geol. Rutland, p. 34) - - - 169 

,, 49. Section south-west of Newbottle, near King's Sutton - 176 
„ 50. Section at the Spratton Ironstone- workings, near Brix- 

worth, Northamptonshire .... 186 

S, 51. Section in Sand-pit, west of Weekley, Northampton- 
shire. (Prof. J. W. Judd, Geol. Rutland, p. 37) - 188 
„ 52, Section at Glendon, north of Kettering - - . 190 
„ 53, Section at Old Head Wood, north-east of Kettering, 
Northamptonshire. (Prof J. W. Judd, Geol. Rutland, 

p. 38) 191 

„ 54. Stone-pit near Uppingham, on the road to Stockerston, 
Rutlandshire. (Prof. J. W. Judd, Geol. Rutland, 

p. 108) 196 

„ 55. Section at " Slate-mine," Oollyweston, near Stamford - 197 
,, 56. Pit in the Northampton Beds, between Ufford and 
Marholm, Northamptonshire. (Prof. J. W. Jndd, 

Geol. Rutland, p. 105) 200 

„ 57, Section of Northampton Beds in a pit east of Ufford, ■ 
Northamptonshire. (Prof. J. W. Judd, Geol. Rutland, 

p. 104) 201 

„ 58. Section in the Railway- cutting west of Ancaster. 

(W. H. Dalton, Geol. S.W., Lincolnshire, p. 51) - 211 

f, 59. Quarry north of Copper Hill Farm, near Aiicaster . 213 

,, 60. Diagram? section of the Oolite plain south of Lincoln. 

(W. H. Dalton, Geol. Lincoln, p. 45) - - - 215 

„ 6L Section in Railway-cutting north of Nocton, Lincoln- 
shire ....... 215 

„ 62. Quarry west of Ermine Street, near the 10th milestone, 
north of Lincoln. (W. A. E. Ussher, Geol. Lincoln, 
p. 58)_ - - - - ' - - -220 

j, 63. Ammonites a/i-hustigerus, d'Orb. (After Morris and 

Lycett) - - - - . . -231 

„ 64. Ammmiites suhcontrachts, Morris and Lycett - - 231 

„ 65. Ostrea acmnmata, Sow. (After Morris and Lycett) - 231 
\i 66. Waldhevmia wnithocephala, Sow. (After Davidson) - 231 
„ 67.. EiJiynchonella varians, Sohloth. (After Davidson) . 231 

„ 68. Section in Railway-cutting, south-east of Shepton Mon- 
tague, Somerset ..... 237 

,, 69. Section at Midford, near Bath - - . . 242 

,, 70. Natica hulKana, Lye. (Geikie, Text-Book of Geoloffv, 

Ed. 2, p. 779) - ■ 251 

,, 71. Nerita costulata, Desh. (Geikie, Ibid.) ... 251 
„ 72. Nerincea Volid, Desl. (After Morris and Lycett) - 251 

i, 73,, Pwrpwroidea Morrisea, Buv. (After Morris and Lycett) 251 





Fig. 74. Oyjiricardia rostrata. Sow. (After Morris and Lycett) 
,, 75. Lima awdviformis, Saw. (After Morris and Lyoett) 
„ 76. Maerodon hirsonensis, d'Arch . (After Morris and Lycett) 
„ 77. Bhynahonella eoncinna, Sow. (After Davidson) - 
„ 78. Terebrahila maxillata, Sow. (After Davidson) - 
,, 79. Acrosaleniahemieidaroides, Wright. (After Wright) 
„ 80. Diagram-section to show the attenuation of the Great 

Oolite, near Bradford-on-Avon 
„ 81. Section at Avonolifif, Bradford-on-Avon - 
„ 82. Quarry at Tatton Keynell, north-west of Chippenham 
(Prof. B. Hull, Geol. parts of Wiltshire and Glouces 
tershire, p. 14) ----- 
„ 83. Section on the Tetbury Branch of the Great Western 
Railway, between Kemble Junction and Jackment's 
Bottom .--.-.. 274 
„ 84. Section at Hare Bushes Quarry, north-east of Cirencester 284 
„ 85. Section north-east of Baunton Downs, between Ciren- 
cester and Chedworth, on the Midland and. South- 
western Junction JJailway .... 290-' 
„ 86. Section at the Windrush Quarries, Gloucestershire. 

(Prof. E. Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, p. 57) - - 300' 

„ 87. Section in the Great Oolite, Swinbrook, Burford. Prof. 

E. Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, p. 56) - - - 306 

„ 88. Section from the River Evenlode to Leafield Barrow, 

Oxfordshire. (Prof. E. Hull, Geol. Woodstock, p. 30) 309 
„ 89. Phascolotherium Buchlandi, Broderip. (Guide to Depart- 
ment of Geology, British Museum, Part I., p. 77, 
1890) -_...-•. 
„ 90. AmphUestes Broderipi, Owen. (Guide, Ibid.) 
„ 91. Section across the Dome, Steeple Barton, Oxfordshire, 

(Prof. E. Hull, Geol. Woodstock, p. 17) , - 
„ 92.. Sections along the Banbury and Cheltenham Railway, 
between Chipping Norton and Hook Norton, Oxford 
shire --.... 
„ 93. Section at SwalcliSe, south-west of Banbury 
„ 94.. Peeten annulatits, Saw. (After Morris and Lyoett) . 
„ 95. Ostrea Sowerhyi, Lyo. (After Morris and Lycett) 
„ 96. Terehratula coarctata, Park. (After Davidson) - 
„ 97. Waldhevmia digona, Sow. (After Davidson) 
„ 98. Apiocrinus ParTcinsoni, Schloth. (After Bronn.) 
„ 99. Section at West Cliff, near Bype, Bridport , 
„ 100. Section near Upper Westwood, Bradford-o^-Avou 
„ 101, 102, 103. Sections m the Fprest Marble between Norcott 
and Wiggold, near Cirencester, on the Midland and 
South- Western Junction Railway . . ^ 366. 

„ 104. Quarry near Sandy Lane, south of Cirencester. (Prof. 
E. Hull, Geol. parts of Wiltshire and Gloucestershire, 

p. 15) - - 368 

„ 105. Section south-west of Long Furlong, Ampney, near 

Cirencester -.-... 368 

„ 106. Section through the Forest Marble and Great Oolite, 
Orickley Barrow, north-east of Coin St. Denis. 
(Prof. E. Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, p. 71) - - 369 

„ 107. Section at Poulton, near Fairford - - - - 370 

„ 108. Sections along the Woodstock Branch Railway, Oxford- 
shire ....... 374. 

,, 109. Section at the Brickyard, Blackthorn Hill, south-east of 

Bicester. (Prof. A. H. Green, Geol. Banbury, p. 37) . 377 
„ 110. Ostrea subrugwlosa, Mor. and Lye. (After Morris and 

Lycett) .-...-. 385 
„ 111. Section at Maidford, north-west of Towcester - . 398 

,, 112, Diagram-section to show the relations between the Great 
and Inferior Oolite Series from Northamptonshire to 
Lincolnshire ...... 399 






Fig. 113. Section of the strata south cf Thrapston •- - 408 
„ 114. Section at the corner of Oollyweston and Hornstook 
"Woods, north of King's Cliffe. (Prof. J. W. Judd, 

Geol. Rutland, p. 192) 414 

„ 115. Section north-west of Stamford ... - 418 
,, 116. Section in the Dane's Hill Cutting, west of Carlby, on the 
Great Northern Railway. (Prof. J. Morris, Quart 

Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. ix., p. 330) - - 421 
,, 117. Diagram-section along the Valley, from Great Humby 
to Edenham, Lincolnshire. (A. J. Jukes-Browne, Geol., 

S.W. Lincolnshire, p. 15) - - - 425 

„ 118. Ammonites maorocephalm, Schloth. (After d'Orbigny) - 432 

,, 119. Ammonites discus. Sow. (After d'Orbigny) - - 432 

„ 120. Myaeites secwriformis, Phil. (After Morris and Lycett) - 432 

„ 121. Oresslya peregrima, Phil. (After Morris and Lycett) - 482 

,, 122. Pecten vagam, Sow. (After Morris and Lycett) - - 433 

„ 123. Pecten lens, Sow. (After Morris and Lycett) - - 433 

„ 124. Avicula echmata, Sow. (Museum of Practical Geology) - 433 

,, 125. Waldheimia obovata, Sow. (After Davidson) - • - 433 

„ 126. Terebratula intermedia, Sow. (After Davidson) - - 433 

,, 127. Waldheimia lagenalis, Schloth. (After Davidson) - 433 

„ 128. BchiMobrissus chmieula/ris, Lhwyd. (After Wright) - 433 
„ 129. Section of Oornbrash at the north end of Radipole Lake, 

Weymouth ...... 436 

„ 130. Section north-west of Kemble Junction, Gloucestershire 442 
„ 131. Section along the Midland and South- Western Junction 

Railway, at Siddington, south of Cirencester . - 444 
„ 132. Section at Alvescott Downs, south-east of Shilton, 

Oxfordshire. (Prof. B. Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, p. 74) 446 
„ 133. Section at Akeley, north of Buckingham ... 450 
,, 134. Diagram-section of the chief Escarpments from Dorset- 
shire to Warwickshire ..... 460 

„ 135. Quarry on Bredon Hill, Gloucestershire - - - 462 

„ 136. Colmer's Hill, Bridport - - - - - 465 

„ 137. Structure of the Ironstone in the Northampton Sand. 

(G. Maw, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xxiv., p. 396) - 494 


Plate I. Microscopic Sections of Oolitic and other Limestones 26 
„ II. Microscopic Sections of Oolitic Ironstones and Lime- 
stones .......29 







The term Oolitic — General Character and Thickness of the Rocks — 
Physical Conditions of the Period-^Sequence of Strata and 
Extent of the Formations. 

The Oolitic rocks form a series far more interesting and 
diversified than the Lias upon which they rest. Over parts of 
the area the two divisions occur in uninterrupted sequencp, but 
there is a broad difference between the essentially argillaceous 
formation of the Lias, and the alternating series of limestones, 
Eandsj and thick beds of clay, of which the Oolitic group is 

Most of the limestones are characterized by a structure 
resembling the roe of a fish, such as the cod : hence the name 
" roestone " came to be applied by the quarrymen, and this has 
been translated, in the language of science, into Oolite. E.ocks of 
this character were described by Pliny,* but the term Oolithus ap- 
pears to have been first introduced as a petrological name in 1727 
by F. E. Bruckmann.t It was not until 1803 that the name 
Oolite was applied in a stratigraphical sense, and then it was 
used by A. J. M. Brochant de Villiers.f Eventually through 
the labours of William Smith, followed by those of Conybeare, 

* See J. Morton, Nat. Hist. NorthailiptOE shire, 1712, pp. 99, 248. 

f The name is mentioned in Biuckmaun's Historia Naturalis curiosa Lapidis, 
1727, p. 7. See Da Costa, Nat. Hist. Fossils, 1757, p. 130 ; also J. Kidd, Outlines of 
Mineralogy, vol. i., 1809, p. 26 ; and Jameson, System of Mineralogy, toI. i. p. 504. 

X Mineral, elem., vol. i. pp. 523, 529. 

E 75928. 



Buckland, and others, the names Inferior and Great Oolite, 
Coralline or Oxlbrd Oolite, and Portland Oolite, came to be applied 
to difierent beds of limestone in the Oolitic Series. 

The general sequence that has been established in the Jurassic 
rocks of this country, has been mentioned in the previous volume 
on the Lias. In that formation the main divisions can be followed 
across the country from Dorsetshire to Yorkshire ; while in regard 
to the Oolites distinct stratigraphical divisions are necessary in 
different parts of the area, owing to the inconstant character of 
some of the subdivisions, and more especially those of a calcareous 
and arenaceous nature. The limestones characterized by oolitic 
structure are as a rule conspicuously current-bedded, and they, 
together with the sandy sediments, were evidently deposited in 
comparatively shallow water ; while the clays, as a rule, indicate 
the sediments of deeper water that were further removed from 
tlje land. 

We have thus to deal with a series that exhibits marked 
changes in the thickness and character of its numerous divisions ; 
for the total thickness varies from about 1,500 to nearly 3,000 
feet. Evidences of terrestrial conditions are afforded in the 
Northampton Sand and in the Purbeck Beds ; but the only direct 
evidence of an old land-area (probably of an island) is met with 
in the Mendip Hills, where conglomeratic beds of Inferior Oolite 
rest on the Carboniferous Limestone. Indirect evidence is 
otherwise afforded of the nearness of land, whether of islets or 
portions of a continent it is difficult to say. This evidence is 
gathered partly from the pebbly character of the Lower Calcareous 
Grit and Portlandian Beds, and partly from the estuarine nature of 
other strata, a character which becomes developed in portions of 
the Lower Oolitic Series as we proceed from the south-west of 
England in a north-easterly direction into Yorkshire. The 
evidence of the proximity of land and of estunrine conditions, is 
derived from the occurrence of much lignite and of certain MoUusca : 
while the occurrence, as at Stonesfield, of plants and terrestrial 
animals, is indicative perhaps of an island. In the Northampton 
Sand we have layers penetrated by rootlets ; and in the highest of 
the Jurassic Hocks, the Purbeck Bods, we find remains of the 
growth in situ of Cycads and Conifers, as well as beds of distinctly 
freshwater origin. It should be noted, however, that the presence 
of lignite, or even of leaves, seeds, and fruits, affords no indication 
of the depth of water in which beds may have been deposited, 
as such remains have been dredged from a depth of over 1,500 
fathoms off the West Indies.* 

The Oolitic Series, so far as our area Is concerned, is broken 
only by the local absence of one or more of its members,, au 
absence that may in some cases be attributed to contemporaneous 
erosion and in others to cessation of sediment. There are no 
facts to tell of any great and wide-spread discordance such as 
would be produced by considerable upheaval and erosion. 

* A. Agassiz, Nature, January 2], 1892, p. 281. 


■ Eastwards of the Cotteswolds we have higher members of the 
Inferior Oolite overlapping lower members (from W. to E.); and 
in this Midland region we have evidence of unconformable over- 
lap of the Great Oolite Series, which traced from Lincolnshire into 
NorthamptoDsliire (from N.E. to S.W.), rests in places on lower 
and lower portions of the Inferior Oolite Series. Again in the 
eastern part of Northamptonshire and in Bedfordshiro, the Great 
Oolite Series rests on attenuated beds of the Inferior Oolite Series, 
and finally overlaps them, so as to rest directly on the Lias. In 
some localities there is more marked evidence of local disturbance 
and erosion between members of the Great and Inferior Oolite.'* 
(See Fig..51, p. 188.) Again in the area extending from Bath to 
Dorsetshire, we find a considerable overlap of the Forest Marble 
where it stretches across ths Great Oolite on to the Fuller's Earth, 
and this overlap was probably attended by local erosion. (See 
Fig. 80, p. 255.) 

With regard to the former extent of the Oolites, we have no 
evidence whatever for marking the limits of their formation west of 
the main outcrop. Eastwards and south-eastwards, we know that 
Oolitic rocks are absent beneath the Cretaceous and Tertiary 
coverings at Harwich and Ware; but some members of the series 
have been proved in deep borings at Richmond, under London, 
at Streatham, Chatham, and Dover. In this subterranean area, 
as in the Boulormais, the Great Oolite is found to have overlapped 
the lower members of the Oolitic Sei-ies and the Lias, so as to 
rest directly on the Palseozoic floor : and it is not unreasonable 
to conclude that land existed in the area during some portions 
of the Jurassic period. (See p. 360.) We cannot tell for certain 
how far the absence of Jurassic beds in the eastern portions of 
England (Harwich, Ware, &c.) maj' be due to denudation prior 
to the Upper Cretaceous period ; but we know that much destruc- 
tion took place locally in Lower Cretaceous times, from the 
unconformable overlap of the Lower Greensand, and from the 
occurrence of derived Jurassic fossils in that formation in Bedford- 
shire and other parts. 

The getieral relationship of the leading sub-divisions of the 
Oolitic Series is shown in the Table on page 4 ; and the principal 
local breiks arc' indicated by wavy lines. 

The several "subdivisions of this Series are all more or less 
intimately linked together : thus the Midford Sand links the Lias 
with the Inferior Oolite; and the Fuller's Earth (which is inti-^ 
iaately connected with the Stonesfield Slate) links the Inferior 
Oolite with the Great Oolite. It appears likely that the uppermost 
portion of the Inferior Oolite in Oxfordshire, locally known as the 
Chipping Norton Limestone, is coeval with portions of the 
Fullers Earth Clay elsewhere. Again, the Cornbrash and Kella- 
ways Kock, and the succeeding beds of the Middle and Upper 
Oolites are a] 1 closely bound together, and locally pass up into the 
Wealden Beds without any evidence of a break in the succession. 
Xb Lincolnshire, as pointed out by Mr. A. Strahan, there is 
nience of unconformable overlap between the Kimeridge Clay 

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and Spilsby Sandstone, and although the latter contains Port- 
landian fossils, yet these bear evidence of having been derived ; 
and the most that can be said on behalf of the Jurassic age of the 
Spilsby Sandstone, is that it may include representatives in time 
of the Purbeck Beds. 

The divisions into Upper, Middle, and Lower Oolites, adopted 
by the Geological Survey, are practically the same as those em- 
ployed by Oonybeare in 1822; they are simply divisions that are 
convenient for purposes of local description. 

In upward sequence we have to deal therefore with deposits 
that represent an alternating series of sedimentary" conditions ; 
and although a comparatively small part of each formation is 
opened to view, yet the general characters of the chief sub- 
divisions are maintained along the line of strike northwards from 
Dorsetshire to the northern end of the Cotteswolds. The general 
strike turns in an easterly direction from the Ootteswold region to 
Northampton, and there we find evidence of the more important 
changes in the nature of the calcai'eous and arenaceous beds. 
The great clay-formations, on the other hand, while varying in 
thickness, maintain fairly uniform lithological characters across 
England ; and even in the far north of Scotland, some of the 
Oxfordian clays and Kimeridgian shales are identical in character 
with equivalent beds in the south of England, 

" Tripartite" Series, 

In subdividing the strata, Conybeare and Phillips remarked on 
the apparent regularity of the sequence of clay, sand, and lime- 
stone that characterizes the larger divisions ; and the subject has 
been more fully discussed by John Phillips and others. 

Phillips explains the matter "on the simple and sure basis of inter- 
rupted depression of the sea-bed." He says, " In the cases before us the 
liassic sea-bed first receives only the finest sediments which can fall in 
deep water ; by degrees these sediments accumulate so as to bring the 
sea-bed near enough to the surface for the drift and settlenient of the fine 
Band of Midford and Frocester : on this sandbank flourish, colouies of 
coral and shells, and constitute the basis of the Inferior oolite. Depres- 
sion follows ; the deposit again becomes argillaceous ' fuller's earth ' ; 
shallow water succeeds, and the Stonesfield banks of sand and shells 
appear, followed by the Great oolite rock. Less distinctly the s^me things 
occur and recur ; and the cornbrash ends this series." 

" Next we have a long depression marked by 600 feet of Oxford clay, 
followed by the fine sandbank of calcareous grit, on which corals and 
oysters and many forms of life gi'ew in profusion." 

" Again the same things are repeated for the Kimeridge clay, Portland 
sands, and Portland oolite." 

" It deserves remark that the three orders of deposits, clays, sands, 
limestones, are so much alike in the several groups as to be in fact hardly 
distinguishable by hand specimens ; they seem all to have been derived 
from similar sources — from neighbouring shores and lands, with no impor- 
tations from afar." * 

* Geology of Oxford, &c., pp. 393, 394. See also Seeley, Physical Geology and 
Palseontology, 1885, p. 54. 


The following Table shows the varying nature of the supposed 
Tripartite series : — 


Leading Lithological 

Grouping of 
John Phillips.* 

Grouping of 
Conybeare and 
W. Phil]ips.t 

Purbeck Beds 

Limestones and clays. 

Portland Beds 

J Limestone - 
1 Sand 



Kimeridge Clay 




J Limestone - 



Corallian Beds 



Oxford Clay - 




Kellaways Rook 





r Clay and sand 

Arenaceous - 

Forest Marble 

< Limestone - - \ 
Lciay -/ 

Argillaceous - 

Great Oolite 



Limestone. ~1 

Stonesfield Slate 

Sand and limestone - 

Arenaceous - 


Fuller's Earth 

< Limestone - ■ 


Inferior Oolite 



Midford Sand 



Sand. , 

Upper Lias 


r Limestone. 

Argillaceous -" 

Middle Lias 

i Sand. 


Lower Lias - 

f Clay. 
X Limestone. 
J Limestone. 
I Clay. 

Ehaitic Beds - 

It will thus be seen that the so-called " tripartite series" is by 
no means constant, and that the exceptions are almost as frequent 
as the rule. Especially is this the case when we come to trace 
the divisions from the south of England through the Midland 
counties into Yorkshire. Nevertheless considering the matter in 
its local aspects it is deserving of some attention. As a rule we 
are taught that the sands were formed near shore, the clays 
further off, and the limestones in the deeper water. In the case 
of the oolites, however, the evidence tends to show that most if 
not all of them nmst have been accumulated as shore^fbrmations 
in shallow water ;J and it is desirable to consider their origin before 
proceeding further. 

Oolitic Bocks. 

The term oolite in a petrographical sense is usually restricted 
to rocks that contain small roe-like grains having a concentric 
and radiate, or simplj a concentric or radiate structure, formed 

* Geol. Oxford, p. 393. 

f Outlines of Geol. England and Wales, pp. 165-167. 

1 See also Duncan, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxix. p. 196. 


usually of crystalline layers of carbonate of lime, mostly calcite 
but sometimes aragonite. These grains are often replaced by 
ferruginous compounds and rarely by silica. The grains though 
small are variable in size, and are usually spherical but sometimes 
oval ; and in other instances the shape bears relation to the nucleus 
around which the calcareous coating has been deposited. 

Many rocks however that present an oolitic appearance, prove on 
microscopic examination to be very largely composed of struc- 
iureless grains or pellets ; and some, like those of the Coral Sands of 
the West Indies, are composed largely of tiny rounded and spherical 
fragments, with or without a thin envelope of calcareous matter. 
_ Examination in tlie field, iind 

■ ■ with the aid of a hand magnify- 

ing glass, is insufficient to enable 
a discrimination to be, made 
between the rocks chiefly foniicd 
uf true oolitic grain?, and those 
more largely composed of pellets 
or rounded fragments of or- 
L,'anisms. Thus some of the 
Lower Purbeck beds are com- 
posed of granular limestone in 
which true oolitic grains form 
but a subordinate portion. 

In some instances we find 
three or four oolitic grains in 
31icroscopic Struchire of Oolitic ^^e midst of a pelkt, as in the 
Limestone (after Sorby). Inferior Oohte of Sleaford. 

Magnified zo Diameters. Compound oolitic grains also 

occur, and occasionally we find mechanical additions amid the 
encircling oolitic growths, as in the Corallian limestone of Keevil. 
Some of the mud-pellets in the Great Oolite of Burford, as 
noticed by Mr. Teall, look as if they had been slightly pressed 
together when in a soft state. (See p. 19.) 

Among the Jurassic rocks, oolitic grains occur in the Lias, 
Inferior Oolite, Great Oolite, Forest Marble, Corallian Beds, 
Portland Beds, and Purbeck Beds. 

In the Lower and Middle Lias they occur mainly in the iron- 
stone ; hut, both in those formations and in the Inferior Oolite, 
we often find tiny spheroidal grains of oxide of iron (limonite), or 
" iron-shot " grains, that as a rule exhibit no structure. In these 
cases, as in some of the Lower Lias limestones, it does not follow 
that the particles replaced were originally oolitic granules : they 
faiay have been pellets of limestone or rolled fragments of organic 

In a yellow and blue-hearted oolite which I obtained from the 
Lincolnshire Lim.estone of Castle Bytham, Mr. A. B. Dick found 
the grains in the blue rock to be coated with a thin film of pyrites, 
and the grains in the exterior yellow portion to be coated with a 
film of limonite, evidently produced by the oxidation of the 
pyrites. The division between the blue and yellow oolite was 


very sharply defined, and cut through individual grains of oolite. 
By the action of weak acids, the grains were dissolved and the 
coatings left intact, forming beautiful objects for examination 
under the microscope. In both cases the matrix itself was colour- 
less and transparent. (See Plate I., p. 26, fig. 4.) 

In the Oorallian Beds again we have the oolites that are locally 
replaced by iron-ore, as at "Westbury and Abbotsbury. (See 
Plate II., p. 29.) 

Sometimes the grains occur in a calcareo-arenaceous paste, as 
in certain layers of the Stonesfield Slate, and in sandy beds of 
Oorallian age. In the Forest Marble we have the oolitic grains 
disseminated amid comminuted fragments of shell, furnishing 
evidence of some reconstruction or reassortment of material. 

Petrological Notes on the Oolitic Rocks. Bi/ J. J. H. Teall, 


The Limestones. 

These rocks exhibit considerable variations in colour and 
texture. Some are nearly pure white, others bluish-grey, others 
again cream colour, buff, yellow, or brown. Yellow and brown 
tints are especially characteristic of surface-rocks, and are 
evidently due to the oxidation of the iron present in bluish-grey 
varieties, such as are found in deep well-boi-ings (e.g., Great Oolite, 
of Streatham), and in the interior of blocks from deep quarries. 
Having regard to texture, and the character of the recognizable 
constituents of the rocks, we may distinguish three principal 
types ; compact, shelly and oolitic. The qompact varieties are 
seen, by the aid of the microscope, to consist essentially of ex- 
tremely minute granules of calcareous matter, and may be 
regarded without lear of error as resulting from the accumulation 
of excessively fine calcareous mud {e.g., Fuller's Earth Rock and 
some beds of Great Oolite Limestone). By the coming in of 
shell fragments and oolitic grains the compact type passes into 
the shelly or oolitic type. In fact no hard and fast line can be 
drawn between the different rocks. 

The shelly limestones consist mainly of shell-fragments, and 
ihe oolitic limestones of spherical or ellipsoidal grains of cal- 
careous matter — the so-called oolitic grains. The matrix in 
which the shell-fragmenis or oolitic grains are embedded, may 
consist of fine-grained calcareous mud similar to that of which 
the compact limestones are mainly composed, or of clear crystal- 
line calcite, or of mixtures of these substances. The shelly and 
oolitic types are of course connected together by intermediate 
varieties. In a few cases there is no matrix at all ; the oolitic 
grains having been merely soldered together at their points of 
contact by minute crystals of calcite {e.g., Inferior Oolite free- 
stones of Weldon and Stamford). 

There is a variable amount of what may be termed ordinary non- 
calcareous detrital material, the nature of which is best studied by 


the microscopic examination of the residues left after treating the 
rock with acid. 

By an increase in the amount of excessively fine-grained 
argillaceous material, the compact limestones are connected with 
the clays ; and by an increase in the amount of coarser arenaceous 
material the shelly and oolitic limestones pass into sandstones. 

I will now consider the constituents of these rocks in greater 
detail dealing with them in the following order : — I. Oolitic 
Grains; II. Organic Fragments; III. Non-calcareous Detrital 
Material; IV. Matrix. 

I. Oolitic Grains. 

Spherical or ellipsoidal grains (" rice-grains ") which vary in 
size from that of small shot to that of peas, and which consist for 
the most part of carbonate of lime, enter largely into the composi- 
tion of the rocks under consideration. These grains may be 
classified as follows : — 

(1.) Rolled fragments of organic bodies. 

(2.) Amorphous pellets without any recognizable structure. 

(3.) Grains showing a rude concentric arrangement, e.ff., 
the pisolites, in which Girvanella-structure is common.* 

(4.) Grains showing both concentric and radial structures with 
reference to one or more nuclei. 

(5.) Compound grains made up of oolitic grains, shell-frag- 
ments, &:c. 

The investigation of the more minute structures of these grains 
under the microscope is attended with considerable difficulty, in 
consequence of the want of transparency in the grains. Extremely 
thin sections are required, and even then the structures are often 
very indistinct. 

The typical oolitic grain is one which shows both radial and 
concentric structure. In a very thin section such a grain will 
give an Ul-defined black cross in polarized light. It is made up 
largely of minute particles or fibres of calcite, which have their 
principal axes roughly arranged in a radial manner with reference 
to the centre of the grain. The surfaces of some of these grains 
are seen to be rough in consequence of the projection of exces- 
sively minute crystals of dog-tooth spar. The indefiniteness of 
the black cross proves that the radial arrangement of the axes 
of the crystalline particles is only approximately realized. 

That the typical oolitic grain, above referred to, is the result of 
growth by accretion appears certain. It is probable, however, as 
Dr. Sorby has pointed out,t that this growth is not a simple 
chemical process but a combination of chemical and mechanical 
processes, such as the crystallization of carbonate of lime and the 
mechanical picking up of foreign matter. There does not appear 
to be satisfactory proof that the growth of organisms of the 

* Mope particular accounts of" Girvanella," are given on pp. 15, 16. 

t Address to Geol. Soo. 1879; Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxv. (Proc), 
pp. 74, &c. See also Zirkel, Lehrbuoh der Petrographie, Bd. 2, vol. i., 1893, pp. 
484-489 ; and Bleicher, Comptes Eendus, vol. cxiv., 1892, p, 1138. 


Girvanella type, has played an important part in the formation of 
the concentric and radiate porlions of oolitic grains; but the 
growth of minute Algse, as suggested by Dr. Rothpletz, may have 
influenced the formation of the grains., 

Qolitic grains vary considerably in the character of their nuclei. 
These may consist of quartz grains, amorphous pelkts, pellets 
with Girvanella-slructure, fragments of oolitic grains, organic 
fragments (Foraminifera, and fragments of Mollusca, Corals, and 
Echinoderms), complete oolitic ; grains with amorphous material^ 

The structure of the pisolitic grains differs from that of the 
typical oolitic grains, for they exhibit a rude kind of concentric 
structure, and radial structure is absent. It is in these 
grains that the Girvanella-structure is best seen. Assuming 
Girvanella to have been an incrusting organism, the feature of 
these grains may be explained by supposing the interstices 
betveeen the Girvanellae-tubes to have become filled up with cal- 
careous mud. That the pisolites have picked up foreign matter is 
proved by the occasional occurrence of sand-grains in them. 

So far reference has been made only to calcareous oolitic grains. 
In some rocks the oolitic grains are formed of concentric layers 
of deep brown ferric oxide. In these oolites the nuclei often 
consist of broken oolitic grains. In other ferruginous oolites 
{e.g., Cleveland) rhombs of carbonate of iron are present and the 
true structure of the interior portions of the grain has been lost. 

An example of silicified oolite has also been obtained by Mr. 
Woodward from the cherty Portland Beds of Dorsetshire. 

II. Organic Fragments, 

The Organic remains that have been found in the Oolitic rocks 
include Calcareous Algse, Foraminifera, Ostracods, and fragments 
of Corals, Echinoderms, Annelides, Polyzoa, Brachiopods, and 
Mollusca.* Such remains have been observed by Dr. Sorby and 
Mr. E. T. Newton. In some cases the original structure of the 
organic remains is preserved ; in others it has been destroyed by 

III. Non-calcareous Detrital Material. 

Among the residues of the Oolitic rocks, in addition to Quartz, 
I have found Oligoolase, Plagicclase, Rutile, Tourmaline, 
Garnet, and Zircon. The insoluble residues of the Inferior Oolite 
of the Cotteswold Hills have been studied by Mr. E. Wethered ; 
and he shows that the beds, from the Pea Grit Series to the Eag- 
stones, contain from 1 to 5 per cent. He notes mica, and silicate 
of alumii a, as well as some of the minerals above noted.f 

IV. Matrix. 

Eeference has already been made to the general characters of 
the matrix ; one feature, however, deserves special mention. 

* For illustrations, see Carpenter, Eep. Brit. Assoc, for 1844, p. t ; 1848, p. 93, 
t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlvii. p. 559. 


The phenomenon known as "lustre-mottling" is shown in some 
of the oolitic freestones of Barnack, Ketton, and Ancaster, and in 
the sandy limestone of Dene Mill, Great Weldon. It occurs also 
in calcareous grits associated with the Kimeridgian rocks in 
Sutherlandshire and near Oromarty. Attention was first called to 
such appearances in calcareous grit by Sedgwick, who referred to 
it as " chatoyant lustre.','* 

These appearances are seen on a fractured surface of a rock 
when the lustre from the cleavage of a mineral is broken, and as 
it were " mottled," by the occurrence of inclusions. In the case of 
the oolites, the mottling is produced by the oolite grains that are 
included in the matrix of calcite ; and in calcareous sandstones the 
grains of quartz act in the same way. In the freestone associated 
with the Barnack Rag the oolite grains, showing concentric and 
radial structure, are embedded in a matrix of clear crystalline 
calcite. The individuals of calcite are of immense size, far more 
than sufficient to fill the field of view of a 1^ inch object glass. 
The- oolite grains lie in the crystalline individuals of the matrix, 
as do the grains of fand in the Fontainebleau Sandstone. 

Origin of Oolitic Grains. 

The first question of importance is whether the oolitic structure 
is original or secondary.. I have seen no evidence in the slides 
to suggest that it is secondary. The occurrence of oolitic rocks 
without, any matrix, and the presence of broken oolitic grains, are 
facts which point strongly to the conclusion that the structure is 
original. Assuming then that the structure is original we have 
to consider the causes which may have given rise to it. Rounded 
fragments of organic bodies are easily accounted for by the 
ordinary process of mechanical attrition. The origin of pisolitic 
grains Is more complex ; Girvanella-growth and mechanical 
picking up of foreign bodies have both operated. An Important 
question arises as to whether this picking up is purely a mechanical 
process or whether it may not have been facilitated by the simul- 
taneous precipitation of carbonate of lime from solution. In the 
case of the typical pisolitic grains it Is not easy to answer this 
question. The oolitic grains showing concentric and radial struc- 
ture certainly appear to have grown by deposition of the kind 
referred to. Minute crystals and granules were deposited on 
the surfaces of the grains. Nevertheless It Is probable that even 
in the case of these grains the growth was not solely due to this 
cause ; but that it was supplemented by the picking up of ex- 
traneous particles. If the grains had resulted solely from crystal- 
line deposition we should expect to find them more transparent 
and the Individual grains of a simpler and more uniform character 
than is actually the case. 

As regards the amorphous pellets so common in many rocks 
and which frequently constitute the nuclei of oolitic grains ; 

* Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 464. 


these appear to be rolled fragments of the calcareous mud which 
was accumulating under the influences of the decomposition and 
attrition of calcareous organisms, combined it may be with Gir- 
vanella-growth an|^the precipitation of minute calcareous particles 
from solution. 

There may be recognized then in the formation of oolitic grains 
the operation of a variety of causes : — 

(a.) Mechanical movements. 

(6.) Organic growth, e.g., Girvanella. 

(c.) Deposition of carbonate of lime from solution. 

The interstices may have been filled up at the time by cal- 
careous mud, or subsequently by the deposition of calcite. In a 
few rare cases the rock is made up of the larger fragments of oolitic 
grains, and rolled organic fragments without any cement at all. 
Thus, in an example of oolite (Lincolnshire Limestone) from Weldon, 
there was no matrix. , The oolite grains were joined together at 
the points of contact, and their external surfaces were rough in 
consequence of the projection of excessively minute crystals of 

As regards those oolites which contain a large amount of 
carbonate of iron of the type o£ the Cleveland ironstone, and the 
blue varieties of Northamptonshire ironstone, there seems no reason 
to doubt that they have originated, as Dr. Sorby has maintained, 
by the subsequent replacement of carbonate of lime by carbonate 
of iron. 

The calcareous rocks with detached oolitic grains, composed 
mainly of ferric oxide, are difficult to account for on the hypothesis 
of replacement subsequent to formation. — J. J. H. T. 


The sandstones, of wliich examples are found in the Inferior 
Oolite, Stonesfield Series, Forest Marble, Corallian Beds, 
Kellaways Beds, Portland and Piirbeck Beds, consist of angular 
and sub-angulax grains of quartz, cemented by a matrix of 
crystalline or granular calcite. 

In a fine-grained sand (Midford Sand) from Seizincote near 
Stow-on-the-Wold, J. A. Phillips noted the occurrence of grains 
of sand, which are generally angular, but in some instances "their 
more acute angles appear to be slightly rounded." He observed 
also numerous fragmentary crystals of schorl and garnet.f The 
ferruginous sandstone of Duston, which was examined by Mr. 
Teall, showed angular quartz grains, occasionally also flakes o£ 
white mica, and probably some felspar, cemented by ferric oxide,, 
and with some carbonates in places. 

Concretionary masses of Sandstone or Doggers occur in the Mid- 
ford and Northampton Sands, in the Collyweston and Stonesfield 
Slate series, , in the Forest Marble (Hinton Sand), in the 

* See also A. Harkep, Naturalist, 1890, p. 302. 
t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxrii. p. 16. 


Kellawaya Eock, Lower Calcareous Grit and Portland Sands. 
These appear in all cases to be cemented by calcareous matter, 
and hence the Doggers when exposed are liable to rapid decay. 
That the masses were hardened in situ is shown by the occurrence 
of laminse of bedding and false-bedding in some of the spheroidal 
doggers ; and when split up the upper and lower portions often 
present the aspect of " pot lids."* They furnish as it were one 
stage in the formation of sandstone, evidence of \7hich is well 
shown in some of the quarries in the Lower Calcareous Grit of 
Berkshire, and in the sands associated with the Collyweston Slate. 

Colovr of Rocks. 

The limestones and clays, which at the surface present various 
shades of buff and brown, are usually bluish -grey at a depth — the 
difference being due generally to the peroxidation of the protosalt 
of iron. (See p. 8.) 

The blue or grey colour of strata, especially of clays, may be 
due to the presence of carbonaceous matter ; it is also due in some 
cases to carbonate of protoxide of iron ;t and in others to sulphide 
of iron. J Sis or seven per cent of iron-ore is commonly found 
in the Jurassic clays. Analyses of Kimeridge Clay show in 
some cases carbonate of iron and bisulphide of iron in quantities 
of not more than 1 to 2 per cent. 

Silicate of iron gives a green colour to the cores of some iron- 
stones ; and in the form of Glauconite it gives a similar colour to 
many sands and sometimes to calcareous rocks, of which examples 
occur in the Portland Beds. 

Of pur6 white earthy limestones like some varieties of Chalk, 
we have examples in the Purbeck Beds, Portland Beds, Kimeridge 
Clay (occasional bands), and Great Oolite ; in the same beds the 
layers are sometimes compact like the White Lias, which occurs 
in the upper part of the" Ehaetic Beds. , 

The Inferior Oolite is blue-hearted in places in Dorsetshire, but 
not as a rule markedly so when quarried in the west of England. 
Nor do we find that the Great Oolite in the country near Bath 
presents these bluish tinges ; in fact where quarried at a depth 
near Corsham it comes out as a buf£ or yellow freestone. Under 
London, however, the rock is bluish-grey, and contains 2 • 40 per 
cent, of sulphide of iron in the form of pyrites. § (See p. 7.) 

In the Midland counties we find more distinct evidence of 
bluish-limestones even when the beds are quarried near the 
surface. In this region there are protecting clays in the Upper 
Estuarine Series, in the Great Oolite Clay, and in the Boulder 

* See also De la Beche, Eesearches in Theoretical Geology, p. 95. 

t G. Maw, Quart. Joum. Geol. Sac, vol. xxiv. pp. 356, 357, 366 ; Judd, Geol. 
Rutland, p. 176, and Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xl. p. 741. 

t See also paper by Ebelmen (quoted by Judd), Bull. Soc. Geoh France, ser. 2, 
tome ix. p. 221 ; and A. H. Church, Quart. Joum. Chem. Soc, ser. 2, vol. ii., p. 379. 

§ C. Homersham, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xl. p. 726. 


Cliiy. Some layers in the Lincolnshire Limestone, especially 
those near the clay-covering, are stained various shades of red. 

The Forest Marble is very generally of a bluish colour as the 
stone-beds are interstratified with clays. 

StratigrapMcal characters of Oolitic rocks. 

The stratigraphical evidence shows that the rocks now under 
consideration, which aremainly composed of oolitic grains, are all 
more or less false-bedded, and sometimes minutely current-bedded : 
hence the grains must have been formed before they were drifted 
and accumulated in their present positions. 

Comminuted shells occur in some of the oolitic limestones, and 
we find gradations from beds composed of oolitic grains to those 
mainly formed of shell-fragments. 

The tranquilly-deposited strata, that are associated with these 
false-bedded oolites, are white more or less earthy limestones and 
marls, that contain in places scattered oolitic grains or clusters of 
them; they also yield occasional quartz grains. 

Of such beds we have instances in the Oolite Marl of the 
Inferior Oolite of the Ootteswolds, in the Lincolnshire Limestone 
near Lincoln, in the Fuller's Earth E,ock, and in the White 
Limestones of the Great Oolite. 

Sandy sediments containing oolitic grains are also met with, in 
the Great Oolite and Oorallian Series. 

In some of these beds we have evidence of Coral-growths. 
They occur not in situ in the false-bedded freestones, but in the 
earthy limestones and marls that are developed at different 
horizons in the series of more or less oolitic limestones : in the 
Oolite Marl of the Inferior Oolite, in the white limestones of the 
Great Oolite, in the Coral Bag above the Coralline Oolite. 

It may be said that the occurrence of masses of oolitic freestone 
is thus associated with Coral-growths, and that the formation of 
the granules is more or less dependent on nuclei, and on the 
disturbed condition of the waters in which they were formed. 

That oolite granules are formed under other conditions, is well 
known ; and further reference will be made to this matter. In 
the casa also of the oolitic ironstone of the Middle Lias, there is 
no particular evidence of current-bedding to point to a disturbed 
condition of the waters. , 


Of the little concretions known as Pisolite, the best known 
examples occur in the " Pea Grit " at the base of the Inferior 
Oolite of the Cotteswold Hills. There are however equally 
important layers in the Corallian Beds near Sturminster Newton 
and elsewhere. More particular reference to these will be given 
in the chapters that refer to the several formations. 

It should however be mentioned that Mr. E. Wethered in 
1889* announced the discovery in the Pisolites', both of the 

* Geol. Mag., 1889, p. 196. 


Inferior Oolite and Coraliian B,ocks, of a minute tabular organism 
similar to that previously described from the Lower Silurian 
(Ordovician) Rocks of Ayrshire, under the name of Girvanella 
problemotica hy Dr. H. A. Nicholson and Mr. R. Etheridge, jiin.* 

The Girvanella has been compared with certain forms of Foraminifera 
described by Dr. H. B. Brady under the names of Syringammina fragilis- 
sima and Kyperammina vagans ; branching organisms,'the latter of which 
is found " spreading in irregular tortuous lines over the surface of shells 
or stones, or, in the absence of foreign bodies, growing coiled upon itself 
in irregular masses."f 

It is interesting to note that forms provisionally identified with Girva- 
nella, occur in the oldest fossiliferous rocks, for Mr. 0. D. Walcott recog- 
nizes an organism of similar character in the Olenellus-zone.X Whether 
the form is a Sponge, a Ehizopod, or an Alga, is at present uncertain. 

It is interesting to note that in his account of the (1862), 
Captain B,. J. Nelson remarks that " The marshy lands, that are gradually 
taking the place of the creeks and brackish lakes, abound with, and may 
be said at some points to consist largely of a highly calciferous moss-like 
Conferva"; and he further describes this accumulation " as a spongy 
mass of laterally aggregated and much-interwoven fasciculi of tubes, per- 
haps yig" in diameter. "§ 

In 1890 Mr. Wethered brought forward evidence to show 
that Girvanella-tiihes occurred in the true oolitic granules of the 
Inferior Oolite (freestone) at Chedwortti, and also in the Coralline 
Oolite ; and he maintained that the spherules in question were 
not concretions, but due to a variety of Girvanella — the so-called 
•pisolitic granules being in his opinion " really formed by the 
growth of an organism around a nucleus."|| 

It is admitted that the shape of the pisolites depends upon the 
form of the nucleus, but the tubes of Girvanella appear to be 
plastered around the nuclei and often to be twisted about in a 
very irregular manner ; so that it occurred to both Mr. Teall and 
myself that the Girvanella might have been derived mechanically 
from the calcareous mud of the sea-bed.1[ (See p. 10.) 

Resemblances to " Girvanella "-structure were noticed by Mr. 
TeaU in the nucleus of oolitic grains in the Osmington, oolite, 
and in the margin as well as in the centre of some of the pisolitic 
concretions from Slower. (See Plate I., p. 26, fig. 1.) " Gir- 
vanella "-structure was well shown in the pisolite of Sturminster 
Newton, and, in his opinion, mechanical picking up of foreign 
matter must also have played a part in the growth of the pisolite, 
because the grains contain quartz-fragments. The same structure 
appears in the nuclei of some grains from the Great Oolite of 
Farley Down, in pellets in the " Scallett Bed " (Great Oolite) of 
Box, and in the Great Oolite of Oalmsden and Rodmarton. 
Obscure " Girvanella "-structure was seen in pisolitic grains from 
the Inferior Oolite of Ancaster. 

♦ Monograph of the Silurian Fossils of the Girvan District in Ayrshire, vol. i., 
1S«0, pp. 23, 24, Plate ix., fig. 24; and Nicholson, Geol. Mag., 18ti8, p. 22. 
t " Challenger" Reports, vol. ix. p. S42, fig. 9. 
X Tenth Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Survey, Part 1, p. 598. 
§ Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. ix. p. 210. 

II Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol.xlvi. pp. 475, 276, and 282 ; and vol. xlvii. p. 553. 
^ Ibid., vol. xlvii. p. S70. 


Some of the granular limestones in the Lower Purbeck Beds 
contain organic fragments, with a thin coating that shows con- 
centric and radiate structure ; and they also comprise more or 
less rounded pellets, often similarly coated, and showing obscure 
resemblances to " Girvanella "-structure. 

In some instances, as pointed out by Lycett, Polyzoa are found 
adhering to the pisolites ;* and I have found Serpulffi and small 
Oysters attached to them at Crickley. 

Witchell has remarked that " The passage of fragments of shell, 
and other particles of which the nuclei consist, along a sea bottom 
covered with a calcareous muddy deposit, portions of which 
became attached to the moving fragments as they were carried 
onward, might account for the concentric layers which compose 
the pisolites."t He notes also the occm-rence of oolite grains, as 
well as rounded fragments of limestone and organic remains in 
the Pea Grit. 

Again Messrs. Blake and Hudleston, in referring to the 
Corallian pisolite of North Dorsetshire, remark that the beds 
" seem to indicate that they are the result of irregular currents 
bringing material that had been rolled about for some time in a 
calcareous ooze."f 

The facts favour this general explanation of the formation of the 
pisolitic limestones; while the influence of incrusting organisms 
may have played a part in their production. It is, however, not 
unlikely, as lately suggested by Mr. 0. Keid, that the filaments of 
Algae, attached to tiny pebbles, assisted in the deposition of cal- 
careous matter, and to the subsequent decay of these filaments 
may be due the tiny tubes of the so-called Girvanella,^ 

Origin of Oolite and of strata associated with Oolitic limestones. 

In considering the origin of oolite we have first to inquire 
whether similar accumulations are now in process of formation. 

Fitton in 1835 remarked on the many points of resemblance 
between the top beds of the Portland series and the recent agglo- 
merated limestones of Bermuda and the shores of Australia. || As 
pointed out previously, the resemblances between such limestones 
and the characteristic oolites are mostly superficial. 

Specimens of recent limestones from St. Helena, Bermuda, and 
Bahama, as remarked by Dr. Sorby, consist largely of rounded 
grains of Corallines, Corals, Balani, and Mollusca, together with 
Foraminifera ; while others show the organic structure but imper- 
fectly preserved or so crystallized with the mud that their 
structure and outline have been lost.lf 

* Cotteswold Hills, p. 38. 

t Geology of Stroud, p. 44 ; Proc. Cottesw. Club, vol. viii. p. 35. 

J Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, -vol. xxxiii. p. 278. 

§ See remarks at meeting of Geol. Soc, Mar. 8, 1893 j Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 
vol. xlix. (Proc.), p. 143. 

II Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. ii. p. 186. See also E. J. Nelson, Trans. Geol. Soc, 
ser. 2, vol. v. p. 103. 

IT AddresB to Geol. Soc, 1879; Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxv. (Proc), p. 74. 


On some of the islets connected with the Australian barrier, 
there are beach-deposits that contain true oolitic grains, as 
described by Jukes. 

He mentions a stone " made up of small round grains, some of them 
apparently rolled bits of coral and shell, but many of them evidently con- 
cretionary, having concentric coats. It was not unlike some varieties of 
oolite in texture and appearance . . . Some parts of it made a very 
fair building-stone, but it got softer below, till it passed downwards into 
a coarser coral sand, unconsolidated and falling to pieces on being 
touched . _ . . many recent shells, more or less perfect, were found 
compacted in the stone, and one or two nests of turtle eggs were dis- 
covered . . . It is evident from the fossil turtle eggs, that the con- 
solidation of the stone had taken place after it was raised above the sea. 
It was due, probably to the infiltration of the rain water percolating 
through the calcareous sand, that had been gradually piled above high- 
water mark by the combined action of the winds and waves."* 

These facts are of especial interest when we note the occurrence 
of Keptilian eggs in the Great Oolite of Cirencester. 

Moreover it is stated that while the beach is often composed of coarse 
fragments of worn corals and shells, hardened beds not infrequently stand 
out above high-water mark to a height of 6 or 8 feet, and at angles of 
6° or 8°.t 

Dana mentions that the " sand-rock " is sometimes drifted into hillocks 
or ridges by the winds, and afterwards consolidated, and this rock is moro 
or less friable, and frequently oolitic. J Captain E. J. Nelson observed 
the same features in the Bahamas, where the "calcareous sand " is heaped 
np irregularly by the wind, so as to produce false-bedding. § Dana 
remarked that some of the beach-deposits become cemented by being alter- 
nately moistened and dried, through the action of the recurring tides and 
the wash of the sea. on the shores. ' ' The waters take up some carbonate of 
lime, and this is deposited and hardens among the particles on the evapo- 
ration of the moisture at the retreat of the tides. In some places the 
grains are loosely coherent, and seem to be united only by the few points 
in contact ; and with a little care the calcareous coating which caused 
ttte union may be distinctly traced out. In other cases, the sand has 
been consolidated into a solid limestone rock, the interstices having been 
filled till a compact mass was formed. Generally even the most solid 
varieties show evidence of a sand origin, and in this they differ from the 
reef rock ... In most localities the rock is an oolite or oolitic lime- 
stone. The grains become coated by the agglutinating carbonate of lime, 
and each enlarges thus into a minute sphere— a spherical concretion; and 
the aggregation of these concretions makes the oolite ... At certain 
localities the beach sand-rock has been washed away after it was formed ; 
and occasionally large masses or slabs have been uplifted by the sea and 
thrown high up on the beach . . . Deposits of the same kind some- 
times include detritus from the hills." || 

It is a study of these sedimentary and other accunivdations, due 
to the destruction of Coral-reefs, that will help to explain the origin 
of our oolitic deposits. The reefs themselves forming fringes or 
barriers along the coast are more or less solid beds of limestone, 
presenting an unstratified appearance, attaining in places a con- 

* Voyage of the "Fly," vol. i. pp. 127, 128, 340. 

t Jukes, op. cit. pp. 1-3. 

X Corals and Coral iBlands, 1872, pp. 154-156. 

§ Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. ix. p. 206. 

II Dana, Corals and Coral Islands, pp. 152, 153, 348. 

E 75928. ^ 


siderable thickness, and being made up of Corals and partly of 
Mollusca, Polyzoa, Echinoderms, Annelides, Sponges, Calcareous 
Algfe, and Foraminifera, cemented and compacted by infiltration 
of carbonate of lime. Dr. H. B. Guppy says that Coral-rock 
in the Solomon Group is from 70 to 100 feet thick, rarely 160, 
and at most 200 feet.'* It corresponds with the limit of depth at 
which corals appear to thrive. 

Among the oolitic rocks we have no reef of any magnitude. 
We have bands made up almost entirely of Corals in the Inferior 
Oolite, in the Great Oolite, and in the Corallian rocks ; but they 
do not extend over large areas, nor are they of great thickness, 
seldom attaining more than 10 feet. Moreover the Coral-beds 
are often more or less earthy, with bands of marls, whereas Coral- 
rock is comparatively pure. Prof J. F. Blake has remarked that 
the rarity of corals in the Portland rocks may account for the 
scarcity of oolitic beds.f 

Dana remarks that in Coral-reefs " The rook of the outer reef, wherever 
broken, exhibits usually a compact texture. In some parts it consists of 
coral fragments, rounded or angular, of quite large size, firmly cemented. 
Other portions are a finer coral breccia or conglomerate. Still others, 
more common, are solid white limestones, as impalpable and homogeneous 
in texture as the old limestones of our continents. There are also other 
regions where the corals in the rock retain the original position of 
growth." Dr. Guppy also speaks of chalky coral-limestone, like the 
Chalk formation, made up of decomposed coral and calcareous algffi. 
Sometimes the rock is magnesian. 

Dana also says that " The deposits of sand or coral mud over the bottom 
of the seas outside of barrier reefs are sometimes of groat extent. These 
sands are the fine detritus which the return flow of the breakers bears 
seaward ; and, in still deeper water, the deposits should be of the finest 
calcareous sand or mud — fit material for impalpable compact limestones. 
The waters outside of the reef, especially when moved by heavy tidal 
currents or storms, are often milky with the coral sand ; and while the 
coarser sand is dropped near the shores, the finer may be carried for miles 
and distributed far out to sea."J The formation of oolitic coral-limestone, 
and the deposition of chalky silt over wide areas, has been observed, by 
Prof. A. Agassiz, in his studies of the Tortugas and Florida Reefs. § 

In very many respects therefore we find that the, chief features 
of our oolitic rocks are repeated in the accumulations connected 
with Coral-reefs. We have the granular and oolitic limestones, 
the pure white limestones, the pebbles or rolled masses of oolite, 
the coral conglomerate or coral rag, &c. ; while the false-bedded 
character of so many of the oolites is seen also in the shelving 
banks of coral-sand and oolitic mud that fringe the Coral-reefs 
and islands. 

Dr. Guppy has noted the presence in the Solomon group of 
beds largely made up of Khynchonellas, forming a Rhynchonella'- 
limestone, such as may be compared with the Brachiopoda-beds 
in the Lower Oolites. Capt. R. J. Nelson observed the occurrence 

* Trans. R. Soc. Edin., toI, xxxii. p. 545. 
t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxvi. p. 191. 

j Dana, Corals and Coral Islands, pp. 138, 142, 351 ; and John Murray, Nature, 
Feb. 28, 1889, p. 424. 

§ Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sci,, vol. xi. 1885, pp. 115, 125, 128, &c. 


in the Bermudas and Bahamas of thick Serpuline reefs, made up 
largely of Serpulce ; and of such layers we have examples in the 
Inferior Oolite, and in the Portland Beds. 

The formation of oolite has been discussed by Mr. Hudleston, 
who, basing his conclusions on the observations of Dana, remarks 
that oolite is for the most part granulated coral mud.* Thus the 
fine calcareous mud, or chalky silt, that is worn from the reefs may 
be carried away great distances and deposited as ordinary sedi- 
ment. Nearer to the reefs the matter that subsides " encounters 
an acid stratum of water, due to the quantity of carbonic acid 
generated by the decomposition of organic matter and* the respira- 
tion of animals." The same acid is also conveyed to sea water 
from the atmosphere by rain. By the aid of this acid the soluble 
bicarbonate of lime is formed from the calcareous sediment as it 
subsides, but in its downward passage the excess of carbonic acid 
is no longer found, and the calcic carbonate is precipitated 
amongst the interspaces or on particles of the slowly settling mud. 

Sorby stated his opinion that the normal oolitic grains " indi- 
cate the original deposition of calcite round nuclei gently drifted 
along by currents of the ordinary temperature." f It would thus 
seem that the grains were formed in agitated water in which were 
present minute particles of quartz, Foraminifera, and fragments of 
other organic remains ; and that the water was charged with much 
carbonate of lime in solution. The mechanical impurities acted 
as nuclei around which the carbonate of lime was deposited, while 
the grains were kept in motion, so that all sides would be 
encrusted. (See also p. 14.) 

This explanation is not inconsistent with that applied long ago by 
Werner to the " Sprndelstein," of Carlsbad. There "particles of sand 
are raised in the water by means of air-bubbles, and beconae covered with 
calcareous earth, which is deposited around them in lamellar concre- 
tions."J When the particles become too heavy to be thus supjiorted they 
subside. The opinion has also been expressed that thin films of carbonate 
of lime have sometimes been formed around the air-bubbles, from which 
the globules of oolite have been formed by further accretions. 

Among the Oolitic rocks that have been examined under the 
microscope, there are some that show granules with bat a thin 
coating of calcareous matter. Where the nuclei were very heavy 
they were rolled over and plastered with layers of mud and 
Girvanella, as in the case of the Pisolites. 

Other grains of oolite come closely in contact and appear to be 
welded together and partially indented. It is remarkable that 
these features are represented in calculi, which show both the 
radial and concentric structure of ordinary oolite grains. § 

* Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. v. p. 431, and Gasteropoda of Inf. Oolite, p. 22. See 
also Phillips, Geol. Oxford, p. 396 ; Wright, Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. iv. p. 97 ; 
vi. p. 136 ; and Fox-Strangways, Jurassic Rocks of Yorkshire, vol. i. pp. 398, &c. 

t Address to Geol. Soc. 1879, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxv. (Proc), p. 75. 

j Jameson's Mineralogy, ed. 8, vol. ii. p. 540. 

§ See Figs. 3 and 4, pp. 11 and 12, of G. Eaincy's Mode of Formation of Shells 
of Animals, of Bone, and of several other structures. 8vo. London, 1858. See also 
Sorby, Address to Geol. Soc, 1879 ; reprint with plates, Plate XVI,, fig. 1. 

B 2 


The association of algous growth with the deposition of travertine, in 
connection with the warm minora! waters of Carlsbad, has been shown by 
Dr. F. Gohn, and the subject has been discussed at some length by Mr. 
W. H. Weed.* 

The connection between calcareous algas and oolitic granules has been 
suggested by several authorities. f Such alg» often enter largely into 
the composition of recent Coral -rook. 

The oolitic granules in our Jurassic rooks would appear to have been 
in most, if not in all cases, of inorganic origin ; but the chemical de- 
position of calcareous matter may have been influenced by the presence 
of algous growths, as they abstract carbonic acid from the water. 

The modern formation of " oolitic sand " on the shores of Lake Bonne- 
ville, in Utah, has been noticed by Mr. G. K. Gilbert. It constitutes the 
materials of a beach and is drifted shoreward in dunes. In one locality 
its formation is near the mouth of a stream, and in another it is connected 
with hot calcareous springS.J Here again we have the formation of 
oolitic granules in waters subject to commotion. Mr. I. 0. Ruesell states 
that oolite is now forming on the borders of Pyramid Lake, Lahontan, 
Nevada : it occurs near warm springs, and some of the granules are an 
inch in diumeter. The nuclei are sand-particles, &c.§ 

Mr. C. Keid informs me that oolitic concretions, that exceed the size of 
hazel-nuts, have been formed by a calcareous spring that issues from 
the Oligoccne limestone at Totland Bay, in the Isle of Wight.|| 

It is interesting to note that the soundings marked over the sea- 
bed in the northern area of the Great Barrier reefs, show in different 
places coral siind, coral fragments, mud, mud iind sand, and sand.H 
Such varying accumulations are taking place in some places near 
the reefs ; and in others near the mainland where no reefs occur 
and where river borne sediments may be distributed. While such 
facts indicate the variable nature of the sea-bed, the general con- 
ditions of a Ooral-region may help to account for some of the local 
successions of clay, sand, and shallow-water limestone to which 
attention has been drawn. Dana has given particulars of borings 
in Coral -regions that show alternations of sand, coral-rock, and 
clay to depths of 700 and 1,000 feet.** 

Clays form what has been termed the " normal " (that is the 
more prevalent) type of sediment during the Jurassic period ;tt and 
they were deposited over certain areas until gradually the increase 
of sediment, or changes in physical conditions affecting currents, 
brought about the deposition of sands. Finally the freedom from 
muddy sediments furnished conditions favourable to the growth of 
Corals, and the old lands were bordered in places by reefs. Such 
reefs, whether Fringing or Barrier reefs, afford protection to the 
land, as pointed out by Jukes, so that the rarity or absence, in 
deposits associated with them, of detrital material from the land 
is accounted for. Thus fine calcareous sediment may be deposited 

* Ninth Ann. Rep. U.S. Geol. Survey, 1889, pp. 631, 642, &o. 
t H. G. Seeley, Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1888 (1889), p. 675. Dr. A. Rothpletz, 
Botanisches Cectralblatt, No. 35, ]892 (Amer. Geol., vol. x. p. 279). 
+ Lake BoDneville, Monogr. U.S. Geol. Survey, vol. i. p. 169. 
§ Monogr. U. S. Geol. Survey, vol. xi. pp. 61, 168. 

I Geol. I. of Wight (Geol. Survey), ed. 2, p. 289. 

II Char^ attached to Jukes' Voyage of the "Fly," vol. i. ; see also W. Saville- 
Kunt, Great Barrier Reef of Australia, 1893. 

** Amer. Journ. Science, ser. 3. vol. xxxvii. p. 96. 

t1 See J. V. Blake, Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1879, p. 335 ; and Nature, 1879, p. 470. 


along the coast-line, for the heavy surf is confined to the outer 
reefs. On this outer side were accumulated the sediments due to 
the wear and tear of the reefs, and the oolitic granules that were 
formed by chemical agency. In drawing these conclusions we 
cannot however argue that reefs of similar character and magnitude 
existed in Oolitic times : we can only infer that the general condi- 
tions were similar.* 

^ Hence, although Coral-reefs played an important part in the 
history of the Oolites, the larger reefs that may have existed must 
have been destroyed by the agents that laid down the successive 
deposits. These notions receive support when we notice in the 
Oolites themselves, evidences of reconstruction, and the occurrence 
of small rolled masses of previously formed oolite In later 

The growth of reef -building Corals at the present day is dependent on 
the temperature of the surface-waters, and the presence of currents that 
keep up the food-supply, as well as on the purity of the water. They 
flourish only in comparatively shallow water. As Dana has remarked, 
the "Facts seem to indicate — though perhaps not sufficient to demonstrate 
—that the Gulf Stream has had, from the Jurassic period in Gteologioal 
history onward, the same kind of influence on the temperature of the 
North Atlantic Ocean which it now has."t 

While many of the Jurassic MoUusca belong to genera that 
have a wide range, most of their living representatives taken 
together suggest a warm If not tropical character, and very many 
of them are such as now exist in association with 
Among these are Nautilus, Anomia, Area, Astarte, Avicula, 
Cardium, Cucullma, Cypricardia, Lima, Modiola, Ostrea, Pecten, 
Bulla, Cerithium, Delphinula, Natica,Nerita, Patella, ' Phasianella,' 
Pleurotomaria, Pterocera, Rostellaria, Solarium, Trochus, and 
Turbo. Polyzoa, Serpulae, Echinoderms,Foraminifera, and Sponges 
nre likewise abundant in the neighbourhood of reefs. 

Fossils of the Oolitic Series. 

The assembhiges of fossils met with in each division are found 
to vary according to the sedimentary conditions. Thus the 
organic remains of the purer false-bedded oolites or " freestones " 
differ from those of the more earthy and more slowly deposited 
" ragstones." J In successive deposits of similar nature there Is 
some repetition in the forms of life. Thus Terebratula maxillata 
abundant in the purer marly limestone of the Inferior Oolite 
(Oolite Marl) occurs plentifully in rocks of similar lithological 
character in the Great Oolite; in the Colly weston Slate and 
Stonesfield Slate there are some identical species ; and long ago 
Prof. Buckman compared the fauna of the ragstones of the 

* See descriptions by Jukes, Voyage of the " Fly,'' vol. i. pp. 332, 333, 343. 
la sarly geological times, reefii of more extensive character may have existed. See 
Dana, ap. eil. p. 353. See also Tomes, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xl. p. 334. 

t Bana, op. cil. p. 362 ; Duncan, Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1869, p. 166. 

j Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, p. 61 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. yvi. p. 72 ; see 
also Judd, Geol. Rutland, &c., p. 49. 


Inferior Oolite with that of the very similar sediments of the 
Oornbrash : in both are some identical or 'closely allied species of 
Ecliinobrissus and Chjpeus, of Area, Astarte, Cardium, Ceromya, 
Cypricardia, GerviUia, Goniomya, Gresslya, Hinnites, Lima, 
Modiola, Myacites, Pholadomya, &c. In comparing the successive 
formations of clay, like the Oxford and Kimeridge Clay, we do not 
find any marked repetition of specific forms. Some species of 
Astarte, Goniomya, Modiola, Pecten and Thracia are however 
common to the two formations. Cephalopoda are abundant in 
both, but the species are with few exceptions distinct. 

General remarks on the fauna and flora of the Jurassic rocks 
have been given in the introductory portion of the Memoir on the 
Lias of England and Wales (Yorkshire excepted). 

In the Oolitic rocks one of the most noteworthy facts is the 
preservation of Mammalian remains in the Stonesfield Slate and 
Purbeck Beds. 

Among the Reptiles some winged forms occur, but the 
Dinosaurians are more prominent. Some of the bones of the 
Cetiosaurus are of gigantic size, one femur measuring upwards of 
5 feet in length. Eemains of Megalosaurus and Omosaurus are 
likewise characteristic ; while of the Orocodilians, Teleosaurus and 
Steneosaurus are the more abundant forms. Turtles are preserved 
in the Stoneijfield Slate, Portland and Purbeck Beds, and 
occasionally remains of them are found in other formations. 

Fishes are abundant, more particularly species of Lepidotus, 
Mesodon (" Pycnodus "), Strophodus, and Aster acanthus* 

Ammonites and Belemnites are most abundant in the clays, and 
in some of the earthy limestones. They are rare in the false- 
bedded oolites. In these oolites we find occasional bands of 
Corals ; and, as remarked by Prof. Duncan, Cephalopods and 
Saurians are rarely found in relation with them. 

Among the Gasteropods, Nerinma and Purpuroidea make their 
appearance, and other forms such as Amberleya, Alaria, Cerithium, 
Pleurotomaria, and Pseudomelania are fairly abundant. Of La- 
mellibranchs Astarte, Avicula, Lima, Pecten, Cardium, Ceromya, 
Lsocardia, Trigonia, Pholadomya, Myacites, and Ostrea are the 
more conspicuous forms. 

Brachiopods occur in the oolitic limestones, in rich fossil-beds. 
Polyzoa have been found in abundance in the Inferior Oolite and 
Great Oolite Series ; but few traces have at present been recorded 
from the Oorallian rocks where they might have been expected. 
Echinodermata are plentiful in the limestones ; and some being of 
a gregarious nature, large numbers of one species of Echinoid such 
as Acrosalenia and Hemicidaris are occasionally met with at a 
particular locality. Among the Orinoids, such forms as Apiocrinus 
and Millericrinus furnish characteristic species ; and there arc 
also Comatulce or Feather Stars of the genus Antedon.^ 

* See A. S. Woodward, Proo. Geol. Assoc, vol. xi. p. 285 ; vol. xii. p. 238. 
f Portions of Antedon have been described under the name Solanocnnv.i. See 
Moore, Geol. Mag. 1875, p, 627. 


Plant-remains occur conspicuously in the Lower Purbeck Beds, 
and occasionally at other horizons, as in the Stonesfield Slate. 

The collector must bear in mind that many localities regarded 
as ■ specially fossiliferous, owe their celebrity to the energy ot 
resident geologists. Thus Minchinhampton, which furnished 
Dr. Lycett with so many treasures from the Great Oolite, yielded 
them only after much toil and time and money had been 

Attention has already been drawn to the subject of Zones, so 
that a more particular consideration of them may be reserved for 
discussion in connection with the several stratigraphical divisions. 

Strictly speaking. Zones must be named from forms that are 
wide-spread, and only an extended knowledge can justify their 
introduction. Vague as the limits of Zones must necessarily be ; 
they are naturally better represented in a series of clays, than in 
the false-bedded oolites. 

In addition to Ammonites, Belemnites and Brachiopods many 
species of which are wide-spread, there are other forms of life 
that are useful locally to mark horizons. They are rather 
to be considered as characteristic fossils than as zonal species. 
Thus some species of Avicula, Gryphcea, Trigonia, of Echinoids 
and other fossils, serve locally to indicate horizons in the Oolitic 
rocks ; but while a number of the species appear to be thus 
restricted, other species of the same genera have a considerable 
duration in time. 

Prof. Phillips devoted much attention to the subject of the 
succession of various life-forms,* and the accompanying Table 
will serve to illustrate some of the species that may thus be 
selected as characteristic of, though not In all cases confined to, 
particular stages. 

* Geology of Oxford, &c , p. 399 ; see also H. B. W., Proe. Geol, Assoc, vol. xii. 
p. 305. 













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Explanation of Plates. 
By J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S. 

Plate I. 
Fig. 1. — Pea Grit, Infeeior Oolite, Stroud, G-loucestershibb. 
Pisolitic bodies showing irregular accretions of calcareous mud and 
organic fragments around organic nuclei, in a matrix of crystalline calcite. 

Pisolitic and Oolitic Limestone, Coralline Oolite, Stower, 
Dorsetshire. {Portion sliown in giiadrant.) 

The margin of some of the pisolitic bodies shows a very minute form 
of Girvanella-stracture, which is somewhat more obscure in the centre. 
One organic fragment is shown. 

Fig. 2. — White Oolite, Upper Freestone, Inferior Oolite, Nailswohth, 


Composed of grains showing very fine concentric and radial structure, 
in a matrix of perfectly clear crystalline calcite. 

Fig. 3. — Granular Limestone, Inferior Oolite, Doulting, 

Clastic organic fragments, sometimes rounded, sometimes angular, in 
matrix of clear crystalline calcite. The secondary calcite surrounding 
the fragments is in optical continuity with that of the fragments them- 
selves, so that the structure of the rock is analogous to that of qnartzites 
in which secondary enlargement of the original grains has taken place. 

Fig. 4.— Blue and brown oolitic Limestone, Lincolnshire Limestone, 
Castle Bytham, Lincolnshire. 

Oolitic grains, showing concentric and radial structure, and pellets 
enclosing organic fragments. 

On the unweathered oolitic grains there are crusts of pyrites, which 
give the blue colour to part of the rook; in the brown portions the 
material is limonite, as determined by Mr. A. B. Dick. The weathered 
and unweathered portions are separated by a sharp plane of division. 

Fig. 5. — Pisolitic and shelly Limestone, LrtrcoLNSHiRE Limestone, 
Greylees Quarry, Sleaford, Lincolnshire. 

Organic fragments, pellets, and compound pellets enclosing oolitic 
grains, &c. Some of the larger pellets contain three or four oolitic grains 
in a matrix of calcareous mud. 

The general matrix is crystalline calcite. There is however, between 
the coarse-grained calcite, and the outer margin of the grains and pellets, 
a narrow zone of calcite in the form of minute crystals of the dog-tooth 
spar variety; the points projecting outwards and thus giving the 
external surface of the grains a very rough aspect. 

Fig. 6. — Oolitic and shelly Limestone, Forest Marble, Corsham, 


Organic fragments without oolitic incrustations ; and oolitic grains 
showing concentric and radial structure. The nuclei of the oolitic grains 
comprise amorphous calcareous matter (pellets) ; organic fragments ; and 
broken oolitic grains. The matrix is clear crystalline calcite. 


Plate II. 

Fig. 7. — Ieon-oee, Lotek Lias, PBODiNGnAM, Lincolnshire. 

Oolitic grains of ferric oxide showing oonocntrio Btructure ; also grains 
which appear to be pseudotnorphs (in ferric oxide) of rolled organic 
fragments. Matrix of calcite. 

Fie. 8. — Ibon-oee, Middle Lias, Eastwell, Leicestershiee. 

Organic fragments (noted by Mr. E. T. Newton as shells of Molluscs, 
Echinoderm plates, and calcareous Algse) in a matrix of colourless, 
crystalline carbonate. There is nothing in the appearance of the section 
to suggest that the rock is an ironstone. [It is the green ironstone, that 
is rejected by the workmen.] 

Pig. 9. — Ieon-oee, Middle Lias, Shelton Mine, Oleyiland. 

Modified oolitic grains in a matrix which consists partly of an isotropic 
greenish substance, probably a silicate containing iron, and partly of a 
crystalline carbonate. 

The outer portions of the oolitic grains are formed of a ferriferous 
carbonate, the crystals of which show idiomorphio boundaries against the 
opaque nucleus. This nucleus appears white by reflected light. 

Pig. 10. — Ieon-oee, Middle Lias, Raasay, neae Skte. 

Greenish oolitic grains showing concentric but not radial structures ; 
and fragments of such grains and organic fragments in a matrix of colour- 
less, crystalline carbonate. [See H. B. Woodward, Geol. Mag., 1893, 
p. 493.] 

Fig. 11.— Ieon-shoi Limestone, Cephalopoda Bed, Infekioe Oolite, 
Wotton-undee-Edge, Glohcestershiee. 

Dark ferruginous oolitic grains showing concentric structure ; in 
brownish calcareous matrix showing many small quartz grains. 

Pig. 12. — Iron-ore, Coeallian Beds, Westbury, Wiltshire. 

Reddish-brown oolitic grains showing concentric structure. 

The nuoleas of one grain is a fragment of another grain. The matrix 
is yellowish-green, and contains numerous small detached grains of 
colourless calcite. 









Drawn by H. W. Gilbert Williams. 




General Account oe the Strata. 

Among our Jurassic rocks no strata exhibit greater variatioas 
than do the oolitic limestones and the beds associated with them. 
This is the case with the Great Oolite Series, the Corallian Beds, 
and the Portland Beds ; and perhaps even to a greater extent 
with that portion of the Inferior Oolite Series which is exposed 
to view. Essentially shallow-water deposits, we find among them 
not only considerable changes in sedimentary character, but 
evidence here and there of overlap, reconstruction, and paucity of 

Broadly speaking, the Inferior Oolite Series includes the beds 
that lie between the Upper Lias Clay and the Great Oolite Series, 
but we find evidences of transition between the overlying and 
underlying strata, in different portions of our area. The Series, 
however, is practically equivalent to the Bajocian formation* of 
d'Orbigny, in the sense in which that term was adopted by 

As already mentioned, over great part o£ the area from Dorset- 
shire to the Cotteswold Hills, there is a gradual passage upwards 
from the Lias into the Inferior Oolite, so that there are " passage- 
beds " which, on stratigraphical grounds, may be assigned with as 
much propriety to one division as to the other. The Inferior 
Oolite is overlaid in these regions by the Fuller's Earth, between 
which there is, as a rule, no difficulty in fixing a boundary. 

The earliest classification of the strata was taken from Somerset- 
shire, where in 1799 William Smith recognized the occurrence of 
Freestone overlying Sand, between the Blue Lias and the Fuller's 
Earth. To thjs Freestone, which was known near Bath as the 
" Bastard Freestone," Smith at first applied the name " Under 
Oolite," from the fact of its underlying the locally more important 
Great or " Upper " Oolite. Afterwards the name Inferior Oolite 
was published by Townsendf in 1813, from information derived 
from Smith, and the name was adopted by Sowerby in 1815, 

The Sand that in the same district occurs at the base of the 
Freestone, was eventually termed " Sand of the Inferior Oolite " by 

* Named from Bayeux, in Calvados (1849). 

f Character of Moses, establlslied for veracity as an Historian. 4to. London, 
1813, p. 105. 


Smith, and for a long period the following divisions were adopted 
for the south-west of England : — 

Inferior Oolite. 
Inferior Oolite Sandf. 

In the course of time, as our knowledge of the fossils increased, 
it was argued by Dr. Thomas Wright, of Cheltenham, that the 
Sands were more intimately connected with the Lias than with the 
Inferior Oolite ; and in 1856 he proposed that the term Upper 
Lias Sands be used,* and this was afterwards adopted by the 
Geological Survey. Wright's conclusions, which were based 
mainly on the range of certain Ammonites, were not however 
generally accepted : they were disputed by Lycett,t C. Moore,f 
J. Bucliman,§ and more recently by E. Witchell.|| The general 
tendency of the opposing views was to show that the Sands were 
intimately connected with both Upper Lias and Inferior Oolite, 
a fact indeed which admits of no question. In 1863 Morris and 
Lycett introduced the name Supra-Liassic Sands : a name not 
generally used, and only of late years occasionally employed by 
Mr. Hudleston. The adoption, however, by some geologists of 
the term Upper Lias Sands, and by others of Inferior Oolite 
Sands, has been a source of ambiguity to students, so tiiat when 
in 1871 John Phillips proposed the name Midford SandsH it was 
accepted as a good stratigraphical term, whose meaning could be 
clearly understood, and which would satisfy the wants of field- 
geologists. For regarded as passage-beds, it would matter very 
little, with a distinctive name, whether they were bracketed, in 
Tables of Strata, with Inferior Oolite or Upper Lias. This 
name was adopted by the Geological Survey, and was for some 
years unchallenged. 

The term Midford Sand has not, however, been suffered to 
remain in this tranquil position ; and since more especial 
attention has been paid to zones, its genei'al application to the 
beds of Dorset, Somerset, and Gloucester has been called in 
question by Mr. S. S. Buckman and Mr. Hudleston. The fact 
is, the sands at Midford are directly overlaid by the upper portion 
of the Inferior Oolite (Zone of Ammonites Parkinsoni) ; they have 
yielded but few fossils ; and they have not furnished evidence of 
the presence of all the minor zones that have been identified 
here and there in the Cotteswold Sands and Gloucestershire 
Cephalopoda Bed on the one hand,'and in the Yeovil and Bridport 
Sands on the otht-r. 

The fossils, however, which the Midford Sand has yielded, 
show it to belong to the same set of beds as those essentially 

* Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xii. p. 292 ; Lias Ammonites, pp. 148, 150 
t Cotteswold Hills, pp. 16, 27. 

j Proe. Somerset Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. xiii. p. 195. 
§ Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xiv. p. 102, vol. xxix. p. 504, vol. xxxiii. (Proc) 
p. I ; I'roc Geol. Assoc, vol. ii. p. 249 j Proc Somerset Areh. Soc, vol, xx. p. 140. 
II Geol. Stroud, pp. 34-86. 
IT Geol. Oxtord, &c, p. 118. 


sandy strata in Dorsetshire and Gloucestershire, so that the 
opposition to the term rests veiiy .'argely on negative evidence, 
•which future work may annul. In many instances we have to 
deal with comparatively unfossiliferous sands which afford no 
evidence of any particular zone, but whose general stratigraphical 
position can be proved ; consequently there is need for a stratigra- 
phical term that should include the Gloucestershire Cephalopoda 
Bed and Cotteswold Sands, the Midford Sands, and the Yeovil and 
Bridport Sands. Paying due attention to the general stratigra- 
phical and paleeontological characters of the beds, and to certain 
lithological changes which they undergo, we find that the upper 
limit is on the whole fairly well-defined ; for stratigraphicaily, in 
Dorsetshire as in Gloucestershire, the zone of Ammonites opalinus 
would be included in this division. In both cases the beds are 
covered conformably by the lower portion of the Inferior Oolite, 
representing the zone o'i Ammonites Murchisonce. The lower limit 
is nowhere rigidly defined ; and, as is natural with passage-beds, 
the separation of the more sandy from the more argillaceous portions 
would vary in horizon from place to place. From a practical point 
of view it is necessary to I'epresent the essentially sandy beds 
separately from the Upper Lias clay on the maps, and so long as 
the nature of the division is understood, there need be no trouble 
about it. 

As a stratigraphical term, therefore, the name Midford Sand 
may be used in this comprehensive sense, admitting that its lower 
ooundary is one which shades down irregularly into the Upper 
Lias. So far as possible the palajontological characters of the 
beds, and the evidence of different local zones, will be indicated ; 
but, generally speaking, the Midford Sand may be considered to 
include the zones of A. opalinus and A. jia-ensis, between which 
the division of Lias and Oolites is taken. 

The stratigraphical divisions into which the Inferior Oolite 
Series was originally divided, have proved to be inapplicable to 
other districts in this country. 

In the west of England, we find above the Upper Lias clays, a 
group of sands with bands and nodules of calcareous sandstone 
and occasional sheU-limestones (Midford Sand), overlaid by a 
group of oolitic, earthy, and shelly limestones and marls, with 
occasional s.indy beds (Inferior Oolite). 

In the midland area, there is no continuance of the gradual 
passage from Upper Lias into the Inferior Oolite Series ; for 
in Northamptonshire and Lincolnshire, though there are occasional 
symptoms of transition, the groups are generally separated by a 
well-marked plane of division, attended by some evidences of local 
erosion. As we pass into these central regions, distinct strati- 
graphical divisions become needful. The lowest beds of the 
Inferior Oolite Series comprise ferruginous sandstones and iron- 
stones, white sands, and clays, grouped as the Northampton Sand 
and Lower Estuarine Series ; and as we proceed further east these 

E 75928. C 


beds are overlaid by fissile sandy strata known as the OoUyweston 
Slate, and by compact shelly and oolitic limestones, known collec- 
tively as the Lincolnshire Limestone. The upper limit of the 
Inferior Oolite Series is over a great part of the area well-marked, 
the beds being overlaid by the Upper Estuarine Series, which ia 
the local base of the Great Oolite Series. 

Thus the Inferior Oolite, in its course through England, exhibits 
almost every variety of stratified rock. In some places, as on the 
Cotteswolds, we have fine false-bedded oolites furnishing excellent 
freestone; also beds of soft oolite-marl; and layers of coarse 
oolite and pisolite. In other places, as near Bridport, the oolite 
becomes very ferruginous, and almost an oolitic iron-ore. Again, 
near Lincoln, we find beds of compact limestone, with scattered 
oolitic grains, and beds of shell-limestone. Conglomeratic beds 
are met with on the eastern borders of the Mendip Hills, and 
tiny quartz pebbles occur in some beds in the Cotteswold Hills. 
Distinct beds of sand, and even of clay, are intercalated in 
places on the northern Cotteswolds ; and near Chipping Norton 
most of the strata are more or less sandy in character. 

The surface-beds generally present a rubbly appearance, while 
some of the beds not exposed to atmospheric influences are blue in 
colour. False-bedding is, as a rule, conspicuously developed in 
the oolitic freestones. 

Where best developed, as near Cheltenham, the . beds attain a 
tliicknesa of upwards of 250 feet, while near Bridport the full 
thickness is no more than 15 feet. (See Fig. 31, p. 53.) From 
the Cotteswold area there is evidence of attenuation as we proceed 
towards the neighbourhood of Oxford.* This is caused by the 
overlap of higher across lower members of the formation. 

Beds bored by Annelides or other marine organisms occur at 
various horizons in the Inferior Oolite ; and beds with rolled 
fra""meuta of oolite are also met with at different stages. These 
phenomena mark a certain amount of local unconformity or con- 
temporaneous ei-osion, as the case may be ; but they cannot be 
taken in any case to indicate a great lapse of time, for they occur 
at different levels in the same palseontological division, There 
are also occasional perforations in the limestones like those 
characterizing the " Dagham Stone " of the Great Oolite 
(see p. 286). 

The Inferior Oolite sometimes rests directly on the Lias, 
without the inlervention of the Midford Sand, as near Radstock ; 
while in other jilaces bordering the Mendip Hills it rests on the 
Coal-measures and on the Carboniferous Limestone. In no other 
tract, however, have we any actual evidence of marginal accu- 
mulations ; although some of the more sandy beds with plant- 
remains in Oxfordshire, the layers with rootlets in the North- 
ampton Sand, and the estuarine beds in the midland counties, 
betoken the proximity of land, 

* See Hull, Geology of Cheltenham j W. C. Lucy, Proe. Cottetwold Cu h, toI. v. 
p. 8.; Topley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxx. p. 186; and Buokman, Ibid., 
vol. xlv. p. 468. 


Organic Remains. 

The Inferior Oolite Series has yielded a rich and varied 
Invertebrate fauna, but the remains of Saurians and Fishes are 
very rare. 

The Reptiiia that have been found, include Megalosaurus and 
Steneosaurus, and the Fishes are represented by Hybodus, 
Strophodus, &c. 

Of MoUusca, Ammonites are. exceedingly abundant in Dorset- 
shire and, at a more restricted liorizon, in Gloucestershire. The 
larger cut and nolished Ammonites and Nautili of dealers, are 
mostly obtained from the Inferior Oolite of Dorsetshire. One of 
the largest examples of Nautilus known, a gigantic specimen 
2 feet in diameter, obtained from Sherborne in Dorsetshire, 
has been described under the name of Nautilus ornatus.^ 
Belemnites are common in certain beds ; Ancyloceras and 
Toxoceras are also recorded. 

Gasteropods are plentiful in the limestones in Dorsetshire, 
south Somerset, and the midland counties ; they include 
Actceonina, Alaria, Amberleya, Bourguetia, Cerithium, Cylindrites, 
Malaptera {Pterocera), Monodonta, Natica, Nerinma, Nerita, 
Pleurotomaria, Pseudomelania, Pirpurina, Trochus, Turbo, &c. 
Nerinaa first appears near the base of the formation ; the species 
recorded from the Lias in this country, according to Mr. Hudleston, 
do not belong to this genus. Ataphrus {Monodonta) lavigatus 
and Nadca adducta occur at various horizons. 

The Lamellibranchs also are abundant, including Area, 
Astai'te, Cardium, Ceromya, Cucullasa, Cypricardia, Germllia, 
Gresslya, GryphcBa,. Hiimites, Homomya, Isocai-dia, Lima, Lucina, 
Modiola, Myacites, Nucula, Opis, Ostrea, Pccten, Perna, Phola- 
domya. Pinna, Tancredia, Trichites, Trigonia, &c. Of these 
genera, Trigonia is especinlly abundant and characteristic. Some 
of the species, such ns Astarte elegant, A. excavata, Avicida 
inaquivalvis, Ceromya hajociana, Gresslya abducia, Hinnitfs 
abjectus, H. velatus,IAma strigilln.ta,L. duplicata, L.pectiniformis, 
Lucina despecta, X. Wrighti, Modiola sniuerbyana (plicata), 
Pccten demissus, Plioladomya Jidicula, P. Heraulti, P. media, 
Tancredia axiniformis, Trigonia costata, and T. signata are 
abundant at various horizons. 

Most numerous are the Brachiopods, including Rhynchonella, 
Terebratula, and Waldlieimia. Some of tiie species are locally 
taken to mark horizons, as tiie Spinosa-sXage characterized by 
Rhynchonella spinosa, the Glohata-h&di by Terebratula globata, 
the Fimbria-%t?kg& by Terebratula fimbria, and the Cynocephala- 
stage by Rhynchonella cynocephala. The species in fact occur 
profusely in certain layers, forming fossil-beds, but they are not 
as a rule confined to such beds. In Gloucestershire the specimens 
of T. globata early attracted the attention of the country people, 

♦ A. H. Foord and G. C. Crick, Ann. Nat. fist., ser. y'l, vol. v. p. 273. 

C 2 


to whom they were known as " Pundiba,"* a name still retained 
by quarrymen. This species is represented in Dorsetshire by T. 
sphcBroidalis, which locally forms one or more Terebratula-beds. 
Other species, such as Rhynchondla angulata, JR. subtetvuhedra, 
Terebratula perooalis; Waldlieimin anglica, and W. carinata occur 
at diflFerent horizons. 

Of other fossils we find numerous Polyzoa ; Crustacea are 
extremely rare ; while Insects have only been recorded with 
doubt.f Many Annelidea occur. Echinodermata are found in 
great abundance and variety ; the genera including Pentacrinus 
and other Crinoids, Gidaris, Clypeus, Hemipedina, Hyboclypus, 
Pygaster, Stomechinus, Astropecten, &c. Spicules of Holothuroids 
have been observed. Corals are very plentiful in certain layers, 
the more abundant forms being Isastrcea, LatimcBandra, Mont- 
livaltia, Oroseris and Thamnastraa. In the Ootteswold Hills 
there are three or four coral-beds ; which, as Prof. Duncan has 
remarked, occur in banks rather than reefs. Again, at Dundry 
and also in Lincolnshire, tliere are well-marked coral-beds. A 
number of Sponges have also been obtained ; and many of these, 
according to Prof. Sollas, are shallow- water forms. J 

The Plants include Ferns, Conifers, and Cycads; but specimens 
are of rare occurrence. 

" The distribution of the fossils, and the endeavour to picture 
the life-history of the strata and the physical features of the 
period, naturally furnish the most interesting studies connected 
with the Inferior Oolite Series. The richness of its fossil-beds 
has attracted many a collector, and whether he go to the neighbour- 
hood of Bridport or Sherborne in Dorsetshire, to Stroud or 
Cheltenham in Gloucestershire, an abundant harvest of organic 
remains may be reaped. Other fossiliferous localities will be 
mentioned in the sequel, but of course there are many places 
where fossils are rare or but imperfectly preserved. 

As is the case with the Lias and other formations, the so-called 
characteristic fossils are variously distributed : there are some 
species of Lamellibranchs, Gasteropods, and Brachiopods that 
occur in all divisions of the series : others are much more restricted 
both as to place and horizon. Moreover in beds on the same 
horizon, as for instance in Dorsetshire, we may notice the changes 
in their organic contents from place to place : Cephalopods, 
Lamellibranchs, or Brachiopods in turn prevailing.§ 

Again when the formation is represented in an attenuated 
form, as in Dorsetshire, we find, as with the Lias under similar 
conditions, that we have a rich and varied fauna preserved in a 
few layers : and where the beds are much more thickly developed 
we find occasional fossil-beds, but the fossils are more sparsely 

* J. "Woodward, Nat. Hist. Fossils of England, part 2, pp. 45, 46. 
t See Moore, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xvii. p. 513. 

j Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxix. p. 561 ; see also Hinde, Ibid., vol. xlvii. 
p. 553 ; and British Jurassic Sponges (Pal. Soc.), Part III., 1894. 
§ See also Whidboriie, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxix. p. 487. 



The fact that the strata are so variable has naturally influenced 
the assemblages of fossils that characterize particular portions of 
the sea-bed. So that while numerous local divisions may be made 
in the rocks, attempts at minute correlation of particular layers 
are apt to provoke diversity of opinion. Ammonites, however, 
have come to be regarded as " time-keepers," for they appear to 
be less influenced than other MoUusca by the character of the 
sea-bottom. Their distribution at any i,-ate was not hindered bv 
such considerations, although the forms were subject to more 
rapid modifications than those of other Mollusca. 

Doubtless there is a tendency at the present day to make more 
and more minute divisions of the strata ; and so long as they are 
taken simply to indicate the local natural history of the beds they 
are useful. What is much more serious is the multiplication of 
the specific names of fossils and especially of the Ammonites ; for 
now-a-days the identification of species has become well-nigh a 
hopeles,s task, unless one reverts to the definitions of the older 
palseontologists. Forms hitherto grouped under definite specific 
names, such as Ammonites Parkinsoni, A. humphriesianus, A. 
Sowerbyi, A. Murchisonce, &c., are so split up that only a specialist 
can recognize the many socalled species or rather " mutations " 
into -which ihey are divided. Their original significance, and 
their historical associations are obscured. Such a proceeding, too, 
tends considerably to modify the interpretation of zones, and to 
render them dependent rather on the occurrence of one of these 
particular forms, than on the faunas or general assemblages of 
fossils with which a species may be associated. In many places 
Ammonites are scarce, and it is known that the occasional presence 
or absence of a so-called zonal species cannot always be taken as 
definite evidence of the presence or absence of the special horizon 
it may characterize. 

It is true, as has been stated, that the assemblages of fossils 

vary from place to place according, no doubt, to the particular 

sedimentary conditions that suited them, but there are some 

species sufficiently widely distributed to mark the general 

succession in the life-forms of the Inferior Oolite. Whether, 

however, we take a broad or a restricted view of species, there 

is great difficulty in subdividing the Inferior Oolite into definite 

zones, and in tracing these paljBontological divisions throughout 

the country. Probably no other formation has given so mucl/ 

trouble to those who endeavour to parcel our strata into zones.* 

It will be seen that the zones are not marked by any persistent 

■ lithological characters. Even in Dorsetshire, where Ammonites 

are most abundant, it is remarkable that the zones are nowhere 

all well developed at one locality where they can be studied in 

sequence ;t the "fossil-beds" that sometimes represent distinct 

* See also Hudleston, Address to Geol. Soc. 1893, Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, 
vol. xlix (Proc.) pp. 129, &c. 

+ See HudlestoU; luf. Oo!. Gasteropoda, p. 23. 



horizons occurring here and there at different spots Moreover, 
in this and other avoas, as at Dundry, there is sometimes a 
commingling of certain zonal species, that renders it impossible to 
draw rigid planes of division. Where the beds are very thin it 
maybe that the sediment was insufficient (as remarked by TawDey 
in reference to the Lias of Eadstock) to bury up the organic 
remains of successive stages.* 

It is interesting to note the different minor divisions in 
different localities, but considering all the facts and the many 
varieties of opinion, it is best to adhere to broad general 
groupings, which may be made with a fair approximation to 
truth, instead of attempting to correlate the minor divisions, 
many of which of course are impersistent, and often unfossiliferous. 

It will be desirable now to mention the species that are 
considered more particularly to characterize the different stages 
of the Inferior Oolite Series. Many of these are not confined ta 
particular zones, and their distribution or abundance varies in 
different parts of the country. 

It will be sufficient for our purpose to adopt the following 
general divisions of the strata, premising that the zones in the 
midland counties are not well established : — 

Table of the chief Subdivisions of the Inferior 
Oolite Series. 



S.W. England. 

Midland Oounties. 

Ammonites Parkins oni 

Inferior Oolite. 

Lincolnshire Limestone. 

Collyweston Slate. 
Lower Estuarine Series. 

A. humphriesianus (in S.W. 

A. MurchisoniE 

Northampton Sand. 

A. opalinus 

Midford Sand. 

A. jurensis 

* See Memoir on the Lias, p. 127, and Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xii. p. 303. 


MiDFOBD Sand.— (Passage Beds.) 
Zones of Ammonites jurensis and A. opalinus. 

The zones of ^. opalinus (" Opalinusthone ") HTudA-jwensis (" Jurensis- 
mergel ") were notified by Quenstedl in 18+3 ; and when Oppel instituted 
his comparisons between the Jurassic rocks of this country and the 
Continent, he subdivided the beds as follows* : — 

f Zone of Trigonia navis'] with A. opalinus 
Inferior J I and 

Oolite. I Zone of Ammonites [ Bhynclionelki, I Gloucestershire 
L torulosus. J cynocephala. > Cephalopoda 

Upper Lias. Zone of ^.jwensi's. J Bed. 

The names applied to the upper two zones are not applicable to this 
country, as Trigonia navis . is not present, nor is it a good zonal species^ 
and J., torulosus is not sufficiently abundant : but the beds are conveniently 
grouped under the general name, zone of A. opalinus. 

The lowest zone of the Inferior Oolite is usually regarded as 
that of A. opalinus, while the uppermost zone of the Upper Lias 
is. taken to be that of A. jurensis. 

Over large areas of the Midland counties the zone of A jurensis 
does not appear to be represented, although here and there, as at 
Northampton, it is partially developed. There, however, we find 
no difficulty in determining the respective stratigraphical limits 
of thjB Upper Lias clay and Inferior Oolite Series. 

In Gloucestershire, Somersetshire, and Dorsetshire the case is 
aifferent : over considerable portions of that area' we have a 
complete passage from Lias to Oolite, and the only possible 
stratigraphical divisions that can be made, consist in grouping 
together eo far as possible, the main mass of sandy strata, and the 
limestones locally associated with them, under the term Midford 
Sand, or Midford Beds, and separating, them from the main 
mass of Upper Lias clay on the one hand, and from the Inferior 
Oolite on the other. 

It is of course considered desirable by palaeontologists that the 
fossils of the zone of A. opalinus be separated from those of the 
zone of A. jurensis, because the one zone is considered Inferior 
Oolite and the other Lias. Where to make the desired sepnration 
between these zones in the absence of lithoiogical and strati- 
graphical guides is difficult enough: in the absence of fossils of 
course it Ts hopeless. Even at best the two zones, in the west 
of En'i^land, are so intimately connected by forms common to 
both, that a hard-and-fast line is out of the question. The field- 
geologist moreover has to deal with strata that in many places 
yield no fossils. 

On local palseontological grounds the Gloucestershire Cepha- 
lopoda Bed was split in two portions (see p. ] 04), and the name 
Cephalopoda Bed is by some authorities restricted to the lower 
part, so as to place it in the zone of A. jurensis. On strati- 

* Die Juraformation (1856-58), pp. 305, 321, and Table at end of volume. 


graphical grounds no such separation is wanted. Indeed Dr. 
Wright, seeing the intimate palseontological connexion with the 
heds below, boldly placed the zone of A. opalinus in the Lias, as 
its highest stage, and in defiance of other authorities.* Such a 
plan, however locally convenient, could not be followed in the 
midland and north-eastern counties. 

Wq have referred to the assemblages of Ammonites and other 
fossils as serving to indicate a general division between the two 
zones, but the subject is complicated by the differences of opinion 
that exist on the grouping of certain beds and fossils with one or 
other zone ; and the still more serious difEerences on the identi- 
fication of species — the names of Ammonites varying according 
to the " lumping " or " splitting " tendencies of those who assign 
names to them. Hence while one authority gives a wide range 
to a species, another may assign to it a very restricted horizon. 

Thus Mr. S. S. Buckman has pointed out that Ammonites jurensis (as he 
■would, define the species) is by no means abundant in this country, the 
species having in some cases been identified from forms which occur at 
higher horizons, and which he would name A confusus and A. Wrighti : 
both as he admits approach nearly to A. jurensis.\ 

He has subdivided the zones of A. jurensis and A. opalinus into the 
following beds : — 

r 6. OpaZmus-bedB, with Ammonites opalinus. 

Zones of 5. Moorei-heAs, with A. Moorei. 

A. opalinus J 4. JDiomortieria-heds, with A. {Dumortieria) radians. 

and ) 3. Dispansus-heds, with A. dispansus. 

A. jwensis. | 2. 8tricdul'as-heA.s,'<inth. A. striatulus. 

\Ji. Variabilis-hs&a, with A. variabilis. 

This grouping" may be taken to indicate the general succession of the 
Ammonite-forms as defined and restricted by Mr. Buckman, but it can 
only be accepted in detail by those who agree with the limitations he 
would assign to the species, and none but a specialist could attempt to 
deal with the subject. 

Including as we do the zone of A. opalinus with the 
Gloucestershire Cephalopoda Bed, and associating with them the 
Ootteswold Sands, we have a group in which Mr. Buckman 
recognizes his six fossil-beds : a group including the zones of 
A. opalinus and A. jurensis. 

In the Bridport and Yeovil Sands we have a group in which 
Mr. Buckman recognizes the zone of A. opalinus and but a 
portion of the zone of A. jurensis ; the other portion being, in his 
opinion, to some extent represented in the Upper Lias shale 
beneath. This view is not at all incompatible with the strati- 
graphical evidence, which shows, as has been pointed out, that 
the lower boundary of the Midford Sands is a gradual one, that 
may vary in horizon from place to place. A similar varying 
junction is met with between Kimeridge Clay and Portland 

* Lias Ammonites, pp. 1, 67, 138, 139, 148 j Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xvi. 
p. 8 ; see also S. S. Buckman, Inf. Ool. Ammonites, p. 253. 

+ Inf. Ool. Ammonites, pp. 50, 164, 166 ; Quart. Jouru. Greol. Soc, vol. xxxvii. 
p. 601. 


Beds, but it is not always practicable to accommodate our strati- 
graphical subdivisions strictly to palseontological horizons, even if 
we could find fossils more plentifully than we do, and were 
assured that the species were confined within definite limits. We 
know, however, that index-species are not always confined to the 
zones they indicate ; they are considered only to be dominant at 
pa;rticular horizons, and this information rests largely on local 

Whatever view we take of the species or " mutations " of 
Ammonites, and of the value of minute divisions of the strata, 
there is no means by whicTi we can fix a boundary in this tran- 
sitional series of strata in the west of England that can be traced 
with confidence, or that would have any practical value. 

Considering the vexed subject of species, it is of course difiicult 
to enumerate the particular fossils that may be said to belong 
especially to each of the two zones of A. jurensis and A. opalinus. 
Nor are we helped out of the difiiculty by reference to the fossils 
recorded from continental strata, for as regards the species that 
have been taken as a basis for classification, we find a varying 
range assigned to them in different localities. For instance, such 
forms as A. aalensis, A. hircinus, and A. subinsignis are recorded 
from both zones. 

In Torksliire the name " Btriatvilus-hediS " is applied generally to the 
zone of A. jurensis, and the evidence obtained in other parts of England 
tends to show that the species may have appeared in places much earlier, 
for we find it in the Basement Beds ef the Upper Lias in Dorsetshire. In 
the Gloucestershire Cephalopoda Bed, A. radians and A. stri'atulus are in- 
timately associated, and the species are very closely allied.f Mr. S. S. 
Buokman makes use of these two species to mark distinct sub-zones, both 
of which he places in the Upper Lias (zone of .4. jurensis). Mr. Hudleston 
places the " Efadians-zone " at the base of his Lower division of the In- 
ferior Oolite. A. aalensis is recorded by Tate and Blake from beds low 
down in the Upper Lias of Yorkshire, while it occurs with A. opalinus in 
the Gloucestershire Cephalopoda Bed, and with A. jurensis on the Dorset 
coast. A. opalinus again is recorded from Dorsetshire in the same bed 
with A. Murehisonce.f 

Such occurrences, which are not altogether dependent on varying views 
of species, are natural enough, and are parallelled by what we know of the 
distribution of species in the Lias. They indicate the varying local range 
of different species, and they show that we cannot rely on the occurrence 
of one or two specimens of a species to fix a positive stratigraphical 

In the following list T have recorded the species that are said 
to characterize particular zones ; but for geological purposes it is 
convenient to take the fauna as a whole, regarding it as that of 
the passage-beds between the Lias and Oolites. The species from 
Midford are marked " M." 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, toI. xlvi. pp. 440, 52], &c. ; Journ. Northamptonshire 
Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. v. pp. 77, 7?. 

t Mr, S. S. Buckman now regards them as belonging to different sub-geiiera. 

j See S. S. Buckman, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxvii. p. 608, vol. xlv. 
p. 455, vol. xlvi. p. 520 ; Tate and Blake, Yorkshire Lias, p. 180 ; Fox-Strangways, 
Jurassie Kocks of Yorkshire, vol. i. p. 131. 



List of Fossils from the Midforu Sand. 
Zones of Ammonites opalinus and A.jurensis. 

1— ( 










ja o 








2 B, 


O " 

o *^ 








Ammonites aalcnsis - - - 




compactilis - . - 




disooides - . - 



dispansus (var. of A, variabilis) 




fallaciosus ... 




hircinus ... 



insignis (Fig. 4) - - 






jurensis (Fig. 3) 





Levesquei ... 




Moorei (rar. of A. aahnsis) - 



opalinus (Fig. 6) 






striatulus (Fig. 2) 




subinsignis . - - 





sublineatus . - . 



toarcensis (thouarsensis) 



torulosus (i'ig. 5) - 




variabilis ... 








Belemnites aalensis (giganteus) 







irregularis (Fig. 7) 

tripartitus ... 




Amberleya capitanea 

Troohus duplicatus - - - 




Astarte lurida 




Cueulla:a ferruginea 





Cypricardia bathouioa var. brevis 




cordiformis (Fig. 19) 





Gervillia Hartmanni 




lata - 


■ 1 


Gi'esslya abduota 




Hinuites abjectus 




Lima toarcensis 




Modiola sowerbyana (Fig. 10) 




Myacites tenuistriatu« 


Peoten demissus ... 






Pholadomya fidicula 
Tanoredia donaciformis 




Trigonia Ramsayi 



striata (Fig. 9) 




Ehynchouella cyuocephala (I'ig. 14) 






Terebratula infra-oolitica 




punctata var. haresfieldensis - 




Waldheimia anglica 

carinata var. Mandelslohi 


Serpula tricarinata . - - 




Cephalopoda from the Midford Sand, or Passage-beds 
between the inferior ooltte and ijppek llas. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. G. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 5. 

Fig. 7. 

Fig. 2. Ammonites striatulus, Sow. f . 
,, 3. „ jnrensis, Ziet. J. 

..4. „ inBignis, 8cMh. \. 

„ 5- ., torulosus, Ziet. |. 

,.6. ,, opalinus, iJeira. i 

„ 7. Belemnites irregularis, ScMoth. Nat. size. 


lower oolitic eocks of england: 

Inferior Oolite Fossils. 
Lower Beds and Passage Beds (Midford Sand). 

Fig. 8. 

Fig. 10. 

Fig. 13. 

Fig. 9. 

Fig. 11. 

Fig. 12. 

Fig. 8. Trigonia denticulata, Ag. |. 
„ 9. „ striata, Sow. f. 
„ 10. Modiola sowerbyana, d'Orb. Nat. size. 
„ 11. Pholadomya fidicula, Sow. ^. 
,, 12. Astarte elegans, Soto. Nat. size. 
,, 13. Avicula braamburiensis, P7wZ. 2. 
,, 14 Ehynchonella cynocepbala, Bioh. 2. 


The Inferior Oolite above the stages previously described 
(p. 39), was divided by Oppel into the four zones, which, in 
ascending order, comprise those of A. MurckisoncB, A. Sauzei, 
A. humphriesianus, and A. Parkinsoni. 

In this country we find it generally sufficient to adopt a broad 
grouping of the beds into the zones of A. Murchisonce and A. 
Parkinsoni, because other zones are difficult to distinguish except 
locally ; and where the distinctive species of Ammonites are 
absent, it is by no means easy to say to what extent the minor 
zones are represented, as other forms of MoUusca are somewhat 
variously distributed. For convenience of description I shfiJl 
follow the general grouping of Mr. Hudleston, and refer to the 
fossils of the Inferior Oolite under the following principal 

zones : 

Upper Division If f"''*^- 

\^A. humphriesianus. 

~ A. Murchisonce. 

A. opalinus. (See p. 39.) 

Lower Division-^ 

Inferior Oolite. — (Lower Division.) 
Zone of Ammonites Murchisonce. 

The zone of Ammonites Murchisonce is, as a rule, well-marked, 
although the Ammonites, so abundant in Dorsetshire, are com- 
paratively rare in Gloucestershire and in the midland counties. 
The local zones, or rather fossil-beds in Dorsetshire,- yielding A. 
concavus and A. Sauzei, will be noticed further on. 

The " Sowerhyi-zone" which some authorities have separated 
from the zone of A. Murchisona, is in trouble, for Mr. Buckman 
says there is considerable misconception regarding the type-form 
of the species.* We can, however, for stratigraphical pm-poses, 
well do without this sub-zone, with which the Lincolnshire Lime- 
stone has been generally grouped. In Dorsetshire Mr. Hudleston 
places the "Concavus — or' Sowerhyi'' — zone " above the Murchi- 
sonce-zone : and, for the sake of convenience, he groups both of 
them together with the Opalinus-, and JRadians-zones in the 
Lower division of the Inferior Oolite. He however remarks that 
"there can be no doubt that the rich and characteristic fauna of 
the Inferior Oolite begins with the Murchisonce-zone, to which 
the opalinus-zone is little more than an appendage."t 

* Some specimens.of " A. Sowerbyi " are referred by Mr. Buckman to Harpoceras 
adicrum. Quart. Jourii. Geol. Soc, vul. xxxvii. p. 602. 

t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlix. (Proc), p. 131 ; and Gasteropoda of the 
Inferior Oolite, p. 29. 



Inferiok Oolite Ammonitks. 
(Lower and Middle Beds.) 

Fig 15. 

Fig. 16. 

Fig. 17. 

Fig. 18. 

Fig. 15. Ammonites Sowerbyi, Miller, f. 
,, 16. „ Murchison8e, Sow. J. 

,, 17. „ humpliriesiaims, Sow. |-. 

„ 18. „ concaniB, Sow. |. 



Inferior Oolixk Fossils. 
(Lower and Middle Beds.) 
Fig. 19. Fig. 20. 

Fig. 22. 

Fig. 25, 

Fig. 21. 

Fig. 23. 

Fig. 24. 

Fis. 19. Cypricardia cordiformis, Desh. f. 
„ 20. Astarte excavata, Sow. ^. 
,, 21. Ceromya bajociana, cL'Orb. J. 
,, 22. Nerinasa cingenda, Phil. 1\. 
„ 23. Terebratula fimbria, Sow. Nat. size. 
,, 24. Stomechinus germinans, P/iiL §. 
,, 25. Pygaster semisulcatus, TW.. \. 



List of Fossils from the Zone of Ammonites MurcMsoncB (in- 
cluding the sub-zone of A. Sowerhyi, and the local sub-zone of A. 

Ammonites concavus (Fig. 18). 




Murchisonse (Fig. 16). 

Sowerbyi (Fig. 15). 

Belemnites aalensis. 



Nautilus latidorsatus, 
Actseonina glabra. 
Amberleya capitanea, 


Oerithium Beani. 

Cirrus nodosus. 

Natica cincta. 

Nerinsea cingenda (Fig. 22). 




Onustus ornatissimus. 
Pleurotomaria ornata. 
Purpurina elaborata. 
Trochotoma calix. 
Trochus duplicatus. 
Astarte excavata (Fig. 20). 
Avicula braamburiensis (Fig. 

Oardium Buckmani. 
Ceromya bajociana (Fig. 2 1 ), 
— : — concentrica. 
CucuUgea cancellata, 


Oypricardia cordiformis (Fig. 

Gervillia acuta. 



Gryphsea sublobata. 

Hinnites abjectus, 

tumidus (velatus). 

Isocardia cordata. 
Lima Iseviuscula. 



Lucina bellona. 

Macrodon hirsonensis. 

Myacites tenuistriatus. 

Myoconcha crassa. 

O.strea palmetta, var. monti- 

Pecten personatus. 
Pholadomya fidicula. 
Pinna cuneata. 
Tancredia axiniformis. 
Trichites nodosus. 
Trigonia denticulata (Fig. 8). 


striata (Fig. 9). 

Rhynchonella subangulata. 



Terebr.itula fimbria (Fig. 23). 

maxillata (submaxillata) 




Waldheimia anglica. 
Galeropygus (Hyboclypus) 

Pseudodiadema depressum. 
Pygaster semisulcatus (Fig. 

Stomechinus germinans (Fig. 


IjirEEiOE Oolite. — (Upper Division.) 

Zone of Ammonites humpliriesianus (including the local 
sub-zone of A. Sauzei). 

This zone is far less prominently developed than the zones 
above and below it, and indeed it hardly deserves to be recognized 
as a separate zone in this country. Here and there in Dorset- 



shire the chavacteristic Ammonite is fairly abundant and well- 
marked, but in several places in that county we find only very 
small specimens of a form that has been termed A. lamiphriesianus, 
and this is the case further on in Gloucestershire. The zone has 
nowhere been recognized in the midland counties, perhaps on 
account of the absence of the Ammonite. Where the species does 
occur in the Inferior Oolite, the fossils associated with it connect 
the so-called zone intimately with the beds above and below. 
It forms in fact a sort of passage-bed between the zones of 
A. MurchisoTKB Sind A. Parkinsoni; but for convenience-sake we 
may put it, as Mr. Hudleston does, in the Upper Division of the 
Inferior Oolite. 

Oppel records, from the A. Saumi-h&d., A. Brocchii, A. Brongniarti, and 
A. Sowerlyi, and in one part of his work he included this bed at the 
base of the ^. 7tMmp7i)-ie«uiiMts-bed.* This is the position assigned to it 
by Mr. Hudleston, who regards it as an appendage to the Swmphriesianus- 
zone. He says the most mixed fauna occurs in the " Savaei-hei" of 
Oborne, and some might class it with the Lower division of the Inferior 

Mr. S. S. Buckman remarks, " Where the Sowerhyi and Sauzei-zonea 
are well developed, as would appear to be the case in certain localities on 
the Continent, it may be possible to separate them distinctly; but at 
Dundry we find peculiar conditions, because it would appear that Sowerhyi, Am. Sauzei, aad Am. hitmphriesianus occupy the same 

Locally in Dorsetshire he recognizes another zone above that of 
A. hwnphriesiaiiMs, — ^the zone ot A. cadomensis.§ 

List of Fossils from the Zone of Ammonites humphriesianus. 

Ammonites Blagdeni. 



• cadomensis. 




humphriesianus (Fig. 17). 




Belemnites gingensis. 
Nautilus polygoualis. 


Bourguetia striata (Phasianella 


Pleurotomaria granulata. 


Pseudomelania coarctata. 

(Chemnitzia) lineata. 

( ) procera. 

Purpurina bellona. 


Spinigera longispina. 

Astarte planata. 

Cypricardia cordiformis (Fig. 

Grypbaea sublobata. 
Hinnites abjectus. 
Myacites jurassi. 
Riiynchonella spinosa (Fig. 29). 
Terebratula sphseroidalis. 
Waldheimia carinata. 

* Jiiraformation, p. 305. 

t Inf. Ool. Gasteropoda, p. 28. 

t Inf. Ool. Ammouites, p. 63. 

§ Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1891 (1892), p. 655. 

E 75928. 



Inpeeiok Oolite Fossils. 
(Upper Beds,) 

Fig. 26. 

Fig. 27. 

Fig. 28. 

Fig. 30. 

Fig. 26. AmmoniteB Parkinsoni, Sow. -J. 
„ 27. Terebratula Phillipsi, Morris, f . 
,, 28. „ globata, Sow. | 

, , 29. Ehynohonella spinosa, Sohloth. 1 J. 
„ 30. Clypeus Ploti, Klein, j. 



Zone of Ammonites Parkinsoiii. 

This zone is readily recognized by its fossils, which as a rule 
are plentiful from Dorsetshire to Gloucestershire. Away from 
Dorsetshire the characteristic Ammonite is not very abundant, 
but other fossils serve to distinguish it as far as the Cotteswold 
HiUs and Oxfordshire. 

The zone has not been recognized in the midland counties nor 
in Lincolnshire, although it is quite possible that here and there 
portions of the Lincolnshire Limestpne may be of the age. 

Mr. S. S. Buckman lias suggested that this zone is capable of local 
subdivision into other zones, noting (in ascending order) the zones of 
A. Truellei, A. zigzag, and A.fttseus.* Such divisions cannot be regarded 
as of great stratigraphical value in this country, although the local 
succession of the Ammonites is interesting. 

List of Fossils from the Zone of Ammonites Parhinsoni. 

Ammonites fuscus. 



Parkinsoni (Fig. 26). 





Belemuites canaliculatus. 
Nautilus lineatus. 
Alaria hamus. 
Cerithium vetustum. 
Natica bajocensis. 
Nerinaa Guisei. 
Pleurotomaria fasciata. 
Purpurina bellona. 


Area Pratti. 

Astarte excavata (Fig. 20). 

Gryphsea sublobata. 

Dr. Hinde observes that in this subdivision British Jurassic 
Sponges reach their greatest development. Thus on the Dorset- 
shire coast, at Burton Bradstock, there are layers of limestone 
" mainly composed of masses of sponges growing attached to 
each other, apparently still in their natural position. The greater 
number are evidently siliceous sponges, but though they retain 
their original forms fairly well, their canal structures are largely 
obliterated, and the silica of their spicular skeletons has been 
entirely replaced by carbonate of lime."t 

Lima gibbosa. 


Myacites jurassi. 
Triohites undulatus. 
Trigonia duplicata. 



Rhynchonella spinosa (Fig. 29). 
Terebratula globata (Fig. 28). 

PhiUipsi (Fig. 27). 



Waldheimia carinata. 
Clypeus altus. 

Ploti (Fig. 30). 

Collyrites ovalis. 


Holectypus depressus. 


(Corals and Sponges). 

* Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1891 (1892,) p. 655 j Quart. Joum. Gaol. Soc, vol, 
xlviii.,p. 447. 
■f British Jurassic Sponges (Pal. Soc), Part III., p. 190. 

D 2 



Local Details. 
In describing the several members of the Inferior Oolite Series, 
it is desirable to do so geographically, as well as geologically, and 
to arninge the subject-matter as foUows : — 

1. Dorset, Somerset, and 
the OotteswoldB. 

2. Oxfordshire. 

3. Northamptonshire, Eut- 
landshire, and Lincoln- 

1. Dorset, Somerset, and the Cotteswolds. 

Inferior Oolite Series -j -^■■ 

iferior Oolite, 
idford Sand. 

The name Midford Sands was given in 1871, by Prof. John 
Phillips, from Midford, a hamlet about three miles south of Bath. 
Here the beds were studied by Williiun Smith, in the picturesque 
cliff which overhung his house at Tucking Mill, where he resided 
in 1798, when superintending the construction of the Somerset- 
shire Coal-canal. He then drove curious tunnels into the sand, 
for dairy and other uses, giving it the name of " Sand of the 
Inferior Oolite."* 

The beds consist of micaceous yellow sands, with bands or 
nodular masses of calcareous sandstone, known in some places as 
" sand-bats" or " sand-burrs." This is the character of the beds 
near Bath, in the Cotteswold Hills, and in the fine clifTs at 
Bridport Harbour. Near Yeovil, and at other places on the 
borders of Somerset and Dorset, the beds are displayed in many 
deep sandy lanes and road-ciittings ; some of the indurated layers 
are made up of comminuted shells, and bands of this nature 
coalesce to form the famous building-stone of Ham Hill. In 
Gloucestershire the upper beds comprise layers of sandy, iron- 
shot, and fossilifsrous limestone, which constitute what has been 
termed the " Cephalopoda Bed." Of this a more particular 
account will be given. 

On the whole, the formation may be said to consist of the 
sandy sediments and occasional sshell-banks, that prevailed in the 
south-west of England between the deposition of the Upper Lias 
clay and the Inferior Oolite limestones. 

Where junction-sections may be observed, as in the cliffs of 
Thorncom'be Beacon, and in the railway-cuttings near Yeovil, there 
is a gradual passage from the blue clays and shales of the Lias, 
through sandy clays into the yellow sands, with indurated bands. 
These concretionary masses are seen to be bluish-coloured and 
shaly in places, so that there is no definite plane of demarcation 
between the strata ; as indicated long ago by Buokland, Cony- 

* Geology of Oxford and the Valley of the Thames, pp. 108, 109, 118. 
















o 1> ■ 



^W,^§^ § 


P +3 









c2 • . ■ • ® 
^'S uro e m 8 

L3 CO CO CI CO .3 Is 
3 l^fL, 








2 ® 

o o 

CO m ^ 

pT! fflCQ 
ri f< o3 ti _„ 

is 3 So §3ti 

0? © ' . • • 
PhO -*■*-*-* 


beare, and De la Beche.* Indeed, owing to the varying thickness 
and occasional disappearance of the Midford Sand, it is probable 
that the clayey conditions of the Lias endured longer in some 
localities than in others, f 

Upwards, the beds are closely connected with the Inferior 
Oolite, so that we are occasionally at a loss to say whether a 
particular layer should be assigned to that formation or to the 
Midford Sand. The upper junction is however more frequently 
exposed than the lower, for the latter is not often to be seen in 
section, although its position is fairly well-marked by springs 
thrown out by the Upper Lias clay. 

The thickness of the Midford Sand is subject to much 
variation, for in the neighbourhood of Bath and the Mendip 
Hills the beds occasionally taper away. In the Ootteswold area 
the beds are from 10 to 120 feet thick ; in Somersetshire they 
attain a maximum of 200 feet; and in Dorsetshire 150 feet or 

These beds, as previously stated, include generally the zones of 
Ammonites opalinus and A. jurensis. In many places however 
they are comparatively unfossilferous. The observations of Mr. 
Buckman (to which reference has already been made, p. 40) show 
that in different areas the mass of the sands may be assigned 
palaeontologically more to one than to the-other of these zones, 
and that portions of the Upper Lias shale of Dorsetshire may 
belong to the zone of A. jurensis. 

In Dorsetshire the beds are often spoken of as the Yeovil and 
Bridport Sands. 

Bridport (Coast Sections) to Beaminster. 

On the coast at Bridport the Midford Sand is well-exposed in 
the cliff-sections, and it comprises a series of yellow sands with 
nodular layers and bands of calcareous sandstone. (See Fig. .33.) 

In proceeding eastwards from Golden Cap, the first exposure 
is at Thorncombe Beacon, where beneath the Upper Greensand 
and possible traces of Gault, there occiu: about 100 feet of yellow 
sands that exhibit a gradual passage into the Upper Lias shale 
beneath. The beds, however, can only be contemplated at a dis- 
tance, for the higher portions of Thorncombe Beacon are not 

Immediately west of Bridport Harbour there is a low cliff, 
about 40 feet high, showing yellow sand, with three or four bands 
of calcareous sandstone, having a slight inland dip. Small caves 
have been hollowed out in the beds, along lines of weakness, that 
were produced no doubt by a fault that brings the beds abruptly 
against the Fuller's Earth. This fault runs somewhat obliquely 

* Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. i. p. 306, and vol. iv. p. 31. 
t See H. B. W., Geol. Mag., 1872, p. 513. 

























through the cliffs, so that only a face of the MidforJ Sand is 
preserved.* The Fuller's Eartli is dragged up along the fault- 
plane, and the Sand is also broken and disturbed, while traces 
of Inferior Oolite hive in places been wedged in. At low-iide 
ledges of the harder layers in the Sand may be observed. The 
Sand at this end of the cliffs is gradually disappearing under 

the influence of denuding forces, 
s6 that in time the beds banked 
up against the Fuller's Earth will 
be entirely removed. 

The finest exposures of the 
Sand are in the cliffs east of 
Bridport Harbour, and these ex- 
tend to Burton Bradstock. Their 
remarkable banded appearance is 
due to the influence of atmo- 
spheric denudation, the harder 
layers of calcareous sandstone 
standing out in relief. A slight 
inland-dip in the strata tends to 
keep the cliffs perpendicular ; but 
falls of rock not infrequently 
tiike place, and their recent occur- 
rence may be noticed here and 
there by the smooth unweathered 
faces of the cliff, where the sea 
has cleared away the debris. (See 
Fig. 33.) 

Fossils are not abundant in the 
sands, nor are they well pre- 
served. Belemniles, known to the 
fishermen as " Fairies fingers," 
and portions of Ammonites known 
as " Lobster's tails," may be 
found here and there. I obtained 
Ammonites (a fine variety, near 
to A. concavus), Belemnites abhre- 
viatus 1, Pecten laviradiatus, 
CucuUcBa, Myacites tenuistriatus, 
a,nd Rhynchonella jurensis ?. Dr. 
Wright mentions A. variabilis ; 
and Mr. Hudleston has recorded 
from the upper 7 feet of the 
strata, A, torulosus. A, opalinus, 
A. subinsignis, Turbp subdupli- 
catus, Waldheimia anglica, and 
Rhynchonella cynocephala.'\ 



* See Fig. 32 ; and Fig. 41, p. ,52 in Memoir on the Lias of England and Wales ; 
and H. S. Solly and J. F. Walker, Proo. Dorset Nat. Hist. Club, vol. xi. p. 118. 

f Gasteropoda of the Inferior Oolite (Pal. Soc), p. 31 ; see also Oppel, Jura- 
formation, p. 316 ; and S. S. Buckman, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlv. p. 451. 


The thickness ?een is nearly 150 feet, but in this case the base 
is not exposed. 

Traces of Inferior Oolite cap the Sand in East Cliff, Britlport 
Harbour; but these higher beds are best shown to the east of the 
river Bride (or Bredy), in the cliffs of Burton Bradstock. The 
higher strata are not accessible, hence the majority of the fossils from 
this celebrated locality, have been collected from the fallen masses 
of rock on the beach. The Inferior Oolite is capped by the 
Fuller's Earth, and we have the full thickness, which does not 
exceed 15 feet. Hugo masses of rock occasionally break away 
from the cliflFs, and from these it is possible to measure portions of 
the beds, and to collect fossils, with due attention to the strati- 
graphical position. (See p. 51.) 

A few years ago a deep cutting was made for the road leading 
from Burton Bradstock to the shore, and here the beds down to 
the sands, could be examined in situ, and measured in detail. It 
is not, however, possible to make any extensive excavations in 
search of fossils, although when the cutting was made a fine series 
of specimens was obtained by Dr. M. Poignand.* Thus the 
collector must still devote his attention to the fallen blocks on the 
beach, and to the shallow quarries that have been opened up, a 
little way inland, between Bridport Harbour and Burton Brad- 

Some confusion at one time arose from the application of the 
name " Cephalopoda Bed " in Dorsetshire. There is indeed in 
this county no band corresponding in character with the 
Gloucestershire Cephalopoda Bed ; but the mass of the Inferior 
Oolite itself is a series of Cephalopoila Beds, for the zones of 
Ammonites Murchisona, A. humphriesianus, and A. Parkinsoni 
are locally very fossilif'erous, and constitute rich fossil-beds at 
different horizons. These facts were not recognized by Dr. Wright 
in his papers on the subject, "[• consequently his determination of 
horizons, and his lists of species, have required considerable revision. 
To some extent order was re-established by Prof. Buckman,J but 
we are mainly indebted to his son, Mr. S. S. Buckmanj§ whose 
observations have been confirmed and further illustrated by Mr. 
Hudleston.ll Among the species recorded by Dr. Wright from 
the so-called Dorsetshire Cephalopoda Bed, " Ammonites jurensis " 
is the form named A, [Lytoceras) confusus by Mr. Buekman ; 
while the " A. dorsetensis " of Dr. Wright is simply a variety of 
A. Parkinsoni, 

The following is a general section of the beds at Burton 
Bradstock : — 

* Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. ix. p. 204. 

t Quart Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xii. p. 312 ; vol. ivi. p. 47. 

X Ihid., vol. XXXV. p. 737. 

§ Ibid., vol. xxxvii. p. 588. 

11 Proc. Geol. Assoc., vol. ix. p. 187. 

Inferior Oolite. 

Lower division — 
Inferior Oolite'. 


Ft. I»g. 
"9. Pale-grey, oolitic, and earthy lime- 
stones, weathering rubbly - - 5 
8. Pale grey and brown earthy linae- 
stone, slightly oolitic and iron-shot 
Upper division — J in places. Teeebuattjla Bed, with 
" ' ■ " "■ T. sphcBroidaUs, &o. - - 1 to 2 
7. Grey oolitic and iron-shot limestones, 
compact in places and ferruginous ; 
including Astaete Bed with A. 
ohligwa, &o. - - - 2 4 
' 6. Pale grey, shelly, oolitic limestone, 

much iron-stained in places - - 1 6 

5. Eubbly band of sandy oohreous 

oolite - - - - - 3 

4. Pale grey, brown, and yellow mbbly 

iron-stained oolite - - - 1 6 

f 3. Yellow micaceous sands - - 2 

Midford Sand I 2. Band of calcareous sandstone. 

(Yeovil and Bridport •{ 1. Yellow sands with bands and nodular 
Sands). | masses of calcareous sandstone, in 

L Burton Cliff - - - about 80 

The Midford Sand belongs in its upper part to the zone of 
Ammonites opaliniis. The Lower division of the Inferior Oolite 
constitutes the zone of Ammonites Murchisonce, with which is 
included the zone of A. Sowerbyi or the " Concavus Beds," with 
A. concavus; while the Upper division includes the zone of 
A. humphriesianus (not always distinctly represented) and the 
zone of^. Parkinsoni. This grouping was suggested by Mr. 
Hudleston, who has given a section of the Cliffs ; the beds are 
somewhat differently subdivided and grouped by Mr. S. S. 

The most noticeable beds are the Astarte-hed and the Tere- 
bratula-hed. The former is well seen in the tumbled blocks on 
the coast. It contains small examples of A. humphriesianus, 
together with^. Parkinsoni ; and these forms occur together just 
below the Terebratula-hed, in a quarry south of the road between 
Bridport Harbour and Burton Bradstock, and nearly due north 
of jthe mouth of the Bride. I have found A. humphriesianus also 
in the Terebratula-hed. This indistinct development of the 
zone of A. humphriesianus has been noticed by Oppelf and 
Mr. HudlestonJ ; but so far as Dorsetshire is concerned, this 
imperfection is local, for fine specimens of this Ammonite occur 
at Hy4e quarry south-east of Bridport, and again at Oborne. 

The Terebratula-hed is well shown in the quarries between Brid- 
port Harbour and Burton Bradstock, and these expose also the 
iron-shot oolite below. The stone in these quarries was obtained 
chiefly for building stone-fences, and it is now occasionally dug 
for road-metal. The minor details of the beds seen in the quarries, 

* Hudleston, Gasteropoda of Inf. Oolite (Pal. See.), p. 31 ; see also E. Etheridf^ 
in Damon's Geology of Weymouth, ed. 2, 1884, p. 225 ; S. S. Buckman, Inf. Ool. 
Ammonites, p. 47 ; Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlv. p. 451 ; and Day, Quart. 
Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xix. p. 287. 

t Oppel, Die Juraformation, p. 339. 

j Hudleston, op. cit. p. 32. 


road-cutting, and cliflf-section, are subject to much variation. In 
the Terebratula-hed, the common species T. sphceroidalis occurs 
in shoals, in the neighbourhood of Burton Bradstock ; but this 
species is less abundant in some of the quarries further inland, to 
the east of Bridport ; and sometimes two bands, with many 
specimens of the Brachiopod, are to be seen. At Burton Brad- 
stock the species occurs above and below the Terebratula-hed, 
and it is associated with T. Phillipsi and Waldheimia carinata. 

Further inland the main mass of the Inferior Oolite is faulted 
out of sight between Burton Bradstock and Bothenhampton ; but 
reappearing at Shipton Gorge, it continues in a very irregular 
form, much faulted and with several outlying portions, by Power- 
stock (Poorstock) to Beaminster and Broadwindsor. The Sands 
below form a broader belt of land, not however always clearly 
distinguished on the Geological Survey Map, from the Upper 
Lias, nor indeed from the Middle Lias sands, which much 
resemble them. They stand out in conspicuous grassy knolls, 
near Bridport and Symondsbury (see Fig. 136, p. 465), distin- 
^ guished thus from the gorse-covered hills of Upper Greensand, 
and from the flat -topped outliers of Inferior Oolite. Sections 
may be Been in many places in the deep lanes or hollow-ways that 
traverse the district ; especially in the country near Beaminster, 
and in the neighbourhood of Yeovil. 

Numerous quarries are to be met with in the Inferior Oolite, 
for it has been largely used for road-metal, for building-purposes, 
and especially stone-fences, and for lime-burning. Many of the 
sections have been described by Dr. Wright, Mr. Hudleston, and 
others ; but the greatest difficulty is experienced in fixing any 
precise lithological or palaeontological divisions, for there are no 
constant characters that can be depended upon. 

Generally the following lithological divisions will be found in 
the area from Bridport to Beaminster : — 

Ft. Ins. 

4. Pale grey oolitic and earthy limestones - 4 to 12 

3. Iron-shot and oolitic limestones - - 10 to 12 

2. Brown sandy and earthy limestones, with occasional 

iron-shot grains - - - ■ 2 to 3 

1. Yellow micaceous iands with indurated bands of cal- 

careons sandstone - - - about 150 

The Inferior Oolite increases to some extent in thickness as we 
proceed inland from the coast-stations. 

When studying these beds in 1884 I collected carefully from 
the paler oolites on top (including the Terelratula-hediB), and 
from the iron-shot beds below, these being the only general dis- 
tinctions that could be made ; but subsequent experience shows 
that these characters are not to be relied upon, even locally, for 
fixing zonal divisions, and the evidence furnished by those who 
have paid especial attention to the organic remains, shows that no 
definite planes of demarcation separate the zones. We have 
practically to deal with a succession of deposits that in places at 
any rate were continuous, and with a succession of organic 


remains that represent several zones, the species belonging to 
which have become more or less interblended. Deposition was no 
doubt comparatively slow, when we compare the thin beds of 
Dorsetshire with those of Gloucestershire, and we find, as is the 
case where the Lower Lias is thinly developed, that a considerable 
variety as well as abundance of organic remains may be obtained 
from the attenuated beds. It is, moreover, quite possible that 
some intermixture of forms may be due to organic remains sinking 
through the calcareous mud into layers deposited long previously. 

Fossils are readily to be obtained from the blocks of stone 
stacked in the quarries ; but those who desire to identify zones, 
must seek their specimens in situ from the individual layers of 
stone — a task that means many hours of labour in each quarry. 

The pale grey oolitic and earthy limestones, that form the upper 
portion of the Inferior Oolite of this district, belong to the zone of 
Ammonites Parkinsoni. Fine specimens of this species and of 
Nautilus lineatus and N.polygonalis, many of which have been cut 
and polished for sale, have been obtained from quarries at Vinney 
(Vitney or Lydney) Cross, on the Dorchester road, about 3 miles 
east of Bridport.* Here also two marked Terebratula-h&As were 
to be seen, containing the characteristic T. sphceroidalis, together 
with T, Phillipsi, Rhynchonella spinosa, Waldheimia carinata, 
Lima pectiniformis, and Belemnites. At the base of these lime- 
stones, Astarte obliqua occurs, as in the coast-section. 

These beds, together with the underlying iron-shot limestones, 
have been quarried in several places west of Shipton Beacon, and 
in one opening, known as Hyde quarry, south of Walditch, I 
obtained two fine examples of Ammonites humphriesianus f I'om the 
lower beds. This fact is of some interest, because in the coast 
section only very small examples of A. humphriesianus have been 
found, and some authorities even hesitate to call them by that name. 

The iron-shot beds include in places the base of the zone of 
Ammonites Parkinsoni; but in beds of this character, more 
especially in the lower portion, Ammonites Murchisonm may 
usually be found. Mr. E. A. Walford obtained a number of 
Polyzoa and Sponges from the upper beds of the Inferior Oolite 
in a quarry near the New Inn, Shipton Gorge.f 

The same general succession (as previously noted) may be 
determined in the hills between Ohideock and Symondsbury, 
where there are several quarries and load-cuttings. The beds 
are much faulted, so that higher and lower divisions occur in 
irregular juxtaposition. Traces of Fuller's Earth were exposed 
in one quarry on the northern hill, faulted agninstthe pale earthy 
oolitic limestones, with the Terebratula bed. 

On the southern hill, there are pits showing, in addition to the 
upper beds, about 10 feet of brown iron-shot oolite in massive 
beds, much fissured, and with the joints filled with calc-spar. 
Some of these beds contain so much ferruginous matter as to 

* A lection here is recorded by Mr. Hudleiton, Inf. Ool. Gasteropoda, pp. 37, 38. 
•f Quart. .Toiirn. Gcol. Soc, vol. xlv. p. 561, vol. 1., p. 72. 


resemble the Oorallian iron-ore of Abbotsbury. South of 
Symondsbury these beds were also exposed to a deptli of 12 feet, 
and there they contain concretionary ironstone. Their extent here 
may be too limited, to render them of economic importance as an 
iron-ore, even if they be considered rich enough for smelting. 
(See analysis, p. 498.) From these beds I obtained the following 
fossils : — 

Ammonites corrugatus. 


Belemnites Blainvillei. 
Astarte excavata. 
Myacites tenuiatriatus. 

Thracia lata. 

Rhynchonella angulata ? . 

Below these iron-shot beds, there were hard brown sandy and 
occasionally Iron-shot limestones, 2 to 3 feet thick; and, at the 
base, yellow sands with bands of hard and nodular bluish-grey 
sandy limestone. At this locality Mi. S. S. Buckman records 
A. Murchisona and A. opalinus from the same bed.* In the 
Museum of Practical Geology there is a specimen of Eryma 
from Chideock. 

The sands were also exposed on the eastern side of the northern 

Chideock Hill, and (roni these I obtained Ammonites (fine var. 

near to concavus), Belemnites, Pecten Iceviradiatus, Rhynchonella 

jurensis 1, Dr. Wright records from the sands at Chideock, 

Ammonites insignis, A. opalinus, and A. vuriahilis. 

Wide fissures or " caverns " were noticed in the Inferior Oolite 
of Chideock Hill by Buckland and De la Beche.f 

The iron-shot beds of the Inferior Oolite have been quarried 
at Watton Hill, north of Bridport ; the higher beds have been 
worked at another Watton Hill, near Lower Loders, and at 
Powerstock. The ■ fossils obtained from these localities are 
mentioned in the accompanying list. As a rule the iron-shot beds 
are more fossiliferous than the pale limestones above. 

The railway-cutting east of Lower Loders exhibited a fine 
section of the Inferior Oolite ; it was as follows : — 



o § 

o 8 

Ft. In. 
9. Buff and grey earthy oolite, Belemnites, Cirrus nodotus, 

Modiola gibhoea • - - - - - 6 7 

8. Coarse grey and brown oolite and crystalline limestone, 

iron-shot in places. Terebraiula-hed with T. tphoeroi- 

daUe in shoals. Ithynehonella, Belemnites 2 to 2 6 
7. Grey and brown earthy and iron-stained oolite, four 

beds, with few fossils - - - - 6 3 

6. Iron-shot oolite (blue-hearted) - - - - 1 4 

5.- Coarse blue and brown iron-shot oolite, Ammonites 

Parkinsoni, Belemnites, Lima pectiniformis, T. 

sphceroidalis - - - - - -10 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlvi. p. 520 ; s«e also Wright, Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc, Tol. xii. p. 312 ; and Lias Ammonites (Pal. See), pp. 119, &c. 
f Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 30. 



Ft. In. 

4. Hard compact bluish-grey limestone, A. concavue, A. 
Murehisonce, Belemnites, Ostrea, Bhynehonella, Tere- 
Iratula -...- -14 

3. Grey aud brown sandy limestone with ferruginous 
specks, Nautilus excavatus, Belemnites, Pleurotomaria, 
Lima moc&ramoides, Trigonia, Gervillia - - 1 3 

2. Pale gi'eyish-brown sandy limestone, passing down into 
"< bed below: Ammonites, Belemnites Blainvillei, 

Ataphrus {Monodonta) Imvigatvs, Natica, Plev/roto- 
inaria, Ceromya hajociana, Ed-ogyra, Ooniomya v- 
scripta, Oresslya ahdmda, HomoTnyacrassiuscula, Lima 
pectiniformis, L. duplicata, Hinnites, Modiola gibhosa, 
M. sowerbyana, Pecten Imvi/radiatus, P. paradoxibs?, 
Thracia lata, Trigonia, Terebratula perovalis, Holec- 
typus hemisphcerieus - - - - ■•3 6 

1. Brown calcareous sand. 

Other species, collected from the iron-shot beds, are included 
in the list, p. 64. 

In the neighbourhood of Beamlnster there are several quarries, 
but the beds are much displaced by faults, and this is the case 
onwards by Crewkerne and Bradford Abbas. 

The total thickness of the Inferior Oolite near Beaminster 
is from 5 to 20 feet. The beds vary much in detail ; there appears 
to be no special TerbratulaAiedi, as near Bridport ; nor are the 
iron-shot beds so thick and prominent. The sequence from the 
upper beds of Inferior Oolite to the Sand at their base, is shown 
in the deep road-cutting betvireen Broadwindsor and Coneygore. 
Beneath the main mass of the Inferior Oolite limestone, there is 
a bed 9 feet thick, formed of very sandy compact limestone. It 
occurs in lenticular and nodular masses in sand, and constitutes 
a passage into the yellow micaceous sands, with beds of calcareous 
sandstone, that are exposed beneath to a thickness of about 40 
feet. The beds here do not exhibit themselves in a very fossiliferous 
form. Far more interesting sections are exposed at Stoke Knap ; 
indeed no better place can be found for examining the fossiliferous 
beds, sometimes developed, in the upper part of the Midford 

Stoke Knap is little more than a mile south-east of Broad- 
windsor, and the best sections of the lower beds are exposed on 
the southern slopes. Here Terebratula infra-oolitica occurs in 
profusion, accompanied by Bhynehonella cynocephala, Waldheimia 
carmata, var. Mandelslohi ;* and other fossils. I'here are also 
Brachiopods that cannot be distinguished from young forms of 
Terebratula maxillata. It is noticeable that, while these species 
occur in abundance, the details of the beds vary in different 
portions of the hill. Fossils are prevalent here and there, but all 
the layers appear unfossiliferous in places. The beds are slightly 
faulted. The occurrence of A. torulosus at this locality has been 
mentioned by Mr, Hudleston ;t and Mr. S. S. Buckman records 

* Mr. Buckman, evidently referring to the same Brachiopod, notes it as Wald- 
heimia Blakei. Quart. Journ. Geol. See, vol. xlv. p. 454. 
t Gasteropoda of Inf. Oolite, p. 89. 



A. opalinus. The bed with T. infra-oolitica, &c. is seen also 
in Crewkerne railway-cutting, and belongs to the zone of 

Upper Division. 
Zone of 


Lower Division. 

Zone of 
A. MurchisoncB. 


Ammonites opalinus. 

The following is the section at Stoke Knap : — 

Fuller's Earth. Grey clay. Fi, 

"Rubbly, pasty, and slightly oolitic lime- 
stone, ferrnginous in places. Belem- 
nites termi/nalis, Ainmoniies Parki/n- 
soni, Terebral/Uila sphceroidalis, Goll/y- 
ritei ringens, G. ovalis, Holectyput. 
<; 3 to 4 

Hard pale-grey oolitic limestone - 2 

Pale-grey and brown (iron-stained) 
sparry limeBtones, more or less 
oolitic and shelly in places: rnbbly 
in lower part - - - - 8 

"Tjon-stained shelly limestone, iron-shot 
in places : even line on top. Belem- 
nites - - - -14 to 16 

Brown and blue iron-shot oolitic lime- 
stones, sandy and compact in places, 
and very fossiliferous. Arrvmonites 
concavus, A. MurcMsonce, Belem/nites 
Blwim/villei - - - - 5 4 

Bubbly, sandy .ferruginous and iron- 
shot limestones, imperfectly oolitic. 
Pectm - - - - 4 to 5 

Rnbbly and nodular sandy limestone, 
and yellowish sand ; shelly in places. 
BeZemnites, Pholadomya, Trigonia. 

about 8 
"Irregular rubbly and sandy limestone, 
and clay or marl ; in places a mass 
of fossils. Terebratula vnfra-ooUtiea 
and Bhynchonella oynocephala 10 to 1 2 
FerraginouB clayey seam - 6 to 8 

Rubbly and sandy limestone, forming 
a prominent bed, very fossiliferous. 
Zone of J Ammonites, T. infra-oolitica, R 
A. opaUnVfS. | oynoeephala, Myacites, &c. With a 
Serpula-hed in and sometimes just 
below the bed - - - 2 to 2 

Yellow sands with indurated bands and 
nodules of bluish-grey and yellow 
[ sandy limestone ; smalled keeled 

I Ammonites, Myacites, &c. - about 3 

At the base of the zone of A. MurchisoncB there are some sandy 
limestones imperfectly oolitic in places, that have yielded A. 
MurchisoncB, A. concavus (fine var.), A. Leckenbyi, and other 
fossils. Lithologically they form a passage between that zone 
and the underlying beds. 

Before passing on to more northerly regions it will be useful 
to give a Kst of the more abundant and important fossils of the 
South Dorset district. 

The specimens collected by myself are marked (W), and they were 
identified by Messrs. Sharman and Newton, who also named a number of 
specimens collected by Dr. M. Poignand (P). Other species are given on 
the authority of Mr. Hudleston (H), and Mr. Buckman (B), as noted in the 
first column. 

The particular zone of certain species from the iron-shot beds, is left 



List of Fossils from the Inferior Oolitk Series of 
South Dorset. 





























































































Ammonites aalensis 



Brongniarti - 




fuacus - 

garantianua - 


Wrcinus (Leoksnbyi) 




Moorei (var. of A, aalensia) 

MurchitoniB - 



polymorphus - 

Sowerbyi, var. gingentis 

subinsignis - 

• subradiatus • 




Nautilus burtoneniis 


truncatus ? - 

Belemiiites Blainvillei 



Alaria hamus 


Araberleya ornata • 

Ataphrus (Monodonla) Isevigatus 

Cirrus nodosui 



Fossils from the Inferior Oolite Series of South 





























-1 1 




i - ' 
































































2 3 





2 S 









! S 





2 S 






































Eucydoidea (Purpurina) bianor 
Natica bajocen$is - 
Onnstus ornatissimus 
Pleurotomaria fasciata - 


ornata - 

Purpurina bellona 

iuflata - - - 

Spinigera recurva - 
Troohus duplicatus 



Astarte eicavata • 


Avicula iuffiquivalvis 

Cardium ... 

Ceromya b^ociana 

CncuUeea oblonga - 

Cypricardia bathonica, var. brevis 


Gervillia lata 

Gonioniya v.scripta 

Gresslya abducta - 

Gryphaea niima 

Hinnites . - - 

Homomya crassiuscula 

Lima duplicata 





Uodiola gibbosa - 

sowerbyana ■ 

Myacites decurtatus 


tenvdstriatiis - 

Osti-ea palmetta, var. montitormis 


Pecten demissiis . • - 

E 75958. 



Fossils from the Inferior Oolite Series of South 




Pecten Iseviradiatus 



textviratus ? - 


Pholadomya oblita 




media - 




Thraoia lata 


Trigoniacostata? - 



B W 





Rhynchonella concinna - 


oynocephala - ... 




plicatella ... 


spinosa .... 


Terebratula Buckmani - 




globata ..... 


var. birdlipensis 


infra-oolitica .... 


perovalis - ... 




sphseroidalis ..... 


Stephani ..... 


Waldlieimia anglica 


carinata .... 


var. Mandelslolii 


Serpula tricarinata .... 


Clypeus altus ..... 


Collyritea ovalis ..... 


ringens ..... 


Holeotypus liemisphserious 


Hyboolypus gibberulus . 


Stomeohinus bigranularis 















B I L 



Crewkerns to Stoford, near Yeovil. 

In the neighbourhood of Crewkerne there are many opportuni- 
ties of studying the Inferior OoUte, in cuttings and quarries near 
the railway-station, and in quarries at Misterton and Haselbury.* 

The beds are frequently displaced by faults, but we find the 
general stratigraphical sequence to compare well with that noted 
near Bridport and Beaminster (p. 59). Each section, however, 
presents some differences in the lithological details and in the 
assemblages of fossils ; and It is difficult to define the limits of the 
zones. The upper beds, from 1 2 to 20 feet thick, consist of pale 
shelly and oolitic limestones with Ammonites Parkinsoni, and 
among the more characteristic fossils are Echinoderms. 

The lower beds comprise brown shelly and more or less iron- 
shot limestones, resting on pale-grey sandy and hard shelly lime- 
stones, with occasional iron-shot grains. These are altogether 
little more than 5 feet thick ; but they are very fossiliferous in 
places, and yield Ammonites Murchisonm and many Lamelli- 
branchs. These beds are more variable in character and in their 
fossil contents than the overlying beds, which belong to the zone 
of A. Parkinsoni. The iron-shot beds here, as further south, 
sometimes yield fossils that would assign them to the Upper 
Division of the Inferior Oolite ; and it would appear that these 
beds, while belonging mainly to the zone of A. Murchisonce, may 
locally include representatives of the zone of A. humphriesianus 
as well' as o{ A, Parkinsoni. Long continued collecting of fossils 
from each individual bed is needful before we can state fully their 
palseontological contents : for there is undoubtedly some com- 
mingling of species, elsewhere assigned to difierent zones, in these 
attenuated portions of the Inferior Oolite. 

The Midford Sand (Yeovil Sand) comprises, in its upper 
part, sands and loamy beds that are more or less indurated ; and 
they contain Rhynchonella cynocephala, Terebratula infra-oolitica , 
T. maxillata (young forms ?), and Serpula tricarinata, as at Stoke 
Knap, near Beaminster. These fossiliferous beds are well seen in 
the top 6 feet of the formation. The higher portions of the 
Sand, for a thickness of about 90 feet, consist mainly of sands, 
with indurated bands of calcareous sandstone, and layers of 
comminuted-shell-limestone. Lower down, for nearly 100 feet, 
we find sands, that become bluish and shaly towards the base, 
where they merge into the shales of the Upper Lias. 

The railway-cutting west of Crewkerne railway-station, exposed 
a good section of these fossiliferous sandy beds (zone oi Ammonites 
opalinvs), overlaid by the limestones previously described (see 
Fig. 34), These beds are faulted obliquely across the railway, 
against the Fuller's Earth. 

The Midford Sand, with bands of sandy limestone, was 
exposed in Mr. Lye's brickyard, south-east of the brewery at 
Crewkerne, The beds were opened up to a depth of 15 feet, and 

* H. B. W., Proc. Somerset Arch, Soc, vol. xxxvii, p. 60. 

E 2 



were seen to be faulted against a mass of Fuller's Earth Clay, and 
Inferior Oolite. The clay was used for making bricks, tiles, and 

Fig. 34. 
Section in Railway- cutting west of Crewkerne Station. 

Ft. In. 

7. Pale rubbly oolitic limestones (zone of Am- 
monites Parkinsoni) 

6. Brown shelly and iron-shot oolite - 
5. Hard hrown limestone passing into compact 
grey oolitic limestone 

4. Pale sandy and shelly limestones - 

3. Brown sandy marl with Terebratula itifra- 

2. Indurated marl and sandy limestone with 
Ammonites, Belemnites, Pecten Iceviradi- 
atus, and Rhynchonella 

1 . Sands with irregular bands and nodules of 
calcareous sandstone: Pecten, Rhyncho- 
nella cynocephala, Serpula 

- 1 

1 3 


drain-pipes, the sand also was used in the brick-making, while the 
stone was burnt for lime. (See Fig. 35.) 

Fossiliferous sandy beds were seen in a road-cutting west of 
Crewkerne, and on the main road between Crewkerne and 
Haselbury. At the former locality the sands, just below the 
Oolite, are crowded with SerpulcB, a small Ostrea, and Rhyn- 
clionella cynocephala ; at the latter place we find, rather lower in 
the scries, a shelly bed with Rhynchonella, that approaches in 
character to the North Perrot and Ham Hill stones. 

By the cross-roads east of Little Silver, between Haselbury 
and East Chinnock, the following section was exposed : — 

Ft. In. 
rSandy limestone in flaggy beds, alter- 
I nating with sand. BhynchoneUq, 
Tvj-jr J o.^aJ cynocephala, Terebratula mfra-ooUtiea, 
Midford Sand<^ ^^i ji^ strigillata - - - 6 

I Brown sandy and soft shelly limestones 

1_ with small Ammonites - - 6 

The upper beds are like those at Crewkerne railway-cutting 
and Stoke Knap, while the beds below partake of the nature of 
the North Perrot stone, but are not so shelly. 

The quarry south of Misterton showed a few beds of the pale 
limestones, belonging to the zone of A. Parkinsoni ; lower down 
there wei-e brown oolitic and iron- shot limestones (2 ft. 2 in.) ; 
and, at the base, hard grey shelly and oolitic limestones, yielding 
fine sjjecimens of Ceromya concentrica, and also Gryphaa sitblobata 
— the latter recalling the Gryphite Grit of the Ootteswold Hills. 



The same Gryphma, occurs also abundantly at Haselbury : and in 
both of these Dorset localities it is associated with Ammonites 
Murchisona. It occurs in hisrher beds near Bruton. 

The fossils mentioned in the accompanying list were mostly 
collected by Mr. John Rhodes and myself, from the quarries and 
railway-cutting at Crewkerne, and from the quarries at Misterton 
and Haselbury. The beds at Maselbury have been described by 
Mr. Hudleston, and some of the species from that locality were 
recorded by him.* Some Brachiopoda collected by Mr. Darell 
Stephens, from the neighbourhood of Crewkerne, were identified 
by Davidsonf ; other Brachiopoda from Misterton, have been noted 
by Mr. J. F. Walker. J 

Fig. 35. 
Section in Brickyard, Creivkerne. 

3. Fuller's Earth Clay. 
2. Inferior Oolite. 
1. MidfordSand. 

List op Fossils from the Infeeiok Oolite Series near 










AmmoaiteB concavus 


• corrugatus 



• Murohisonaj • 




Parkinsoni - 




polymorphus • 









Belemnites bessinus 



sp. - • 







* Gasteropoda of Inf. Oolite, p. 40. 

t Proc. Donet Nat. Hist. Club, vol. i., 1877, p. 73. 

J Gcol. Mi,g. 1878, p. 552. 



Fossils fbom the Inferior Oolite Series near 
Crewkerne — cont. 








Amberleya - 




Astarte excavata 




Ceromya conoentrica 






Cucullaea cucullata 






Cypricardia elongata 



lebruniana - 






Gresslya abducta - 



Gryphsea cygnoidos 






Isocardia cordata 



Lima oardiiformis- 




Etheridgei - 















• — - strigillata 



Macrodon hirgonensis - 



Myacites semistriatus 



tenuistriatus - 




Ostrea . . . . 




Peoten demissus . 





Iffiviradiatus - 





paradoxus ? • 



Pecten wollastonensis - 



Pholadomya fldioula 











Trigonia costata ' 






Rhyuohonella eynocephala 





Terebratula Buckmani - 











Fossils from the Inferior Oolite Series near 












Terebratula infra-oolitica 











sphseroidalis - 



■Waldheimia anglica 






Serpula tricarinata 





Clypeus Agaasizi - 






OoUyrites ovalis 



Galeropygus agariciformi 




Holeotypus depressus 









The Midford Sand is exposed in many of the road- and lane- 
cuttings between Ilminster and Yeovil. From the lower beds of 
sandy marl at White Lackington, near Ilminster, Mr. S. S. 
Buckman records Ammonites jurensis, A. insignis, A, dispansus, 
and a fragment like A. striatulus, as occurring together.* 

By New Hall, west of North Perrot Church, there was a quarry 
showing about 18 feet of false-bedded shell-limestones, inter- 
bedded with bufE sands and sandy limestones, that (as previously 
mentioned) occur locally in the upper part of the Midford Sand 
in this district, and are well represented at Ham Hill. The 
shell-fragments are mostly indeterminable as to species, consisting 
of Ostrea, Pectefi, and Avicula ; but Mr. Rhodes obtained Pecten 
demissus and Belemnites Yoltzi ? 

Chiselborough Hill, according to Bristow, is capped by a thin 
irregular shelly limestone, which has been worked out in holes, 
and not systematically quarried. In the road by the knoll to the 
south-west of Chiselborough, we find a section of micaceous and 
loamy sands, with spherical concretions of calcareous sandstone, 
and these become shaly towards the junction with the Upper Lias 
clays below. A similar section was exposed in the deep lane 
leading from Montacute Priory towards Ham Hill. 

The celebrated building-stone of Ham (or Hamdon) Hill has 
long been recognized as a member of the Inferior Oolite, although 
opinions have differed on the question of its precise position in 

" Inf. Ool. Ammonites, p. 165 ; and Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlv. p. 450. 


the series. On the Geological Survey May it has been coloured 
the same as the Inferior Oolite limeston'e, but Bristow who 
surveyed the area has expressed the opinion that the Ham Hill 
Stone is the equivalent of the upper portion of the sands near 
Yeovil, which contain occasional thin and interrupted beds ot 
limestone.* This view of the case was originally pointed out by 
Prof. Buckman,t and is confirmed by an examination of the areas. 
Thus layers of shelly limestone like Ham Hill Stone, appear 
in tlie upper part of the sands in the railway-cuttings near 
Yeovil junction, and in some of the deep road-cuttings or " hollow 
ways " of Babylon Hill. These shelly limestones may be traced 
in places also to the south and south-west of Yeovil, as at North 
Parrot, east of Crewkerne : and they evidently belong to the zone 
of Ammonites opalinus. 

The fossils obtained at Ham Hill itself, are as a rule so 
fragmentary that precise identification is impossible, but while 
on a visit to the quarries in 1885, in company with Mr. F. 5. 
Bennett, I was fortunate in finding examples of Rhynchonella 
cynocephala ; ',& discovery subsequently confirmed by the Rev. 
H. H. Winwood.J I have since learnt that the species was 
recorded, though with some doubt, by Prof. Buckman.§ 

The following is a section of one of the principal quarries at 
Ham Hill (belonging to Messrs. Charles Traak and Sons) : — 

Ft. In. 
' Sand and thin soft stone. 
Sand witli thicker beds of stone : 

Main mass of freestone, indis- 
tinctly jointed, and false-bedded. 
Good stone obtained 7 or 8 feet 
down, and thence to bottom, in 
the following sequence : — 

Yellow Beds (chief part) -1 qe n 

Coarse Bed - ./ ^^ u 

Grey Beds (most durable) 

about 8 
Stone beds (networked) 6 or 7 
' Sands with nodular beds of 
Yellow Sands, &c. : J calcareous sandstone ; seen 

about 80 feet. \ - ^^J^ ffil!. ""("yeUow 

L Brim Sandsr" of Moore.) 

[For further particulars of the stone, see under " Boonomio Products," 
p. 475.] 

The Grey Beds rise towards the surface at the noi thern end of 
the Camp, to the south-east of the Inn. 

A quarry on the south-eastern side of Hara Hill, on the 
Odcombe road (north side), showed thin flaggy and sandy beds, 

* Damon's Geol. Weymouth, 1884, pp. 219 and 225. 

t Proo. Somerset Arch. Soc, vol. xx. p. 162 ; Quart. Journ. G»ol. Soc, vol. xxxiii, 
p. 3 ; vol. XXXV. pp. 737, 740. 

% H. B. W., Proc. Bath Nat. Hist. Club, vol. vi. pp. 182, 224, 
§ Quart. Journ. Gaol. Soc, vol. xxxv. p. 743, 




' Ochre Beds " ; 40 feet 

Ham Hill Stone : false- 
bedded shelly and 
sandy limestones of . 
various shades of 
brown and yellow ; 
50 feet. 


resting on about 12 feet of false-bedded shell-limestones. It was here 
that I obtained Rhynchonellu cynocephala somewhat abundantly.* 
Mr. Rhodes subsequently obtained specimens of Ammonites, 
Selemnites, Avicula, Lima, Ostrea, Pecten, and Terebratuln, in a 
more or less fragmentary condition. Sands with thick bands and 
nodular masses of sandy limestone were seen in the lane-cutting 

On the south side of the road another quarry showed sands 
with bands of shelly limestone. The building-stone evidently 
becomes poorer in this direction, the sand containing shelly 
layers only at irregular intervals. 

West of Stoford the Inferior Oolite is very thin ; and this 
perhaps accounts for the fact that the Fuller's Earth is shown on 
the Geological Survey Map to rest directly on the Sand, south- 
west of Barwick (Berwick). A quarry north-east of North 
Coker, near East Coker, showed about 3 feet of thin flaggy lime- 
stone, there dug for road-metal. The two outliers (marked on 
the Map) are not in reality separated, and they appear to be 
overlaid by clay (Fuller's Earth) to the south-east. Here how- 
ever the low ground is in part Alluvial and no sections are to be 
seen. The fossils from the Inferior Oolite of East Ooker, indicate 
the zone of Ammonites Murchisonce.^ Westwards, the Forest 
Marble and Fuller's Earth are probably faulted against the 
Midford Sand. No doubt a re-examination of the ground 
will show that the abnormal relations represented on the Survey 
Map, between the Fuller's Earth arid Inferior Oolite in other places, 
near the lOhinnocks and Merriot, are due to faults, although 
perhaps owing to the attenuation of the Inferior Oi)lite limestone, 
this rock has not in all cases been observed where present. 

The thinness of the Inferior Oolite is well sliown in a quarry 
south-west of ifeovil Junction, and north of Stoford, where the 
beds from the base of the Fuller's Earth down to the Sand, are 
reduced to about 7. feet. The beds shown were as follows : — 

Fuller's Earth 

Inferior Oolite < 

Ft. In. 
' Grey clay with a thin band of soft 
earthy limestone. Belemniiea hes- 
sinus, and Pholadomya Seraulti - 2 4 
3. Hard bluish-grey earthy limestones, 

and irregular sandy marl - - 2 3 

2. Bluish-grey iron-shot limestone, 
with Flewrotomaria mutahilis, 
Trochus d/wplicatus and Lima inoce- 
ramoides • - - - 3 3 

1. Hard blue-hearted limestone (Dew 

Bed) - - - - 1 3 

Midford Sand. Sands, &c. 

A number of fossils were collected by Mr. John Rhodes, and 
these indicate the presence of the zones of A. MurcliisoncB and 

* See also S. S. Buckman, Inf. Col. Ammonites, p. 52 ; Quart. .lourn. Geol. See. > 
Tol. xxxvii. p. 588 ; and vol. xly. p. 449. Mr. Bucljmaii speaks of tlie Rhynchonella ; 
as R. cynocephala or ( ?) R. Benechei. 

t See Hiidleston, Gasteropoda of the Inf. Ool., p. 40. 



A. Parkinsoni. The fossils 
Oolite unfortunately were 
species may be recorded, as 

Ammonites concavus. 






Homomya ? 

Lima pectiniformis. 

Myaoites jurassi. 


from the diflferent layers of Inferior 
not separated : but nevertheless the 
follows : — 

Khynclionella obsoleta. 



Terebratula Bnckmani. 



Montlivaltia ? 
T]iam.nastrsBa ? 

Attention has been directed to this quarry by Mr. Hudleston, who 
obtained Cirrus gradatus from bed No. 2, which he groups with the sub- 
zone of A. Sowerhyi. 

Of much interest also is the shelly bed that occurs in the 
sands about 30 feet beneath the Dew Bed, From this layer, 
which was quarried for road-metal, Mr. Hudleston obtained 
Ammonites Moorei, A. radians, and Trigonia angulata* From 
the same bed and the associated sands Mr^ J. Rhodes obtained 
the following additional species : — 

Belemnites Voltzi ? 
Astarte depressa. 
Lima strigillata. 
Pecten demissus. 



Plicatula tuberculosa. 
Tancredia angulata. 


Trigonia formosa. 

It is noteworthy that in the list published by Mr. Hudleston, Trigonia 
angulata is recorded; in that of Mr. Buckman, T. literata is the one 
Trigonia mentioned ; and in the above list, a third species only is noted ! 
Truly the identification of species is fraught with difficulty. 

Yeovil to Milborne Port. 

At Yeovil Junction, by the London and South-Western 
Railway Station, in the cutting of the Great Western Railway, 
and also in the loop-line to the east, the Sand contains here and 
there beds of hard shelly limestone, composed chiefly of com- 
minuted shells, in addition to the ordinary bands and scattered 
nodules of sandy limestone or calcareous sandstone. 

These shelly limestones may also be seen in the road- cutting 
by Key, near Red House Inn, south of Yeovil ; m the lane east 
of Barwick House ; and in that to the west of Babylon Hill, a 
lane which connects the Yeovil and Sherborne Road with that 
leading from Yeovil to Bradford Abbas. Attention was called 
to these shelly layers by Prof. Buckman. f 

The chief interest attaching to these limestones, of which 3 or 4 
bands may sometimes be found, is that they indicate the change 

* Proo. Geol. Assoc, vol. ix. p. 190 ; Gasteropoda of Inf. Oolite, Pal. Soc, p. 42 ; 
see also S. S. Buckman, Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc., vol. xlv. p. 450 ; xlix. p. 484. 

f Quart. JourD. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxiii. p. 6 ; vol. xxxv. p. 742. See also S. S. 
Buckman, Ibid., vol. xxxvii. p. 588. 


which further on at Ham Hill is marked by the celebrated 
building-stones of that locality. The stone there is for the most 
part a shelly limestone, and the palseontological as well as the 
stratlgraphical evidence, agree in grouping it as the upper part of 
the Midford Sand, at the base of the Inferior Oolite. 

Symptoms of false-bedding are shown here and there in the 
irregular disposition of the hard bands, for these occasionally 
meet and enclose wedge-shaped masses of sand. 

In the deep road-cuttings on Babylon Hill a thickness of 40 
feet or more of these beds was exposed. From one of the shelly 
bands Mr. J. Rhodes and myself ohtained Ammonites striatulus? 
Cucullcea, Pecten Iceviradiatus, Ostrea, Trigonia, and Rhynchonella., 

The lower j)ortions of the Sand exhibit bluish tinges and 
become shaly as they merge downwards into the Upper Lias 
shales. These features are exhibited in the lane leading from 
Yeovil Junction to Yeovil-town Station, and in some of the 
railway-cuttings near Yeovil, as observed also by Mr. S. S. 
Buckman. He records Ammonites Moorei from the hard bands 
throughout the Sand ; A. jurensis also occurs. He would assign 
a thickness of about 30 feet to the zone of A. opalinus* 

The total thickness of the Midford Sand in this region may be 
estimated at from 180 to 200 feet. 

The Inferior Oolite of the neighbourhood of Sherborne is of 
especial interest on account of the rich fossil-beds that occur in it. 

The confusion that for a long time existed with regard to the 
correlation of its divisions, has been cleared up by the labours of 
Mr. S. S. Buckman, followed by those of Mr. Hudleston. They 
have shown the desirability of collecting from each individual bed 
of the Inferior Oolite ; for in the earlier works of Dr. Wright 
considerable confusion was introduced, both in this neighbourhood 
and in that of Bridport (as previously mentioned, p. 57), by the 
correlation of the Gloucestershire Cephalopoda-Bed with portions 
of the Dorsetshire Inferior Oolite, that belong to higher stages in 
the series. Even Pi-of Buckman, for long a resident at Bradford 
Abbas, at one time spoke of the Ammonites of the zones of 
A. Parkinsoni, A. humphriesianus, A. MurchisoncB, and A. jurensis, 
as being " inextricably mixed in about three feet of rock " in his 
own quarry.f Such a view might be taken from the collection 
made at Stoford (p. 74). Attention however to the fossils of each 
layer reveals evidence of the general succession of the leading 
forms ; and Prof. Buckman himself, later on, recognized the fact 
that different species of Ammonites locally prevail in different 
quarries around Sherborne.J His son Mr. S. S. Buckman 
subsequently pointed out that the "fossil-beds" in the several 
quarries occur on different geological horizons,§ although un- 
fortunately their fossiliferous development is local, and all the 

* Inf. Oolite Ammonites, p. 6 ; Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxvii. p. 588. 
t Proe. Somerset Arch. Soc, vol. xx. p. 140. 
J Quart. Journ. Geol. Soe., vol. xxxiii. p. 8. 

§ Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxvii. pp. 588, &c. ; see alsoHudleslon, Inf. Ool. 
Gasteropoda, p. 28. 



zones cannot at any one spot be studied in sequence. The 
distribution of the local zones may be stated as follows : — 


A. Farhinsoni 

A. humphriesianus 

A. Somzei - 

A. concavus or A. Sowerhyi 

A. MurcMsoncB 

- 15 to 45 Bradford Abbas, Sherborne. 

' 1- 1 to 6 -T ^^°^^^' Milborne Week, 
J 1 Oborne. 

3 or 4 Bradford Abbas. 

1 to 6 Bradford Abbas, Sherborne. 

In a recent paper describing the Inferior Oolite of the Sherborne 
district, Mr. Buckman introduces a term hemera as a chronological sub- 
division of an "age," and considers the beds dealt with to have been 
deposited during 12 hemerse, which he names, in descending order, after 
fusovmi, zigzag, Truellei, Garantianwm, niortense, Hwmphriesianum, Sauzei, 
Witcliellia, discites, concavwm, hradfordense, and MurchisoncB.* 

These "hemerse" maybe regarded as the horizons at which he has 
obtained examples of the several species (or mutations) of Ammonites, 
enumerated. The subject is of great biological interest, but is only in- 
telligible to a specialist. 

A quarry at East HiU, north of Bradford Abbas, formerly 
known as Prof. Buckman's quarry, has exposed the following 
beds : — 

Zone of Ammowites Parlemsoni -s 

Zone of A. hvmphriesianus 


Zone of 
A. Mwrchisonm 

" Goncavus- 



" Soiverhyi- 


" MurchisoncB- 

' 6. Pale earthy oolitic lime- 
stones, with A. P(w- 
hinsoni, a few Gras- 
teropods, and Phold- 
Marly and rubbly lime- 
stone with TerAratula 
Morierei (rare), Wald- 
heimia carinata, and 
Rhynchonella parvula 
3 to 

" 4. Ferruginous earthy 
limestone (Eotten bed) 
with Ammonites hum- 
phriesicmus (small), 
Astarte excavata, A. 
obUqua, Terebratula 
PhilKpsi, and T. 
sphceroidalis - 
Blue earthy and iron- 
shot oolitic limestone, 
much iron-stained in 
places. Chief Fossil 
Bed : with Ammonites 
concavus abundant, A. 
loBviuscidus, Asta/rte 
elegans, A. exvtvata, 
var. depressiusculus, 
Trigonia striata, Tere- 
hratula maxillata 

'2. Paviour *or Paving 
stone-bed, oolitic and 
iron-shot limestone, 
with A. Mwrchisonm, 
A. hradfordensis , and 
Corals - 4 to 

Ft. Is. 


Quart. .Tourn. Geol. Soc, vol. xlix. p. 482. 


/ I 

Zone of A. opalintis 


Ft. In. 
, Dew bed ; hard sandy 
limestone used for 
road-metal. Ammo- 
nites Moorei 1 to 2 
bellow sands with in- 
durated bands: not 
exposed in quarry. 
This famous section has been described by many geologists, and, as 
might be expected, with somewhat varying lithologioal and palseonto- 
logical details. It will be suflBcient to refer to the records of Dr. "Wright,* 
Prof. Buckman.t Mr. S. S. Buckman.J Mr. Hudleston,§ and Mr. K. F. In noting the fogsils of particular beds, I include species men- 
tioned by Mr. S. S. Buckman, Mr. Hudleston, and Mr. Tomes. The 
occurrence of A. Moorei in the Dew Bed, led Mr. Buckman to consider 
that his " OpaZmMS-bed " was absent : but this view can only be main- 
tained, by inferring a fixity in the horizons of tho particular species of 
Ammonites found in the Zone of Ammonites opalinus (see p. 41). It may 
be questioned whether the Dew Bed (so named by the quarrymen) is on 
the same palaaontological horizon in the difj'erent quarries. 

The chief fossil-bed of Bradford Abbas, spoken of as tlie 
" Concavus-hQdL" or " Sowerbyi -zone," is mentioned by Mr. 
Hudleston, as the "most important bed for Gasteropoda dis- 
covered in the English Oolites." Fine examples of Alaria, 
Cerithium, Purpurina, Spinigera, &c. have been obtained from it. 

Thezone of J. humphriesianus appears lo be but feebly repre- 
sented ; while the higher beds, belonging to the zone of A. Parkin- 
soni, are not very fossiliferous at this locality. They have however 
yielded one Brachiopod of considerable interest — Terehratula 
Morierei, which was discovered in 1878, for the first time in this 
country, by Mr. J. F Walker.1[ The species has since been found 
at one or two other localities, although somewhat sparingly. 

Fig. 36. 

Railway-cutting at Bradford Abbas, near Sherborne, Dorsetshire. 
West. \ East. 

^ '- 

The same beds have been well exposed in the railway-cutting 
at Bradford Abbaf. There two faults displace the strata : a mass 

* Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xvi. p. 36. 

f Ibid., vol. xxxiii. p. 7. 

X Ibid., vol. xxxvii. p. 591, xlix. p. 485 ; Inf. Ool. Ammonites, pp. 5, &c. 

§ Gasteropoda of laf. Ool., pp. 43, &c. ; Proc, Geol. Assoc, vol, ix. p. 187. 

II Geoi. Mag., 1886, p. 389. 

f Ibid., 1878, p. 552. 



of Inferior Oolite and underlying Midford Sand, being faulted on 
the west against the Fuller's Earth, and on the east against 
Inferior Oolite and Sand, with a lesser downthrow.* Many 
fossils are to be obtained in this cutting, and a list is given (p. 81). 

Ft. In. 
7. Clays with band of shaly limestone : Waldheimia (crushed) i. gi_f^ 

6. Pale-grey oolitic limestones : Ammonites Parkinsoni, Iso- 

cardia minima, Terebratula sphtBroidalis - 6 

5. Rubbly layer : with Sponges - .-03 

4. Pale grey limestones (iron-shot in places), with marly 

partings : Belemniies, Ostrea, &c. - - - 1 3 

3, Brown and bluish iron-shot oolite : Ammonites concavus, 

A, Sowerbyi, Belemnites, Astarte, Trigonia, &c. 3 

Bluish iron-shot limestones ; Ostrea, Pecten, Corals - 4 

2. Hard blue-hearted sandy limestone, " Dew Bed " - 8 1 ivj-^f j 

1. Sands, with concretionary masses of calcareous sandstone [ Sand. 

F. Faults. 

The lower portion of bed (3) resembles the blnish iron-shot oolite of Loders. 

At Halfway House, between Yeovil and Sherborne, the Inferior 
Oolite has been well exposed in several quarries. The section in 
1884 was as follows : — 

Ft. In, 
Bubble and red friable loamy soil - 1 
fThin rubbly pale-grey and creamy 
y f oolitic limestones and marl (burnt for 

. • ., J lime). Ammonites Fa/rhinsoni, &c. - 6 

Ammomtes^ <; p^^j^ ^^^^ ^^^ hToym earthy oolitic 
rarlnnsom. limestones with marly divisions : 

shell;^ in places and false-bedded 9 

Marl with Astarte dbliqna. 
CPale grey, brown, and blue oolitic and 
„ „ I iron-shot limestones : shelly in the 

A 7^°''t° < upper part - - - - 5 6 

A.MmcMsonce.^^^^^^^ bluisb-grey shelly limestone 

L (Dew-bed) - - - - 1 9 

Sands, &c. 

Here there is no marked lithological distinction in the beds 
which are separated only by marly partings. Large specimens of 
the Ammonites " Dorsefensis " of Dr. Wright {= A. Parkinsoni), 
together with Nautilus lineatus, occur in the upper beds, and like 
the specimens obtained near Bridport, have been cut and polished 
for sale. The lower beds yield Ammonites concavus, &c. 

Sections at Halfway House have been described by Dr. Wrightjt 
Dr. H. B. Holl,t Mr. Hudleston,§ and Mr. Buokman.|| 

To the east of the Halfway House the iron-shot limestones are 
shown to a thickness of 6 feet, resting on brown sandy and 
shelly limestones, about 2 feet thick. The lower portions of the 
iron-shot beds contain Ammonites concavus, A. Murchisona, Nau- 

* A diagram of this cutting was given by Prof. Buckman, Bath and W. Eiig. 
Agric. Joum., vol. xiv. p. 49. See also notes on Wyke Quairy, by S. S. Buckman, 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxvii. p. 590. 

t Quart. Journ. Geol. S^c, vol. xvi. p. 34. 

J Ibid., vol. xix. p. 307. 

§ Inf. Ool. Gasteropoda, p. 46. 

II Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlix. p. 486. 


tilus, Belemnites, Pleurotomaria, Lima Etheridgei, &o. Tn the 
central portions there occur A. humphriesianus, Astarte excmata, 
A. obliqua, GerviUia, Ceromya bajociana, k,c. ; and in the upper 
portions small examples of A. Parkinsord, Terebratula' Fhillipsi, 
and T. sphceroidalis. 

^ There is no lithological distinction whereby the zones can be 
distinctly separated ; but evidently the base of the zone of A. 
Parkinsoni is incorporated in the upper part of the ironshot-beds, 
as we find to be the case in places near Bridport. The section 
above noted is probably the one called " Louse Hill " quarry by 
Mr. Hndleston.* h j' j 

The opening known as Frogden quarry, at Oborne near Sher- 
borne, showed the following section : — 

Ft. In. 
Zone of r Pale-grey and brown limestones and 
Ammonites A marls with Bhynchonella spimosa, 
Parhinsoni. L Terebratula sphceroiokdis - - 8 6 

"Iron-shot oolites : Beds with Ammonites 
Martinsi, A. gwramtianus, A. nior- 
tensis, A. oadomensis (" Oadomensis- 
Zone of bed "), Asta/rte, T. sphceroidalis - 2 

A. Tiymvphries- < Beds with A. humphriesianus, A. Blag- 

ia/rms. deni, Lima peetiniformis, &c. - - 3 

Bed of pale lim^estone with green 
grains; with A. Scmzei, Plewroto- 
maria, &c. - - - - 6 

Zone of /Hard bluish-grey shelly limestones and 
A. MurchisonoeX marls - - - - - 2 

Midford Sand. Yellow calcareous sandstone. 

The zonal grouping is based on that of Mr. Hudleston.f Here 
again we see the close connection between the zones of A. hum- 
phriesianus and A. Parkinsoni, the top iron-shot bed containing 
species that link them together. Ammonites Sauzei, as observed 
by Mr. Hudleston, is so rare that the term " Sauzei-hedi " is a 
misnomer : the layer has mixed relations with the beds above and 
below. Nowhere else in this country, excepting at Dundry, has 
any distinctive development of this stage been recognized. 

Passing on to the neighbourhood of Milborne Week (or 
Wyke), there is a road-side section, rather less than 2 miles 
lsr.N.E. of Frogden quarry, Oborne, to which attention has been 
directed by Mr. Hudleston. The lower beds comprise 3 feet of 
sandy limestones ; and above them there occur 18 inches of soft 
white limestone, containing Ammonites humphriesianus and A. 
Braikenridgei in the lower part, and Terebratula spharoidalis in 
the upper part.J 

* Gasteropoda of Inf. Oolite, p. 46 ; and Buekman, Quart. Journ. Geol. See, 
vol. xlix. p. 488. 

f Inf. Ool. Gasteropoda, p. 47. See also S. S. Buckman, Inf. Ool. Ammonites, 
pp. 8, 10, and Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxvii. p. 589, vol. xlix. p. 500. 

X Inf. Ool. Gasteropoda, p. 50 ; see also S. S. Buckman, Kep. Brit. Assoc, for 
1891 (1892), p. fi55. 


A somewhat similar series of beds, including higher strata 
together about 15 feet thick, were exposed in the road-cutting on 
the north side of Barrow Hill, between Milborne Week and the 
railway-station at Milborne Port. At the base there were beds 
of sandy limestone, and bluish-grey shelly limestone, overlaid by 
pale grey limestone and marl, and rubbly oolite. The pale lime- 
stone is probably tiie same as that above mentioned by Mr. 
Hudleston. Here small specimens of A. humphriesianus occur 
together with A. Parkinsoni ; while A. Blagdeni and A. Martinsi 
may also be found. In the rubbly oolites, Pholadomya Heraulti, 
and P. oblita are abundant ; and Rhynchonella spinosa, Terebra- 
tula spharoidalis, some Corals, and other fossils were also oTatained. 
(See list, p. 81.) 

These sections are of interest in showing that the iron-shot beds 
of Sherborne and Oborne are represented to the north-east by 
strata of different lithological character. 

In a quarry on Gorton Down, between 3 and 4 miles north 
of Sherborne, the lower division of the Inferior Oolite with A. 
MwcldsoTKB, has been observed. § 

It is difficult to state the thickness of the Inferior Oolite near 
Sherborne, the quarries show but portions of the formation, and 
the beds are so variable in character : but I doubt the validity of 
adding together all the " hemerse " recognized by Mr. Buckman 
(see p. 76.), and therel)y making a total thickness (nowhere 
present) of 130 feet of strata. 

Passing from west to east, the beds generally increase in thick- 
ness ; and at Castleton, Sherborne, a boring, recorded by J. C. 
Gapper in 1875, enables us to give the following approximate 
thicknesses of the strata : — 



Inferior Oolite - - - 

- about 45 

Midford Sand - - - 

„ 135 

Upper Lias clay and basement-beds 


Middle Lias P - 



207 6 

Dr. Wright mentions that at the Halfway House tbe Sands were bored 
to a depth of 140 feet before reaching the Upper Lias clay.f 

In the following list of the principal fossils from the Inferior Oolite 
Series of the neighbourhood of Sherborne, the species marked (R) were 
collected by Mr. John Rhodes, and those marked (W) by myself : the 
fossils were identified by Messrs. Sharman and Newton. Other species 
marked (H) and (B) are given on the authority of Mr. Hudleston and 
Mr. S. S. Buckman. 

* Hudleston, Inf. Col. Gasteropoda, p. 50 ; Buckman, Inf. Ool. Ammonites, p. 9. 
t Quart. Journ. Geol. See, vol. xvl. p. 34. 



List op Fossils from the Inj;'erior Oolite Series near 
Sherborne, Dorset. 








2 3 


"> s 







MegalosauTus Bucklandi - 




Strophodus • 



Ammonites Blagdeni 

• 3 



Braikenridgei . . - 

Brongniarti - 





cadomensis - 









— - dimorphns 








. 4 




















subturcatus - 



Parkinsoni - 

polymorphuB - 





Sauzei . - - - 




Nautilus lineatus - 






Belemnites bessinua 












Cerithium comma - 




Natica bajocensis 




Pleurotomaria agatha 



bessina - 








Pseudomelania scarburRensis - 



Turbo . . . . 






Avionla . . - - 
E 75928. 





Fossils from the Inferior Oolite Series near 
Sherborne — cont. 













Astarie elegans 
















Ceromya bajociana 






Cyprioardia cordiformis ? 



. Gervillia lAta 



Gresslya abducta 





Lima Etheridgei - 



pectiniformig - 








Modiola sowerbyana 



Myacites jurassi 








Opis cordiformis 




1 1 



Pecten demissus 






Phcladoroya Herauiti 









Thraoia lata 







Ehynohonella obsoleta 



panacanthina - 









11 W 


subangulata - 









Terebratula Buokmani . 






maxillata - . 













simplOT " " 




Fossils from the Inferiob Oolite Series .near 
Sherborne — cont. 







= 1 

to 5 










Terebratula sphteroidalis - 








■Waldheimia anglica 






Serpula . . . - 



Collyrites . . . - 




Holectypua hemisphserious 







Thamnastraja ? . 


Milborne Pgrt to Doultiag, Glastonbury, Brent Knoll, and the 


North of Milborne Port and Sherborne, the Inferior Oolite 
forms a comparatively broad tract, being repeated to some extent 
by a fault which raises the beds at Orackment and Pointirigton 
Hills. The comparatively flat dip-slope, near Charleton Hore- 
thorne, forms an arable tract, sheltered by the higher escarpment 
of the Forest Marble. 

The general strike of the beds is now diverted from N.E. to N,, 
and we find some changes in the beds. Tlie lower fossiliferous 
zones are not known in the rich form exhibited near Sherborne 
and Bradford Abbas ; while the higher zone of Ammonites Par- 
kinsoni is more prominent, and contains Rhynchonella spinosa in 
great abundance, together with Trigonia, Trichites, Clypetis 
alius, and other fossils. The llthology of the beds affords no 
guidance to special horizons. We find iron-shot beds at all stages. 
The Midford Sand is shown here and there in deep lane-cut- 
tings," as between Woolston and Woolston Farm, and north of 
Blackford. The lower beds contain bluish shaly beds, as near 
Yeovil. East of WoOlston Farm there are quarries showing the 
following beds :— 

'Rubbly limestones, more or lees fer- 
ruginous, Ammonites Pa/rhinsoni, 
RJiynehonella spinosa (abundant), 
Terebratula iBuelcmani, T. gldbata, T. 
Phillipsi, T. sphosroidalis, Wald- 
heimda earinata, &e. - - - 

Ferruginous limestone with Ol/ypeus^ 

altus. Brachiopoda very abundant - 
Shelly limestones. B. spinosa (abun- > 
dant in top bed), Belemmites, Trichites, | 
Oaleropygus aga/rioiform/is • -J 


Inferior Oolite : 

Upper Division. 

Zone of 




6 6 


Ft. In, 
iDferior Oolite : I" Iron-sliot oolitic limestones, very shelly, -i 

Lower I Lima gMosa, L. peciiniformis, Tri- I g g 
Division? L cliites ■ - - [ 

MidfordSand. (^^^^yl™^^*°^„^, „, " ' ■■■ 

■ 1. Dark micaoeous sand. 

There is no very marked lithological distinction in the beds r 
portions of the lower division of the Inferior Oolite are no doubt 
included, but the mass of tlie beds with. Rhynclionella spinosa 
probably belongs to the zone of A. Parhinsoni : although R. spinosa 
and Galeropygus agariciforniis occur in the zone of A. hum- 

Sections at Cattle Hill, and near Sholwell Farm, north-east of 
Yarlington, show beds very similar to those of Woolston. We 
find iron-shot oolite on the top, with Odrals ; lower down, brown 
shelly oolite with A. Parhinsoni, lAma peciiniformis, Trigonia, 
Rhynclionella spinosa, and other Brachiopods, Clypeus, &c. ; ana at 
the base of the quarry, other beds of brown jron-shot limestone. 
The shelly beds here belong to the .^one.of A- Parhinsoni, and are 
noted as " Trigonia-gr\is " by Mr. Hudleston.* 

There are two quarries to the east of Grove, near Castle Gary, 
and these exhibit the same set of bed:?. Rhynchonella spinosa 
occurs in shoals in the upper beds, and is also found in the lowest 
bed seen in the Grove quarry, which is opened to a depth of 
18 feet. Other Brachiopods, together with Trigonia, Clypeus, 
and Corals are likewise found. In the adjoining lime-kiln quarry 
we find about 10 feet of oolitic and iron-shot limestones with 
Ammonites Parhinsoni, Clypeus Agassizi, &c., resting on about 
10 feet of limestones with shelly layers, yielding Trigonia; and 
brown sandy and iron-shot limestones. Mr. Hudleston notes that 
Cryptaulax (Cerithium) contorta and Cerithium suh- scalar if or me 
are plentiful in beds belonging to the zone of A. Parhinsoni.f 
The lowest beds are probably not far removed from the Midford 
(or Yeovil) Sand, but they do not exhibit themselves in a suffi- 
ciently fossiliferous form to indicate their particular zone. 

The bottom bed noticed by Mr. Hudleston is a calciferous grit 
with ''keeled Ammonites," and above it he records the presence 
of a paie stone with Rhynchonella spinosa and a small Stephano- 
ceras (the sub-genus to which Am, humphriesianus belongs). This 
bed recalls that of Milborne Week (see p. 80). 

In a road-cutting (Pitcomb Road) south of Cole Station, we 
find a section of the Midford (or Yeovil) Sand, consisting of 
sands indurated in places, and with Rhynchonella ; overlaid by 
shelly and sandy limestones (2 ft. 8 in.) ; and by brown and grey 
iron-shot limestones (about 4 feet). These beds are not distinctly 
separated, for they merge in places one into the other. They 
afford evidence however of the zones of A. Murchisonce and A. 
humphriesianus : the following fossils having been obtained| : — 

" Inf. Ool. Gasteropoda, p. 51. 

t Ibid., pp. 51, 52. 

j See also Hudleston, Ibid., p. 53. 



Ammonites Blagdeni. 



Amberleya ornata. 

Ceritliiuui vetustum. 

Turbo Shaleri. 

Astarte elegaiis. 



Bhynchonella angulata P 


Again, along the road from Cole to Bruion there are three 
quarries, showing iii succession the following strata : — 


CO a 

Zone of 

I. L 

Ft. In. 

Zone of 

A. hum- 


Lower Division P - < 

Pale false-bedded oolite - 

Brown and ironrshot.limegtones ^-10 
with Rhynchonella spinosa - J 

Brown iron-sbot lime'stone with 
Ammonites humphriesiambs. 
Nautilus, R. spinosa, Phola- 
domya (large) - - ' - 1 10 

Hard bluisb-grey -limestones, 

iron-shot in places towards top. 

Peeten abundant, Trigonia 

I allied to aignata, Ghemnitzia, 

[_ Nautilus - - - 6 

Dr. H. B. Holl noted from the upper beds at this locality 
(Sunny Hill) Ammonites Parhinsoni, Terebratula Phillipsi, T. 
sphcEroidalis, Grypliaa suhlobata, Holectypus hemisph<Bricus, &c.* 
The Inferior Oolite has also been well exposed in the railway- 
cutting west of Bruton station. The species noted by Dr. Holl 
are given in the accompanying list; together' with those collected 
by myself, and named by Messrs. Sharman and Newton. The 
species of Gasteropoda have been recorded by Mr. Hudleston. 

List oj-' Fossils from the Inferior Oolite Series near 
Castle Cary and Bruton. 















o o 

O 3 

O cs 
















Ammonites Blagdeni 



concavTia - 






— — Parkinsoni 











Belemnites bessinus - 



Alaria - 



Amberleya ornata 



Cerithium sub-soalaritorme 



Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, yol. xix. p. 308. 



List of Fossils from the Inferior Oolite Series near 
Oastle Gary and Bruton — cont. 




Cerithium vetusfcum 
Cryptaulax coiitorta 
Pleurotomaria - 
Turbo Shaleri - 
Astarte elegans 

Gryphsea sublobata 
Lima gibbosa 


3Iodiola sowerbyana 
Ostrea . 

Fecten subapinosus 
Triohites ' 
Trigonia - 
Rhynohonella obsoleta 


Terebratula Buckuaani 


maxillata • 




■Waldheimia cavinata 
Oypeus Agassizi 

• altus 

Galeropygus ogariciJormis 
Holectypus hemisphserious 










In the district nortli of Bruton, the quarries in the Inferior 
Oolite exhibit two lithological divisions as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
Pale very oolitic limestone 
Sandy aud shelly limestone, composed largely 
of comminuted shells, occasionally sparry 
and approaching Doulting Stone in character 

5 to 8 

- Vi or more. 



Beds presenting these characters were exposed at Hedgestock 
Quarry, E.N.E. of Creech Hill; and in a quarry, further soutli, 
en the road to Bruton. Fossils are exceedingly scarce : an occa- 
sional Terebratula, Trigonia or Coral being the only specimens 

On Creech Hill the beds are somewhat different in character 
and more fossiliferous. The following section was exposed in tlie 
quarries and cuttings : — 

Fi. In. 



Upper Division. 

Zone of 



"Reddisli-brown brashy soil. 

Pale oolite rnucli broken up and 
lime - washed. Rhynchonella 
spinosa, Lima, Ostrea-, and 
Cerithium - 4 6 to 

Massive beds of yellow and 
oclireous oolite and hard grey 
oolitic limestone, false-bedded 
in places. Ammonites Parhin- 
soni?, Belemnites 

Very shelly limestone. Nautilun,' 
Lima pectiniformis 

Brown and yellow iron-shot and 
marly limestone. Belemnites, 
Modiola, Ostrea (abundant), 
Corals - . - - 

Lower Division p /Cream-coloured compact Bhellyl 
ijuTTCi jjxuBJvju -|^ ^^^ marly jron-shot oolites -J 

> 3 

Midford Sand. 

/ Sands with indurated bands (no 
"1 fossils seen). 

Rhynchonella spinosa is here found in almost the lowest bed of 
the Inferior Oolite : but as it occurs in the zone of A. hum.' 
phriesianus it is quite possible that that zone may be represented 
in the Upper Division, as well as the zone of A. Parkinsoni, 

De la Beche has estimated the thickness of the Inferior Oolite 
to be 55 feet, and of the underlying Sands, 66 feet, at Scale Hill, 
Bruton.* Our information concerning the lower beds of the 
Inferior Oolite in this region is very scanty. From the Sands at 
Cranmore Mr. Hudleston obtained a specimen of Ammonites 

The Doulting Stone, which for many centuries has been worked 
north of Doulting village, and eastwards towards West Cran- 
more, is considered a very durable stone. The beds seen are 
exceedingly variable, being false-bedded on a large scale and 
minutely current-bedded : and it is ditBcult to correlate the layers 
seen in different quarries. 

The general sequence of beds was sho svn in the railway-cutting 
where the section was noted in 1868 by Messrs. W. A, E. 
Ussher, J. H. Blake, and myselfj When I again visited the 

* Mem. Geol. Survey, vol. i. p. 280. 
t See S. S. Buckman, Inf. Col. Ammonites, p. 168. 

J Geol. E. Somerset (Geol. Surv.), p. 124. The thickness of the iower bedis -was 
marked 200 instead of 20 feet. 


locality in 1885 the section was by no means so clear, but the 
beds that could be traced were as follows : — 

Ft. Ik. 

'Oolitic shelly and Bliglitly"j 

sparry limestones, and pale I ^■^^^^. ^ q 
oolite- - - - I 

Very sparry limestone - -J 

Brown sandy limestone, shelly and] 

slishtly oolitic - - - |- 10 

Oolitic freestones - _ _ - J 

Inferior Oolite-^ Massive beds of freestone (oolitic"! 

sparry rock), Terebratula gldbata, T. [nn q 
Buckmani ?, Ostre%, Trigonia, Belem- f 
nites - - - - -J 

Thick bedded sandy oolitic limestones 

and sparry limestones, with Pecten - 10 

Sandy and sparry limestones and de- 
composed iron-shot limestones - 10 

(Midford Sand.) 

The most northerly pit at Doulting, worked by Mr. 0. Trask, 
showed the following beds : — 

Brown clay - - - - --10 to 

Pale oolitic stone, rubbly on top - - - 2 to 

Top or Oake Bed, 2 feet good ; top, 2 or 3 feet poor, used 
for inside work .... 

Eag, shelly, rarely used - - - - 

White Bed or Coping Bed - . . - 

Bottom Bed ; coarse stone ... 

The freestone here is a sparry and somewhat earthy limestone. 

There are few fossils — Trigonia and Pecten demissus occur; 
and Charles Moore obtained, from the Eag Bed, a specimen of 
Ammonites Parkinsoni, now in the Bath Museum. More 
recently Mr. John Phillis, of Shepton Mallet, has obtained 
from the Inferior Oolite of Doulting, Natica bajocensis, Rhyn- 
chonella spinosa, R. spinosa var. obornennis, Terebratula globata, 
T. Morierei, and T. spharoidalis.* The occurrence of T. Morierei 
is of especial interest, as it was first discovered in this country 
at Bradford Abbas by Mr. J. F. Walker and has since been 
fosind only rarely in one or two other localities. 

At Woodcotnbe's pit (an old quarry by Doulting church) 
the following beds were shown : — 

Eubbly oolitic and sparry stone 
Shelly oolites, 3 beds 
Oolitic and shelly stone, good bed 
Sparry stone ... 

Here I obtained Nautilus, Pseudomelania, and Ostrea. 

The freestone beds probably all belong to the Upper Division 
of the Inferior Oolite (the zone of Ammonites Parkinsoni), and can- 
not in any case be grouped with the Ham Hill Stone as suggested 
by Prof. Buckman.t 

* The fossils were identified by Messrs. Sharman and Newton, 
t Quart. Jourc. Geol. Soo., vol. xxx. p. 740. 


















A microscopic section of .the Doulting Stone lias been given 
in the plate (p. 26) ; and the rock has been described by 
Mr. Teall. The organic fragments appear to be mostly Crinoidal. 
I noticed that the Carboniferous Limestone at Little Elm presented 
a granular appearance somewhat similar to that of the Doulting 
Stone. A microscopic section of that older rock showed Crinoidal 
fragments, and oolite grains, in a matrix of crystalline calcite ; 
and as noted by Mr. Teall, the secondary calcite was in optical 
continuity with the organic fragments, as in the Doulting Stone. 
The same phenomena were exhibited in a microscopic section of 
Inferior Oolite from Oldford, near Frome. Evidently the In- 
ferior Oolite of this region is largely of detrital origin, being 
formed of comminuted organic remains, and the material I think 
may have been mostly derived from the Carboniferous Limestone. 
The Midford Sand, vrith occasional indurated bands, is found 
at the summit of Glastonbury Tor, having a thickness of about 
174 feet, and resting upon a platform of Upper Lias clay. 

The conspicuous hill of Brent Knoll stands out from the 
Alluvium of the Burnham Level between Highbridge and the 
Mendip HiUs ; its height above the sea-level is 457 feet. The 
area occupied by the Romano-British Camp, was regarded by 
Conybeare and also by William Sanders as Inferior Oolite,* 
while on the Geological Survey Map (sheet 20) it was originally 
coloured as Marlstone or Middle Lias, the lower portions of the 
hill being regarded as Lower Lias. During the re-survey of the 
district in 1872, it fell to my lot to examine Brent Knoll, and in 
the Memoir subsequently published, a section to illustrate the 
structure of the hill was inserted. f This section represented the 
Knoll to be capped by a thin layer of the " Cephalopoda-bed " 
(below the Inferior Oolite), together with other portions of the 
Midford or Inferior Oolite Sand ; and to be based on a platform 
composed of Upper and Middle Lias. 

No natural section was to be seen at the encampment, but 
there were loose blocks of sandy and ferruginous limestone which 
contained Ammonites ; and although too imperfect for specific 
determination, the specimens were considered by ISIr. Etheridge 
to belong to a type that charaterizes the so-called " Cephalopoda- 
bed," which occurs at the top of the Midford Sand in 
Gloucestershire. Since then two specimens of Rhynchonella 
cynocephala have been obtained by Mr. J. E. Clark and myself 
from loose blocks of calcareous sandstone on the summit of the 
Knoll. Specimens of Serpula also occurred, and these prevail at 
the same horizon below the Inferior Oolite in the neighbourhood 
of Beaminster and Crewkerne.f 

North of Doulting the Inferior Oolite overlaps the Lias and 
Ehaetic Beds, and rests in places directly on the older rocks along 
the eastern borders of the Mendip Hills. Thus the Inferior 
Oolite rests on the Old Red Sandstone, the Carboniferous Lime- 

* Coiiybeare and Phillips' " Outlines of the Geology of England and Wales," 
pp. 255, 275; Sanders' "Map of the Bristol Coal Fields," 1862, and Proc. Bristol 
Nat. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 44. 

t " Geology of East Somerset," &c., p. 116; Memoir on the Lias, p. 2C3 . 

X Proc. Bath Nat. Hist. Club, vol. vi. p. 125. 


stone and Shales, and on the Millstone Grit : while near Mella it 
reposes on the Ooal-measurea and on the Dolomitic Conglomerate. 

In places, as near Dean, north of "West Oranmore, where fossils 
are absent, it is difficult to separate the marginal deposits of 
Inferior Oolite from those of the Lias :* the former however are 
usually oolitic. 

Near Little Elm and on Nunney Common the top beds of 
Inferior Oolite are sparry and slightly oolitic limestones, like 
Doulting Stone ; the lower beds on Nunney Common comprise 
hard and nodular limestones with ferruginous specks, and buff 
sandy limestones with a few fossils. Nautilus, Terebratula, &c. 

Fig. 37. 
Section on Nunney Common, near Frome. 


2. Inferior Oolite. 

1. Carboniferous Limestone. 

The beds are conglomeratic in places, the matrix being oolitic, 
and containing small pebbles of Carboniferous Limestone. The 
Carboniferous Limestone, on whose upturned edges the Oolite 
rests, has been planed off to an apparently even surface. (See 
Fig. 37.) 

Long ago it was remarked by Sir H. T. De la Beche, that 
" Not only is a large portion of the area, wherein tbe Inferior 
Oolite is seen to rest on the Carboniferous Limestone, observed 
to have presented a marked even surface, viewed on the large 
scale, for the deposits of the former, but, throughout, this surface 
has been drilled into holes by lithodomous animals, which must 
have existed in the seas at the commencement of the Inferior 
Oolite. The holes, which were observed by Professor John 
Phillips in 1829, are of two kinds, one long, slender, and often 
sinuous, extending several inches into the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone, the other entering that rock a short distance only. In the 
former we find traces of shells, in the latter we often discover 
them, in the situations in which they lived. In both holes we 
find the matter of the Inferior Oolite, which entered them from 
above at the time of its deposit. In some places the shells of 
oysters may be observed attached to the surface of the Carbo- 
niferous Limestone on which the oysters lived, and these are 
occasionally pierced through by the borers, which found such sheila 
remaining on the rocks after the animals which constructed them 
had died, as we now observe on many sea-coasts. On the top of 
the hill between Holwell and Leighton, oyster shells, of the date 
of the Inferior Oolite, adhering to the old surface of Carboniferous 

" See also Conybeare and Phillips, Geol. Eng. and Wales, p. 255. 


Liimestone, and occasionally pierced by borers, may readily be 


Fig. 38. 

Section showing overlap in the Jurassic Beds along the eastern 
borders of the Mendip Hills. (After De la Beche.) 

t". Fuller's Earth Bock. e. Lias. 

h. I. Lower Fuller's Earth Clay. d. Dolomitic Conglomerate. 

g. Inferior Oolite overlapping the Mid- a. Carboniferous Limestone. 

ford Sand, and extending on to 6. Lower Limestone Shales. 

the older rocks at m and n. t. Old Red Sandstone. 
/. MidfordSand. 

Fossils on the whole are not abundant in the Inferior Oolite of 
this neighbourhood. I have obtained Nautihis, Astarte, Lima 
pectiniformis, Trigonia, Placunopsis, Rhynchonella, and Terebratula 
maxillata. Mr. Hudleston observes, " The well known section at 
Vallis, where something like 15 feet of Inferior Oolite rests on 
the Carboniferous Limestone, seems to show that only beds of the 
age of the Glypeus-grit were deposited upon the old ridge at 
that spot."t In places the Rhsetic Beds occur beneath the Inferior 
Oolite as at Vallis Bottom. 

Fig. 39. 

Section near the Bridge at Murdercombe, near Frame (De la 

Beche.) • 

a. luferior Oolite. 

6. Arenaceous parting. 

c. Carboniferous Limestone. 

* Mem. Geo!. Survey, vol. i. p. 289. 
t Inf. Ool. Gasteropoda, p. 54. 


OlJford near Frame to Bath, and Dundry. 

At Oldford, noi-th of Frome, there is a large quarry in the 
Inferior Oolite, showing nearly 25 feet of well-bedded stone, as 
follows: — 

Ft. In. 

Bubbly oolite - - - . - -30 

Pale shelly oolite - - - - - -36 

Pale chalky oolite - - - - - 3 

Pale oolite, 4 layers - . . . 13 3 

Brown sandy oolitic and sparry limestone, like Doulting 

Stone, with Serpula - - - - - 2 

One large Nautilus was observed, but fossils are very scarce. 
The stone is employed for building-purposes, &c. 

The Cromlech in Orchardleigh Park, comprises two large blocks 
of stone, one about II feet high; and these are composed of 
Inferior Oolite. 

The peculiar characters of the Oolite where it rests on the 
Carboniferous Limestone have been noticed in reference to the 
Doulting Stone. North of Frome more remarkable changes 
appear in the rock, it becomes very siliceous and .seemingly 
" cherty " in places. Here it rests on an irregular surface of 
the Carboniferous Limestone, which is also cherty ; and bosses of 
the older rock protrude here and there, much in the same manner 
as we find near Sutton and Southei-ndown in Glamorganshire, 
where peculiar modifications of the Lower Lias rest on the same 
rock. The occurrence of hard blue and grey siliceous beds in 
the Inferior Oolite ! near Erome has been noticed by De la 
Beche* and also by Mr. J. McMurtrie.f 

In the cutting of the road leading from Whatcomb Farm, 
north of Frome, to Bradford's Bridge near Spring Gardens, tbe 
following beds were seen : — 

Gravel and sand, clay and oohreous debris 
T r ■ /-> Ti r Chert and decomposed " cherty rock." 
Inferior Oolite | g^^^^ limestone.^ 

Carboniferous Limestone, cherty in places. 

In the railway-cuttings to the north, we find hard pale very 
oolitic stone, shelly in places, and bluish-grey in centre ; while 
north-east of Vallis Bottom, a quarry by the railway showed 
about 25 feet of oolitic limestones, resting on hard grey shelly 
and oolitic limestones in massive beds, siliceous in places. The 
■" cherty rock " is decomposed, where it comes to the surface, and 
gives rise to an ochreous soil. This fact is interesting as ochre 
was at one time worked in connection with the beds of cherty 
Lias on Harptree Hill. 

Mr. Teall who examined microscopic sections of this Inferior 
Oolite, found it sometimes to contain grains of oolite, organic 
fragments, pellets, and a few quartz grains in a matrix of calcite ; 
at other times the oolitic grains were obscure and apparently 

* Mem. Geol. Survey, vol. i. p. 287. 

t Proc. Bath Nat. Field Club, vol. v. p. 98. 



welded together, and irregular grauular aggregates of quartz 
occurred and formed the matrix. 

Near Mells siding the railway-cutting showed the following 
series oF beds : — 


Grey and brown clayey soil. 
TRubbly oolite - - 3 
Massive bedded, pale oolite 
Compact shelly oolite witb quartz 

pebbles ; Isastrcea, Trigonia 
Bather sandy and shelly limestone 
Oolite -. . -. 

Brown coarsely oolitic and sandy 
limestone ... 

Bubbly iron-shot and earthy 
oolitic limestone ; Pseudome- 
Inferior Oolite"^ lania and Rhynchonella spinosa 
(abundant in upper part) 
Hard oolitic and sandy limestone ; 
Serpula, Trigonia, and casts of 
Compact slightly oolitic lime- 
stone, and more or less oolitic 
and iron-shot limestone, having 
a general rubbly appearance - j 
Friable sandy limestone -J 

_Dark grey oolitic limestone 
J Slate-coloured clay (throwing out 
"l springs). 

Tt. In. 

or more 


^3 9 

> 6 


Fossils have not proved sufficiently abundant to afford evidence 
for zones. The Eev. G. Horner informed me that Ammonites 
humphriesianus had been obtained from this neighbourhood ; but 
I was unable to see the specimen. 

North-west of Mells, by " Edney's Farm " (Mr. Swanton's 
Lower Farm), about 12 feet of pale and false-bedded oolites have 
been quarried, and used for inside-work in Mells church. These 
are evidently the upper beds of Inferior Oolite that are to be seen 
in the railway-cutting. I obtained only one specimen of 

East and north-east of Kilmersdon there are many quarries in 
the Inferior Oolite, on the eastern side of the valley leading 
towards Kadstock ; here thick beds of stone are worked, and these 
are equivalent to the top beds of Dundry and the limestones at 
Midford. The features are well marked, the Inferior Oolite 
forming a terrace on the brow of the valley, surmounted by the 
Fuller's Earth and a minor escarpment of Fuller's Earth Rock, 
above which is the more prominent scarp of the Forest Marble. 

North-west of Bowldish, east of Paulton, there were exposed 
10 feet of oolitic limestones, with a lenticular coral -bed; 
Terehratula globata is present, and Rhynchonella spinosa occurs in 
shoals at the base. The beds here are but little above the Lias : 
indeed the shaft at the' coal- works a short distance to the west, 
passes through Inferior Oolite and Lias. 

On Clan Down, south of Caraerton Farm, there is a quarry 
showing about 12 feet of pale and buff, finely oolitic limestone, 


with shelly layers here and there, but no marked beds ; Trigonia, 
Lima, Pecten demissus, and Corals occur, but no Ammonites nor 
Belemnites were to be seen. The stone is quarried for road-metal. 
Proceeding towards Camerton, brown sandy shelly and slightly 
oolitic limestone was exposed in the road-cutting ; lower down 
rubbly beds with ochreous marl and clay much tumbled occur ; 
and hereabouts comes the junction with the Lias. 

Other pits on Clan Down showed pale oolite resting on 
compact brown. sandy and oolitic limestone, with ochreous exterior, 
and shelly in places. Here Ammonites Parkinsoni 1 Rhynchonella 
spinosa, Avicula Munsteri, and some other fossils were obtained. 
Referring to the same locality Mr. Hudleston notes shell-beds 
with Trigonia, Nerinaa Guisei, Natica bqjocensis, Trochus, &c. N. 
Guisei is a well-marked horizon in the Clypeus-Grit. He observes 
that " As far as we know at present, this is the mos-t southern 
locality in England where Nerinaa has been found to occur in 
the Inferior Oolite, and abundantly too, since there are no less 
than three shell-beds traceable here."* Nerinfea occurs also at 
the Red Post Quarry further north. 

In the railway-cutting, west of Wellow Station, the Inferior 
Oolite has been exposed. The top beds resemble those near 
Oharlcombe, Bath. They contain casts of Trigonia sculpta % 
(large), and Natica ; also Nautilus, Terebratula, and Rhynchonella 
spinosa. Below come thick massive beds of compact brown 
oolitic limestone, with Lima pectiniformis, and Trichites. This 
succession is similar to that seen near Woolston Farm (see p. 83). 
The road-cuttings south of Wellow Church, and east of the 
railway-station, showed beds of the Inferior Oolite containing 
Rhynchonella spinosa, Avicula Munsteri, and Stomechinus. Below 
come the Midford Sands, with concretionary masses of calcareous 
sandstone, but they appear to be thin and were partially obscured 
by slips ; and at the base, there were blue micaceous sandy clays 
with hard cement-stones, and stiff blue more or less shaly clay, 
disturbed in places. I obtained no fossils in this clay, hence 
whether it be Upper Lias clay or not cannot be definitely 

Further south the Sands, although well developed at Midford, 
have entirely died out, and the Inferior Oolite rests directly upon 
the Lias. Sections displaying this remarkably sudden attenuation 
were to be seen in the railway-cuttings : it is due no doubt to 
unconformable overlap of the Inferior Oolite, a fact indicated also 
by a pebbly band that is locally found at the base of the Oolite. 
The fossil-evidence shows that in this neighbourhood the Upper 
Division of the Inferior Oolite rests in some places directly on the 
Midford Sand and in other cases on the Lias. 

In the neighbourhood of Bath the Inferior Oolite is from 25 to 
45 feet in thickness, and, so far as observation has gone, the stone- 
beds belong mainly if not entirely to the upper part of the 
formation, or the zone of Ammonites Parkinsoni. The occurrence 

* Inf. Ool. Gasteropoda, p. 54. 


of RhyncJionella spinosa in the bottom beds of the Inferior 
Oolite between Bath and Bradford-on-Avon was pointed out 
by Sir W. V. Guise,* and more recent observations confirm this. 

It is noteworthy that while the Great Oolite is so well 
developed near Bath, the Inferior Oolite is less conspicuous, but 
the excellence of the former stone has, no doubt, prevented the 
opening up of the latter rock in places where under other 
circumstances it might have been worked for local use. Compara- 
tively speaking, the Inferior Oolite of this neighbourhood yields 
but a poor stone, and for this reason it was originally known as 
the Bastard Freestone,! for it abounds with vacuities like the 
Portland " roach," and much of it is soft and unfit for use. As 
remarked by the Rev. Joseph Townsend, " It everywhere reclines 
on calcareous sand, which is used by our cooks, at Bath, to sand 
their kitchens, and is procured for them on the hills behind 
Camden Place, and Sydney Gardens." 

The sands are now rarely opened up in the hills around Bath ; 
but their occurrence seems to be tolerably persistent, although 
the thickness is very irregular. At Charlcombe they are said to 
be about 70 feet in thickness ; but they vary from 40 feet (and 
less) to as much as 100 feet. The following Well-section at 
America Buildings, Lansdown, was recorded by De la BecheJ : — 

Fuller's Earth . Light clay - 20 
Inferior Oolite - Oolite - - 30 

Midford Sand - Sand - - 100 

Lias - - Blue clay - 24 


Reference has been previously made to the Midford Sand, and 
to the observations of William Smith and John Phillips. (See 
p. 52.) Fine sections of the strata were exposed in the railway- 
cuttings between Midford and Bath : the long tunnel (1,900 yards) 
through Combe Down being almost entirely excavated in these 
beds, the only exception being a trace of Inferior Oolite which 
was faulted in near the middle of the tunnel. § 

These beds rest on thin representatives of the Upper Lias clay 
and linriestone. They contain bands and nodules of sandy lime- 
stone or calcareous sandstone (" sand-burrs"), and in these indurated 
layers, fossils are occasionally found. The Rev. H. H. Winwood 
has obtained Ammonites aalensis (identified by Mr. Etheridge), 
and several specimens of A. striatulus (identified by Mr. E. T. 
Newton) from micaceous and calcareous sandstone in the 
Lyncombe cutting. Mr. S. S. Buckman records from the same 
locality A. fallaciosus ; and from an oolitic bed at the base of the 
sands, A. striatulus and A. toarcensis.\\ In the William-Smith 

* Proo. Cotteswold Glut, vol. ii. p. 170. 
t To-wnsend's Character of Moses, p. 105. 

J Report on the state of Bristol, Bath, &c. (Health of Towns Commission), 
1845, p. 37. 
§ See also J. Lean, Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc., ser, 2, vol, iii. p. 159. 
II Inf. Ool, Ammonites, p. 165. 


Collection at the British Museum, there is a speciinen from the 
Ooal-canal near Midford, identified by Mr. Etheridge and Mr. E, 
B. Newton as very near to A. Levesquei, a species found in the 
Cephalopoda-bed of the Cotteswold Hills. More recently 
Mr. Winwood has obtained from Weston, near Bath, specimens 
of Ammonites radians and Lima toarcensis* 

Mr, Hudleston, remarking on the apparent absence of the 
Lower Division of the Inferior Oolite (zone of Ammonites Mur- 
chisonce), has suggested that it might be represented by the upper 
portion of the Midford Sands.f No evidence has at present been 
obtained to countenance this view. In tracing the beds north- 
wards from Dorsetshire we find the Lower Division very indis- 
tinctly represented in many places : the beds are well shown 
at Dundry Hill, and where they do develop further north in 
the Cotteswold HiUs, they are largely represented by false- 
bedded oolitic freestone?. I'he stratigraphical evidence is there- 
fore in favour of the Midford Sands belonging to the same set of 
beds as the Yeovil and Bridport Sands in the one direction, and the 
Cotteswold Sands with the Gloucestershire Cephalopoda-bed in 
the other. If the Midford Sands have at present proved some- 
what unprolific, there is no reason why they should remain so, for 
fossils are preserved only here and there : in some localities as 
near Beaminster and Crewkerne abundantly, while near at hand 
the beds appear quite barren. 

The section south of Midford Station is as follows : — ■ 

Ft. In. 
Fuller's Earth. 
'Pale fine-grained oolite -witli oooasional 

casts of shells - - about 24 

Eubbly beds of oolitic limestone with 
bands of Coral-rock and searils of 
clay : Isasivoea, Pleurotomaria, Tro- 
ehotoma, Trigonia (oast) , Sponges ? - 8 
Iron-shot limestones, nodular and con- 
glomeratic at the base: Ammonites 
Farkinsoni, Fleurotnmaria, Oueullcea 
cancellaia, Lima peetiniformis, 
Modiola, Myacites jurassi, Ostrect 
castata, Pholadomya, Trichites, Trigo- 
nia, Rhynclionella obsoleta, R. spinosa, 
Terelratula glohata, T. sphoBroidalis - 6 
•m-jj J a J f Sands with indurated bands and 
Midford Sands j j^o^ules of calcareous sandstone. 

The sequence is similar to that noticed by Lonsdale, J who 
assigned a thickness of 40 or 50 feet to the "soft freestone" on top. 
He observed the Coral-bed beneath; and hard brown limestone 
at the base, abounding with fossils. The lowest bed he said was 
provincially called the "hollow-bed" as it contains hollow moulds 
and casts of Trigonia and other fossils. A bed of this character 

* H. B. W., Geol. Mag., 1888, p. 470 ; Proo. Bath Nat. Hist. Club, vol.iii. p. 134 ; 
Geol. E. Somerset, p. 119; and Winwood, Proc. Bath Nat. Hist. Club, vol. vii. p. 338. 

t Gasteropoda of Inferior Oolite, pp. 55, 66 ; see also J. Buoknian, Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc., vol. XXXV. p. 737 ; vol. xxxiii. p. 1. 

J Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 248. 

Inferior Oolite < 


is well seen at Charlcombe, but similar layers occur throughout 
the mass of the Inferior Oolite. 

The Inferior Oolite is exposed beneath the Fuller's Earth Clay- 
by the canal-bridge near the waterworks at Bradford-on-Avon ; 
and again by the canal opposite to Limpley Stoke, It -consists 
of brown shelly limestone, imperfectly oolitic, resting on pale 
oolite, and lower down oolitic limestone with casts of shells. In 
places the beds are shown to have a thickness of nearly 40 feet ; 
but they all apparently belong to the zone of Ammonites Parhinsoni. 
By the canal-side near Avoncliff, Mr. E. A. Walford obtained 
Trigonia duplicata and Nerincea ; and at Freshford Mr. Hudleston 
obtained Nerincea Guisei. 

On top of the Midford Sands in the short Lyncomhe cutting, 
between the Combe Down tunnel and the tunnel under Devon- 
shire Buildings, there is a bed of nodular fossilif'erous limestone, 
containing Lithodomus-borings. The bed is fossiliferous and is 
suggestive of the slow accumulation of the strata, accompanied 
by local erosion ; from it the Rev. H. H. Winwood obtained the 
following species, which were identified by Dr Wright* : — 

Ammonites Brocoliii ? Lithodomus. 

Astarte excavata. Pholadomya. 

Gervillia Hartmanni. Triohites undulatua. 

Homomya crassiuscula. Trigonia costata. 

Lima gibbosa. Ehyncbonella spinosa. 

A similar bed occurs at the base of the Inferior Oolite south of 
Midford railway-station. 

At the base of the Fuller's Earth at Midford and again at 
Duncorn Hill, we find clays and thin layers of earthy limestone, 
yielding Terebratula glohata, Ostrea, &c. 

South-east of Dimcorn Hill a quarry and road-cutting showed 
about 15 feet of Inferior Oolite beneath the Fuller's Earth. The 
top layer of hard brown limestone was bored by Lithodomi and 
Annelides, and similar borings occurred at lower horizons in the 
beds ; these strata consisted of hard oolitic and occasionally com- 
pact limestone, yielding Avicvla Milnsteri, Cardium, Isocardiu, 
Myacites, Ostrea, Trigonia, Rhynchonella obsoleta, Terebratula 
globata, and Corals. The Geological Survey Map in this neigh- 
bourhood docs not clearly explain the relations of the several 
groups of strata, and some revision is needed. 

North-west of Highbarrow Hill (Twerton Hill), a quarry 
stowed about 10 feet of pale oolite, thin-bedded and rubbly ia 
the upper part, and much lime-washed ; below there was 3 feet ot 
pale and brown oolite with casts of Trigonia, &c. Mr. Hudleston 
records from this bed Nerincea Guisei, Alaria, Ostrea, &c. He 
also observed on the opposite side of the road in a disused quarry, 
a shell-bed with Nerincea, Ceromya striata, Pholadomya Ileraulti, 
Myacites, and Corals, f 

* Geol. E. Somerset, p. 119. 
f Inf. Ool. Gasteropoda, p. 55. 

S 75928. G 


The Inferior Oolite has been exposed under Olaverton Church, 
and also at Beeclien Cliff. At the last-r.amed locality, as well as 
at Limpley Stoke, it appears to be largely composed of Corals, 
Trigonia, Ostrea, and Brachiopoda.* This is the case also at 

At the northern end of Beacon Hill, near Charlcombe, a quarry- 
exposed pale oolitic and earthy limestones with many casts of 
shells; like the "hollow bed" before mentioned, that resembles 
the " Roach " of Portland. There was also a bed of compact 
limestone with faint brown arborescent markings, bearing a rude 
resemblance to those of the Cotham Marble. t The beds were 
much tumbled, and they yielded the following fossils.: — 

AmmoniteB. Trigonia (costate form). 

Phasianella. Ehynclionella obsoleta ? 

Pleurotomaria. spinosa. 

Isocardia. ' Terebratula Buckmani ? 

Lima pectiniformis. globata. 

Lithodomus. sphseroidalis. 

Myacites. Serpula. 

Ostrea flabelloides. Isastraea. 

Trichites. ThamnastrEea defranciana. 

Similar beds were exposed south-west of Gwenfield Farm, 
Charlcombe ; and not far below were micaceous sands with masses 
of sandy limestone containing Belemnites. 

The fossil-beds in the limestones, here and at Midford, Ijyn- 
combe, and Duncorn Hill, evidently belong to the Upper Division 
of the Inferior Oolite. Unfortunately Ammonites are very 
scarce, and but poorly preserved when found. 

At Hill House, north-west of Box, beds of tough iron-shot and 
sandy limestone, with Rhynchonalla spinosa were exposed. Here 
the beds were represented as Middle Lias on the Geological 
Survey Map. In the Box tunnel according to Mr. Etheridge the 
Inferior Oolite proved to be 30 feet thick. 

The Midford Sands are shown in the scarps below Grove 
Woods, east of Swainswick. Oolitic and sandy limestones were 
exposed to a depth of 10 feet in a quarry above Cross Leaze 
Farm, south of Woolley, but the beds have yielded no distinctive 

East of Weston, near Bath, and north of Primrose Hill, there are 
beds of brown oolitic limestone, much lime-washed, including the 
limestone with casts of shells, as at Charlcombe. Again on Kel- 
ston Hill, below the Fuller's Earth, we find beds of iiaiestone with 
Terebratula ghhata, &c., but no very good sections. 

A little west of the above-mentioned quarry near Weston, a 
well-sinking has recently been made, through a few feet of Mid- 
ford Sand into the Upper Lias Clay. The " sand-burrs " in the 
sand (which appears to be very thin in this neighbourhood), were 
examined by the Rev. H. H. Winwood, and from them he 
obtained the specimens, previously mentioned, of Ammonites 

* C. Moore, in Wright's Historic Guide to Bath, pp. 387-392. 
t H. B. W., Geol. Mag., 1892, p. 112. 


radians and Lima toarcensis, which were identified by Messrs. 
Sharman and Newton. The sand-burrs rest on a layer of iron- 
shot conglomeratic limestone, the matrix of which lithologically 
much resembles the Gloucestershire Oephalopoda-bed. From this 
layer Mr. Winwood obtained specimens' of Ammonites communis, 
A. bifrons, and Rhynchonella Moorei. The bed is to soma extent 
remanie, and it evidently corresponds with a " nodular " iron-shot 
bed noticed by Mr. Winwood at the base of the Midford Sands, 
near Devonshire Buildings, Bath.* 

The Inferior Oolite of Dandry HiU has attained much repute 
as a fossiliferous development of the beds, and this is largely due 
to the Bristol geologists who have for many years collected 
specimens from this locality. Many descriptions of the strata 
and their fossils have been published ; but it is mainly from the 
Lower Division of the Inferior Oolite that the fossils have been 

There is no continuous section of the beds, and they must be 
studied in several disconnected quarries and cuttings ; moreover, 
the beds are somewhat disturbed if not faulted. The following 
is a general account of the series : — 

The Building or Freestone Beds occur on top of the series, and these are 
exposed in quairies and underground workings to the sonth-wcst of the 
church. They comprise hard flaggy and irregular brown limestones, 
resting on, more massive layers of sandy limestone, the whole being 
imperfectly oolitic, and some of the beds being sparry in nature and 
resembling the Doulting Stone. The beds are about 15 or 16 feet thick ; 
and the best stone is said to occur at the base. Few fossils occur, but 
Ml'. Etheridge notes several species of Corals, and casts of Trigonia. 

Bagstones i, including the Gonchifera-heis of Mr. Etheridge) ; east of the 
School, by the main road from Bristol to Chew Magna, and again further 
north on the brow of the hill, the following beds may be traced : — 

Ft. In. 

Flaggy and earthy limestone with the lenticular masses 
of Coral-rock, Isastrcea, MontUvaltia, Thamnastrcea, 
Ostrea gregaria ; resting on rubbly beds, marls and 
clay, with irregular beds of marly limestone, yielding 
Terebratula globata, spines of Echini, &c. - - 6 

Compact limestone with Annelide-borings - - 7 

Among other fossils recorded from this upper portion of the Inferior 
Oolite are Ammonites subradiatus, with its operculum in situ (a specimen 
described by S. P. "Woodward), J Terehraiulasphceroidalis (original specimen 
figured by Sowerby), i2%rac7wMeHas spinosa, &c. (See p'. 126.) 

The above beds may be regarded as belonging to the zone of Ammoniies 
Parkinsoni, and their full thickness probably exceeds 40 feet. The zonal 
Ammonite, as Mr. E. Wilson has stated, is of extreme rarity. 

Iron-shot limestones (including the "Mollusoa or Shelly Bed," and the 
"Ammonite Bed ")■. — Beneath the compact limestone, before noted, there 
may be traced at the same locality, nearly 5 feet of hard brown iron-shot 
limestones ; and similar beds, with oohreous clayey layers, were exposed 

* Geol. East Somerset (Geol. Surv.), p. 115; and Winwood, Proo. Bath Nat. 
Hist. Club, vol. vii., p. 337. 

t De la Beche, Mem. Geol. Surv., vol. i. p. 255 j Etheridge, Qitart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc, vol. xvi. p. 22 ; Tawney, Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc, ser. 2, vol. i. p. 9 j Hudleston, 
Inf. Ool. Gasteropoda, pp. 22, 56 ; and S. S. Buckman, Proc. Cotteswold Club, 
vol. ix. p. 374; Quart. Joorn. Geol. Soc, vol. xlix, p. 608. 

J Geologist, vol. iii. p. 328. 

G 2 



on the nortli side of the hill below Dundry church. The full thickness of 
these beds was not seen ; it is probably upwards of 6 feet. 

The following species have been recorded,* and they indicate that 
the zones of Ammonites hum^hriesianus and A. Murchisonae are repre- 
scvnted : — 

Ammonites Blagdeni. 





— — corrugatus. 






Belemnites canaliculatus. 
Nautilus excavatus. 


Pleurotomaria elongata. 
Trochus Zetes. 
Astarte elegans. 

Ceromya bajociana. 
Lima Etheridgei. 


Gresslya abducta. 
Modiola sowerbyana. 
Myacites jurassi. 
Opis similis. 
Ostrea flabelloides. 
Pecten demisaus. 
Pholadomya fldicula. 


Rhynchonella plicatella. 


Terebratula Eudesi. 



Midford Sands. These beds have been poorly exposed, and thoy appear 
to be very thin ; but there are, according to Mr. S. S. Buckman, repre- 
gentatives of the zones of .47n.9W.on.ifes opalinus and A. jurensis.f 

The following fossils have been recorded : — 

Ammonites aalensis. 




Belemnites irregularis. 
Modiola sowerbyana. 
Pholadomya fldicula. 
Rhynchonella oynocephala. 

The chief fossil-bed of Dundry is thus at the base of the 
Inferior Oolite limestone, and Mr. Etheridge, Mr. J. F. Walker, 
;iDd Mr. Buckman have commented on the close connection 
between the Ammonites and Brachiopods of this locality, and the 
fossils of the Dorset-Somerset area. At Dundry Ammonites con- 
cavus occurs in the lower portion of the iron-shot division, and 
in the higher portion, Mr. Buckman finds A. Sowerbyi, A. Sauzei, 
and A. humphriesianus.X These three species locally occupy the 
same horizon, a fact of considerable interest, and there ought to 
be no doubt about the occurrence of A. Sowerbyi, for the original 
figured specimen came from Dundry. 

Eeforring to the fact that the Lower Division of the Inferior 
Ooli'ie has not been recognized in the Cotteswold area, between 
Little Sodbury and Bath, nor at Midford to the south of Bath, 
Mr. Buckman has suggested that the Dundxy area was separated 
from the Cotteswold area during the time when these Lower beds 
were accumulated, and only united during the period of the zone 
of Ammonites Parkinsoni. I'his separation was, in his opinion. 

* See Stoddart, Proo. Bristol Nat. Soc, eer. 2, vol. ii. p. 286. E. Wilson, Proc. 
Geol. Assoc, vol. xiii., p. 128. 

t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlv. p. 469 ; Inf. Ool. Ammonites, pp. 168, 292 ; 
sae also Etheridge, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xvi. p. 22. 

X Inf. Ool. Ammonites, p. 63. ' 


caused by upheaval of the Lias, so as to form a barrier, along the 
intervening tract* This view must be regarded as a very 
speculative one ; but there is no doubt that the overlap of the 
Upper Division of the Inferior Oolite, was accompanied hy some 
erosion of the underlying beds, and that the Oolite rests :-ii places 
directly on the Lias. 

* Proc. Ck)tteswold Club, vol. ix. p. 374 ; see also J. F. Walker, Geol. Mng. 1878, 
p. 556. ' 




20 to 30 

25 to 35 

5 to 15 


INFERIOR OOLITE SERIES.— (Looal Details continued.) 

Cotteswold Hills. — Bath to Stinchcombe. 

Leaving the neighbourhood of Bath and passing on to the main 
escarpment of the Cotteswold Hills, -vve find the Inferior Oolite 
outcropping in a regular belt from Tog Hill near Doynton to the 
neighbourhood of Hawkesbury. In the southern portion of this 
area no good sections have been recorded. 

Further north the beds are exposed here and there in quarries 
and road-cuttings ; for instance, west of Dodington Ash, near 
the Cross Hands above Old Sodbury, and near the Manor House, 
Little Sodbury. Along portions of this tract the following 
general subdivisions have been traced : — 

Inferior f Eagstones . . . - 

Oolite. I Freestone . - . . - 

Midford f Cephalopoda Bed .... 
o , ■< Yellow sands with bands of calcareous 
°^^°- L Sandstone (Cotteswold Sands) - - 30 to 4,0 

The stone-beds above the Cephalopoda Bed increase generally 
in thickness northwards, and the beds become more and more 
divided, so that in the neighbourhood of Stroud and Cheltenham 
many subdivisions may be made. These subdivisions are local, 
and the absence of some of them, especially in the Freestone 
division from the southern area, shows that somewhat different 
sedimentary conditions prevailed. 

The Ragstones (above-mentioned) are for the most part earthy 
and shelly limestones, and they include the zone of Ammonites 
Parkinsoni and, perhaps, part of that oi A. humphriesianus. 

The Freestones comprise false-bedded oolites assigned to the 
zone of A. MurchisoncE. 

These beds will be more particularly described further on ; but 
it may be stated generally that Ammonites are by no means so 
abundant in the Inferior Oolite of the Cotteswolds as they are at 
Dundry, and in Dorsetshire. 

In the Gloucestershire Cephalopoda Bed the case is different, 
and over a considerable area we find a veiy rich fossil-bed which 
yields a profusion of Ammonites and Belemnites. 

Since the beds have been studied in more detail, they have 
been subdivided into numerous minor zones, and many questions 
have arisen with regard to the correlation of dlflferent stages of 
the strata. Tliese questions relate in particular to the beds that 
lie between the Upper Lias clays and the base of the Inferior 


Oolite in the Cotteswold area, as compared with those of other 

For the sands below the Cephalopoda Bed the local names of 
Nailsworth, and Frocester Sands have been used ; but in 1876 the 
name Cotteswold Sands was employed by Professor Buckman,* 
and it has been adopted by E. Witchellf and other geologists as 
a convenient local term. 

The Cotteswold Sands, like the Midford, Bridport, and 
Yeovil Sands, consist of yellow micaceous sands with bands and 
concretionary nodules of calcareous sandstone. Towards the base 
they become more or less argillaceous and merge gradually into 
the Upper L'as ciay beneath ; consequently there is no definite 
stratigraphical division between these formations. 

Palseontologically the beds are intimately linked with the Upper 
Lias, and, through the Cephalopoda Bed, with the Inferior Oolite ; 
between both formations they constitute passage-beds. 

The thickness of the beds at Cam Long Down and Frocester 
Hill has been estimated at from 120 feet to 130, and at Stroud 
100 feet. At Birdlip the beds appear to be nearly as thick,^ but 
northwards they decrease to 60 feet and less; indeed at Cleeve 
Cloud they are hardly distinguishable, but this may arise partly 
from the fact that the declivities are obscured by landslips, and 
by a rubble of limestone. 

The Gloucestershire Cephalopoda Bed consists of iron- 
shot marly limestones and marls, from 2 to 15 feet thick, that 
yield, more or less abundantly, Ammonites and Belemnites as well 
as other organic remains. The bed was particularly described by 
Dr. Wright in 1856,§ but it had long been known to collectors as 
the " Ammonite Bed," and had been previously noticed by the 
Kev. P. B. Brodie as the "Ammonite and Belemnite Bed." In 
point of names the bed is not lacking, for Professor Hull, in 
describing the strata, employed the name " Ammonite Sands " to 
include both both Cotteswold Sands and Cephalopoda Bed.^ 
Moreover the abundance of Rhynclionella cynocephala led Dr. 
Lycett, in 1857, to adopt the term "Cynocephala stage" for 
both Cephalopoda Band and Sands below.** This fossil is, 
however, chiefly found in the upper beds, and a variety of it also 
occurs at higher horizons in the Inferior Oolite of the Cotteswold 

Palaeontologically the Gloucestershire Cephalopoda Bed and the 
Cotteswold Sands have been divided into a number of zones, as 
previously indicated (p. 40.) In order to maiiatain a consistei^t 

* Quart. .Toura. Gcol. Soc, vol. xxxiii. p. 6. 

t Geology of Stroud, p. 30. 

j Lucy, Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. viii. p. 161. 

§ Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xii. p. 293. 

II Ibid., vol. vi. p. 244, and vol. vii. p. 209. 

"IT Geol. Cheltenham, p. 25. ' 

** The Cotteswold Hills, pp. 16, 18. 


palffiontological division between the Lias and Oolites, it is ot 
course necessary to take the junction between the zones of Ammo- 
nites opalinus and A. jurensh. In order to do this the "Cepha- 
lopoda Bed," as pointed out Ky Oppcl, has to be split into twO; and 
consequently some geologists have restricted their application of 
the name to the beds that lie below the zone of A. opalinus. From 
a stratigraphical point of view this is misleading, and it is far 
better to employ the name Cephalopoda Bed in its original sense, 
for all portions of it are so intimately blended that no plane of 
separation whatever can be marked out. 

We find that the sub-zone of A. radians is sometimes placed in 
the lower division of the Inferior Oolite, and sometimes in the 
Upper Lias. 

E. Witchell* and other geologists have recognized how 
impracticable it is to attempt any precise distinction between the 
upper and lower portions of the Cephalopoda Bed, for it is 
admitted that A. opalinus occurs in the top even of the restricted 
Cephalopoda Bed. 

By uniting into one broad stral igraphical division the Cottes- 
wold Sands, together with the Cephalopoda Bed (as a whole), 
we have a group that compares fairly well with the Yeovil and 
Bridport Sands ; as both divisions include the zones of A. opalinus 
and A. jurensis, and therefore constitute the passage-beds between 
the Lins and the Oolites. For this intermediate formation the 
term Midford Sand is retained, while the name Cotteswold Sands 
is useful locally, as it embraces admittedly only a 'portion of the 
Midford Sand?. 

Ammonites bifrons, or a variety of it (as noted in 1856 by 
Dr. Wright), ranges upwards from the tipper Lias into the liase 
"of the Cotteswold Sands, and therefore from a palseontologieal 
point of view it may be extremely hard to fix any definite 
boundary between the Upper Lias clays and overlying sands.t 
It is true that Dr. Wright suggested that the specimens might be 
derived, but Mr. Buckman is not of this opinion. 

The following grouping is therefore adopted for the bedsj : — 

Zones and Sub-zones. 

-\icAe J rGlouceslersliive Oevh.&- j Ammonites opalinus. 
Miaioraj lopoda Bed - -\ A. radians 

Sands, j Cotteswold Sands - -(A. striatulus 

\ A. variabilis • ^ 

Upper Lias clays. 

The following fossils have been recorded from the Cotteswold 
Sands and Gloucestershire Cephalopoda Bed : — 

* Geology of Strond, p. 3-1. 

t See Wright, Lias Ammonites, pp. 138, 148 ; S. S. Buckman, Inf. Ool. Am- 
monites, p. 50. 

J See also Lycett, Cotteswold Hills, p, 163 j Iliidleston, Gasteropoda of Inf. 
Oolite, pp. 60, &c. ; S. S. Buckman, Inf. Ool. Ammonites, pp. 7, 42, 50, 51, 9'/ ; and 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlv. p. 440, vol. xlix. p. 509. 





Ammonites aalensis 


var. Moorei - 







dispansus - 







insignis (Fig. 4) - - 


jugosus - 


jurensis (Fig. 3) - 



Levesquei - - - - 


opalinus (Fig. 6) 


var. comptus - - 




strfatulus (Fig. 2) 






sublineatus ... 


■ toarcensis (thouarsensis) 


. torulosus , 


variabilis - - 


Wrighti (A. " Jurensis " of Wright) 


Belemnites breviformis 






irregularis (Fig. 7) - 


tripartitus - - 


Nautilus latidorsatus ... 



Amberleya capitanea 



Pseudomelania (Chemnitzia) procera - 


Trocbus duplicatus 


Astarte lurida - - 



CucuUsea ferruginea 



Cypricardia bathonica, var. brevis 



cordiformis (Fig. 19) 


X ^ 

Gervillia Hartmanni . - - 



Gresslya abdueta 


Hinnites abjectus 


Lima toarcensis - - 


Modiola sowerbyana (plicata) (Fig. 10) 



Opis carinatus - .... 




Pecten textorius 


Pholadomya fidicula (Fig. 11) 



Trigonia Bamsayi 


striata i 


RhynchoDella cynocephala (Fig. 14) 



jurensis . . - - - 


Terebratula punctata (sub-punctata), var. haresfieldeusis 


Montlivaltia lens 


Turning now to the stratigraphical features to be observed, we 
have but little evidence to fix the southern extent of the Cepha- 
lopoda Bed between Bath and Little Sodbury. At Bath we 
have in the Midford Snnd fossils that characterize the Cephalopoda 
Bed; and at Weston, the Eev. H. H. Winwood has found an 
iron-shot limestone that closely resembles that bed in lithological 
character. (See p. 99.) Near Bath there is not only considerable 
local attenuation of the Midford Sand, but evidence of local 




unconformity both between the Sand and Upper Lias clay, and 
between the Sand and Inferior Oolite. 

Proceeding northwards the following section of a quarry, near 
the Rectory at Horton, will show the general character of the 
beds : — 

Ft. In. 
"White Oolite .... about 8 
r Oolitic limestone with Terehratula- 
Olypeus J bed. at base, T. gldbata and Nermoea 
Eag- I Grit. | Ouisei - - . - 8 

stones. ' LRubbly and marly oolite . - 1 

{Hard sbelly and oolitic limestones 
with Trigonia costata, TricMtes, 
Sihynehonella concinna, B. spinosa, 
&c.- - - -30 

rOolitic freestone, bored at top, 
j current-bedded in mass and in 
Treestones - -\ the individual layers : shelly in 

\ places . - - - 10 

Nodular marly layer with Gresslya 
LFreestone ... aboub 2 

The Cephalopoda Bed, consisting of sandy and iron-shot lime- 
stones and marls, was to be observed below the level of the 
Freestone to the north-west of the Ancient Encampment at Little 
Sodbury, and again in the combe east of Horton church. From 
this bed I obtained Ammonites opalinus, A. radians. A, striatulus, 
and A. dispansus. 

The strata in this neighbourhood have been described by Dr. H. B. Holl 
who assigns a thickness of 8 feet to the Cephalopoda Bed.* Mr. S. S. 
Buckman has published a detailed section of the strata at Little Sodbury.f 
Mr. Hudleston has likewise given an account of the Horton quarry, and 
mentioned some of the fossils above enumerated. He obtained many 
Gasteropods from the bottom layer of the Bagstone.J He remarks that 
the absence of any representative of the zone of Ammonites hwrnphrieaianus 
appears to be complete. 

North of Hawkesbury the outcrop of the Inferior Oolite is less 
regular, for the escarpment is intersected by deep ramifying 
valleys, and the rook caps the straggling but bold promontories of 
Nibley Knoll and Stinchcombe Hill, the latter perhaps the finest 
of the Ootteswold Hills. The same general divisions may be 
noticed in the Inferior Oolite Series, northwards as far as Dursley. 

In ascending the hill north of Wotton-under-Edge, by the lane 
north-west of the town, a fine section of the Ootteswold Sands 
and Cephalopoda Bed, was exposed in the deep lane-cutting. 
The Sands, shown to a depth of 25 feet, present their ordinary 
characters of yellow micaceous sand, with little or no calcareous 
matter, except in the bands of calcareous sandstone. They are 
surmounted by nearly 12 feet of marly iron-shot limestones, 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. See, vol. xix. p. 310. 

t Inf. Ool. Ammonites, p. 164. 

j Introd. to Gasteropoda of the Inf. Oolite (Paleeontogr. Soc), p. 57. 



alternating with softer clayey beds, containing in places much 
concretionary iron-ore. This is one of the finest sections of the 
Cephalopoda Bed, and here many fossils may be obtained.* 

The Freestones, overlaid by the Kagstones, have been quarried 
for road-metal, &c., by the high road a little further north. The 
former beds comprise bands of false-bedded and even-bedded 
oolite, opened up to a depth, of 33 feet. They are sparingly 
fossiliferoug. Belemnites, Nerinma, and Ostrea occur, but the 
beds are partially made up of shell-fragments, and they contain 
small rolled fragments of oolite. The top bed has been bored by 
Annelides. (<S'pe p. 34.) 

The general succession of the beds is well shown again in 
a quarry on Nibley KnoU, near the Tyndale Monument, and 
in the lane leading towards the village of North Nibley. The 
section is as follows : — 


TTough irregular oolitic limestones with. 
I Trigonia-bed at base (1 ft. 2 in.) ; 

Ft. In. 


•^ yielding Modiola, Trigonia, Trichites, 
Terehratula glohaia, Rhynehonella 
spinosa, &c. - - - - 6 6 

White oolitic freestone and coarse brown 
shelly oolite, bored at top, and current- 
bedded .... about 22 
Marly and pebbly oolitic layer - - 4 

White and brown shelly and nodular 
oolites; Belemnites and Hinnites 
velatus - - - - - 2 

Hard white shelly oolite, bored at top 5 to 7 
Shelly oolitic limestones, with Ammonites, 
Asiarte, Gh-esslya, Plioladomya ftdicula, 
Trigonia striata, &o. - - about 8 

The Cephalopoda Bed was well shown in the deep lane-cutting, 
and from it I obtained specimens of Ammonites insignis, A. 
opalinus, A. radians, and A. dispansus. Mr. Buckman, who has 
examined the beds in detail, has published a section of which the 
following is a summary of the portion of the series below the 
Freestonest : — 

'Iron-shot marl and limestone, Am. 
opalinus - - . . 

Eock with Rhynehonella cynocephala 
„ , , , Concretionary and oolitic marly beds - 
^®Pp^^^P°''*<( Hard yellow oolitic rook; A. striatulus, 
A. insignis . - . . 

Oolitic and iron-shot marly rook; A. 
radians - - - . - 

Hard irregular rock ; A. striatulus 
'Fine yellow sands with concretionary 
layers of sandy limestone. Am. eom- 
pactiUs, A. Buhlineatus, Belemmtes, 
. Amberleya, Turbo, Lima - about 

Upper Lias. Olay. 

The grouping of the beds is that adopted in this Memoir. 

Ft. In, 








* See also Wright, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xii., p. 308. 
t Inf. Ool. Ammoniteo, p. 4 6. 


There are several sestlons of Inferior Oolite on the spur 
extending from Break Heart Hill to Stinchcombe Hill. At the 
former locality there is a quarry showing the following section:' — 

Ft. In. 
Eubbly oolite, used for road-stone - - - 7 

Hard white and more or less oolitic limestone, false- 
bedded. The stone is employed for walling and other 
building-purposes. Near the base it is shelly, and 
yields Lima pecUniformis and Terehratwla . - 8 

These beds at Break Heart Hill may represent the highest 
beds of the Inferior Oolite — the white oolite noticed by Witchell at 
Rodborough,* and seen also in the Horton quarry. (See p. 116.) 
Blocks in the wall by the roadside (said to have been taken from 
this quarry) contain small quartz pebbles. The beds are repre- 
sented as Great Oolite on the Geological Survey Map, but they 
appear to pass under the Fuller's Earth. The evidence obtained 
was not quite satisfactory, and therefore I content myself with 
expressing only the opinion that the beds belong to the Inferior 

The following section south of Dursley perhaps shows the 
lower portion of these White Oolite beds resting on the Ragstone. 
It is interesting as affording evidence of the variable character of 
the Ragstone division : — 

'More or less oolitic limestones. Ft. In. 

Eubbly marly and somewhat sandy oolite, 

with many examples of Terebrahda gldbata ; 

-p also Myaaites and other Lamellibranchs 

. °" <( Bed with Bhynohonella spinosa 

^^°^^- Marly limestone .... 

Marly limestone, Trigonia-bed, with oostate 

Trigonia, Ostrea flahelloides, Lima pectini- 

formis - - - - - 1 1 

"White oolitic and shelly freestone ; Trigonia, 

here and there, near top - - « 10 

Oolitic freestone in regular layers, current- 
. bedded in places - - - - 25 

The Ragstone was well exposed in a quarry by the road 
leading from Dursley to Stinchcombe Hill. The sands below the 
Cephalopoda Bed, were shown in the lane north-east of Break 
Heart Hill. They comprised micaceous yellow sands, with little 
or no calcareous matter, but with bands of flaggy and false-bedded 
calcareous sandstone. 

The following section, recorded by Mr. S. S. Buckman, shows 
the junction of the Cotteswold Sands with the Upper Lias Clay, 
as exhibited in the road at Stinchcombe, about two miles north 

of Nibleyt :— 

"Yellow sands. Ft. In. 

Dark brown argillaceous marl, with 
Ammonites hifrons, A. compactilis, 
Belemnites - - - - 1 

Brown and bluish shelly and sandy stone 
with ferruginous specks; A. hifrons, 
Bhynchonella, Terebratula, &c. - - 8 

Dark blue clay, with large blue-hearted 
nodules of stone. 








Upper Lias 


* Geology of Stroud, p. 62 f-^ 
f Inferior Ool. Ammonites, p. 47. 



^ . 
















a o 









(D S 



o « 







(0 n 


o g 

<» s 










lf3 ■^ « (M rH 



Cotteswold Hills — Dursley to Lechhampton. 

The district extending from the north-east of Dursley to Stroud, 
Leckhampton. and Cleeve Cloud, presents us with the finest 
development of tlie Inferior Oolite in England, and one in which 
the greatest number of local subdivisions have been m.ide. 
These are as follows : — 

Sdb-ditisions or Inferioe Oolite Series. 

Thickness in 





^ r 


White Freestone 


leus Grit 


Pea Grit 


tj r Upper Trigonia Grit 
^ < Gryphite Grit 
_i3 I Lower Trigonia Grit 

{Upper Freestone 
Oolite Marl - 
Lower Freestone 
r Pea Grit 
\ Lower Limestone 

{Cephalopoda Bed 
Cotteswold Sands 

6 to 15 

2 to 12 

[• 2 to 12 

6 to 20 

5 to 10 

45 to 130 

3 to 20 
10 to 2a 

2 to 7 
10 to 120 

• A. Parkinsoni. 

A. humphriesianus. 

A. opalinus and 
' . jureiisis. 

These divisions have been noted from time to time by 
Murchison7 J. Buckman, Strickland, Brodie, Lycett, Hull, Wright, 
and Witchell.* 

Descriptions have previously been given of the Cotteswold 
Sands and Cephalopoda Bed (p. 103). We now come to the 
main mass of the Inferior Oolite. In this group, which attains a 
thickness of 250 feet at Leckhampton, we have a considerable 
development of the false-bedded oolites with few fossils, probably 
accumulated with rapidity when compared with the more fossili- 
ferous Pea Grit Series below and the Ragstones above. 

There are at various horizons, fossil-beds rich in Echinoderms, 
Polyzoa, Brachiopods, and Lamellibranchs, but there are com- 
paratively few Ammonites and Belemnites, and, as will be seen, 
much difference of opinion has been expressed on the subject of 
zones. Four coralliferous layers have been observed on different 
horizons, and these bands furnish evidence of coral-growth in situ, 
though occasionally, as in the uppermost bed, there are indications 
of derivation.t As remarked by Mr. Hudleston, Nerinma is 
associated with the coral-growths in the Cotteswold area, and this 
is a genus that has not been met with in the district south of 
Eadfttock in Somersetshire. J 

* Murchison, Geol. Cheltenham, 1834; Ed. 2, by J. Buckman and H. E. Strick- 
land; Brodie and Buckman, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. i. p. 221 ; Brodie and 
Strickland, Ibid., vol. vi. pp. 239, 249, &c. ; J. Buckman, Ibid., vol. xiv. p. 107 ; 
Wright, 76i'(i., vol. xvi. p. 1 ; Lycett, The Cotteswold Hills, 1857; HiUl, Geology 
of Cheltenham (Geol. Survey), 1857 ; Witchell, Geology of Stroud, 1882. 

t See Tomes, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxviii. p. 412 ; Geol. Mag., 1886, 
p. 387 ; and Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. ix. p. 801; Wright, Ibid,, vol. iv. p. 148. 

J Gasteropoda of Inf. Oolite, p. 22. 


The principal sections of the Inferior Oolite Series along the 
■western Cotteswold Hills are exposed at Uley Bury, and Ooaley, 
near Dursley ; at Selsley Hill, Kodborough, and Stroud ; at 
Haresfield and Eandwick ; Painswick, Birdlip, and Crickley ; 
Leckhampton, Ravensgate and Lineover Hills, and Cleeve Cloud. 

In preparing the lists of fossils from the several subdivisions 
of the Inferior Oolite, I have made use of the works of Lycett, 
Witchell, and others, and have been guided also by the species I 
have myself obtained. 

The subdivision into zones of the Inferior Oolite of the Cottes- 
wold Hills is attended by as much difficulty as elsewhere, and the 
comparative rarity of Ammonites no doubt increases the difficulty. 

It must be remembered that we are seeking for divisions wliere 
none may exist in nature ; hence there is little chance of adopting 
any grouping that can be regarded as definite. The lower beds 
belong to the zone of A. Murchisona (including with it, as we 
have done elsewhere, the sub-zone of A. Sowerbyi) ; and the 
upper beds belong to the zone of A. Parkinsoni. The source of 
trouble in the Cotteswolds, as in Dorsetshire and Somersetshire, 
is the zone of ^, humphriesianus, for this horizon is as imperfectly 
developed, or as vaguely marked off, in the Cotteswolds as in more 
southerly parts of England. The species occurs, though sparingly, 
both in the Upper Freestone and in the overlying beds belonging 
to the Gryphite Grit; hence Dr. Wright placed the one sub- 
division, and E. Witchell the other, in the zone of A. humphrie- 
sianus. Evidently in this as in other regions the so-called zone 
is but a connecting link between the zones of A. Murchisona and 
A. Parkinsoni; and the beds in which A. humphriesianus is 
found are put sometimes in the Lower and sometimes in the 
Upper division of the Inferior Oolite. For practical purposes we 
might disregard it, although it is well to indicate its probable 

Mr. S. S. Buckman is indeed disposed to place the Gryphite 
Grit in the sub-zone oi Ammonites concavus (^Sowerbi/i-zone), and 
to regard the Upper Trigonia Grit as the base of the zone of A.. 
Parkinsoni; but he admits that "we have scarcely any break 
of a marked character between the Upper Trigonia Grit and the 
Gryphsea Grit in the Stroud district."* He has stated that in no 
part of the Cotteswolds is the zone of A. humphriesianus repre- 
sented, but that view depends to some extent upon the interpreta- 
tion of species. I have obtained one example of the fossil from 
near Chipping Campden, and Prof. Tate recognized the species 
from Stroud. 

A more particular account of the local subdivisions of the 
Inferior Oolite may now be given. 

Pea Grit Series. 

Resting upon the Cephalopoda Bed, there are beds of coarse 
ferruginous oolite, brown sandy limestone, rough freestone, and 

* Proc. Cotteswold Cluls, vol. ix. pp. 130, 132, and 374. 



pisolitic layers, 15 to 45 feet 
folJowing divisions : — 

fPea Grit. 

thick, that locally admit of the 

Pea Grit Series^ ^^^"^^"^ Limestone. 

Brown Ferruginous Beds (Ferruginous Oolite of J. 
L Buckman). 

These beds have been variously described by different geologists, 
for the sections alter much in detail at every locality. 

Brown Ferruginous Beds. — The beds of brown ferruginous 
oolite and sandy limestone that are sometimes met with at the 
base, have yielded no distinctive fossils, and may be regarded as 
passage-beds from the Cephalopoda Bed. They comprise two or 
three beds, which vary from 5 to 9 feet in thickness, and some- 
times yield many Lamelli'oranchs in the lower portion, .is observed 
by Witciiell. Mr. Hudleston records Nerincea (^Ptygmatis) xenos' 
from the beds on Crickley Hill, regarding it is the oldest species 
of Nerincea hitherto discovered in Britain.* The beds constitute a 
kind of ragstone, and are occasionally used for rough masonry. 
The lowest beds of the Inferior Oolite, seen at the Frith quarry, 
Painswick, consist of brown and slightly oolitic limestone,, with 
ramifying ferruginous tubes {see p. 84). 

Fig. 41. 

Diagram -section from Leckhampton to Uleij Bury. 
(E. Witchell.) (Distance, 16 mile?.) 

a. Lower Freestone. 

b. Pea Grit. 

c. Lower Limestone. i |-p „ • 

d. Brown Ferruginous Beds f '-\^,*_y"^' 
(Sandy Limestone). 

e. Cephalopoda Bed. 1 [Midford 
/. Cotteswold Sands. j Sand.] 


Lower Limestone.- — The term " Lower Limestone " was given 
in 1882, by Witchell; it is only of local application. These beds, 
however, attain importance on Rand wick Hill, where they have 
been opened up at the Euscombe quarries. There, beneath the 
Pea Grit, the beds described by Witchell were as foUowsf : — 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlix. (Proc.), p. 127. 

t Geol. Stroud, p. 41 ; and Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlii. p. 269. 

Pea Grit 





Ft. In. 
"Freestone, with oolitic grains sparingly 

distributed - - - - 10 

Oolitic limestone, mainly composed of 
oolite with bands or seama of shelly 
detritus, fragments of coral. Echini, 
and oolitic grains, and the upper 
surface covered with minute valves of 
Ostrea. A good weatherstone, but 
worked with difficulty - - - 16 

Witchell noticed that these beds of limestone are in places 
pisolitic and highly crystalline, and that they sometimes contain 
rolled , fragments of limestone and small quartz pebbles. He 
obserred the beds at Cam Long Down, near Dursleji, and at 
various points along the hills by Stroud to Leckhampton. 

The beds yield a number of small Gasteropoda — Cerithium, 
Ceritella, Monodonta, Nerita, &c., and fragments of Nerinaa ; also 
Ostrea, Pentacrimis, Cidaris, and Polyzoa. 

Mr. y. S. Buckman observes that the Lower Limestone and 
underlying Brown Ferruginous Beds may perhaps belong to the 
zone of Ammonites opalinus* 

Pea Grit. — This bed consists of hard and soft bands made up 
to a large extent of small bean-shaped and, less frequently, pea- 
shaped concretions. Where disintegrated the slopes beneath the 
exposed rock, as at Crickley, are strewn with the little concretions. 
The bed has been long known to the inhabitants of the district as 
the " Pea Grit," and is less commonly termed Pisolite. As early 
as 1 729 " Pisolithi " were noticed by Dr. John Woodward, on the 
hill between Cirencester and Gloucester,t evidently Birdlip, where 
the beds are well shown, and have a thickness of about 20 feet. 
The name Pea Grit was adopted by Murchison in 1834.t 

Alternating with the layers of Pea Grit, there are bands of 
hard pisolitic limestone, and there can be no doubt that the 
" Lower Limestone " is so represented in places, and at Crickley 
we have no need to make any subdivisions in the Pea Grit Series. 
The harder beds have been quarried for building-stone at Crickley 
and Leckhampton. The thickness of the series is here about 
38 feet. 

The Pea Grit as a separate bed has been traced by E. Witchell§ 
as far south as Coaley Wood, near Uley Bury, where it is 9 inches 
thick, at Hoi-sley where it is 3 feet, and at Longford Mill, near 
Nailsworth, where it is 5 feet. It has been observed by Prof. 
HuUII as far north as Nottingham Hill, but has not been detected 
on Kobin's Wood Hill. Eastwards he has noticed it at Coles- 
borne, audit occurs also near Andoversford. (See Fig. 41.) 

Witchell has remarked that '• The coral bed above the pea- 
grit corisists of masses of coralline limestone, embedded in a 

* Inf. Ool. Ammonites, pp. 7, 42 ;seealso Hndleston, Address to Geol. Soc, 1893, 
Quart, joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xlix. (Proc), p. 126. 
t Nat. Hist. Foss., Eng., Part 1, p. 30. 
J Geol. Cheltenham, p. 33. 
8 Quart. Jcurn. Geol. Soc, vol. xlii. p. 266. 
ij Geol. Cheltenham, p. 33. 

E 75928. H 



whitiah mudstone ; the ciorals are crystalline, and are extracted 
with difficulty. Their structure is best seen in polished hand 
specimens ; these can always be obtained from the broken heaps 
of stone on the sides of the road repaired with it, and can be 
easily ground to a smooth sm-face and polished." The Coral Bed 
can be traced from Haresfield Hill to Painswick Edge and Stroud, 
and again to Witcombe, Crickley, and Cubberley.* The par- 
ticular places-at which it has been observed are Juniper Hill, near 
Painswick, Huddingknoll, Horsepools, Sheepscombe, Birdlip, 
and Crickley. This Coral Bed is [sometimes termed the Fourth 
or Lower Coral Bed (in descending order) in the Inferior Oolite 
of the Cotteswold Hills. 

The following are among the more conspicuous fossils of the 
Pea Grit Series: — 

Ammonites MuroiiBonEe (Fig. 

Belemnites aalensis. 
Nerinaea oppelensis. 



Patella rngosa. 
Trocliotoma cariuata. 
Area Pratti. 
Avicula complicata. 
Hinnites abjeotus. 


Lima alticosta. 

Lycetti ? (" punctata ")• 

Modiola furoata. 



Ostrea rugosa. 
Pecten articulatus. 



Trictites nodostis. 
Trigonia costatula. 


Ehynohonella angulata. 



Terebratula pisolitica. 



Diastopora (several species). 
Entalopbora (Spiropora) stra- 

Heteropora pustulosa. 
Acrosalenia Lycetti. 
Galeopygus (Hyboclypus) 

Hemipedina Bakeri. 
Pseudodiadema depressum. 
PygaBter semisulcatus (Fig. 25). 
Stomechinus germinans (Fig. 24). 
Pentacrinus Austeni. 


Galeolaria (Serpnla) socialis. 
Adelastrsea oonsobrina. 
ChorisastrEea rugosa. 
Donacosmilia (AxosmUia) 

Isastrsea depressa. 
Latimssandra Flemingi. 
Montlivaltia lens. 


Thamnastrsea flabelliformis. 



Freestones and Oolite Marl. 

The Lower Freestone Beds consist of pale oolite often hard 
and compact at the top, more or less shelly in places, but on the 
whole sufficiently free from organic remains to be readily dressed 
into blocks for building-purposes and for carving. 

The beds are locally overlaid by a band of oolitic marl, 5 to 
10 (and rarely 30) feet thick, with indurated layers of oolite in 
places. Known as the Oolite Marl, this division is not always 
distinctly separated from the Lower Freestone below, while it 
more frequently merges into the Upper Freestone above. 

Witohell, Geol. Stroud, p. 45. 



The Lower Freestone, being more thickly developed, and alto- 
gether the more important division, is known as the " Building 
Freestone," although in some localities the upper freestone yields 
good beds of building-stone. It varies in thickness from 
about 45 feet at Uley Bury to 130 feet at Leckhampton. It 
contains Pecten personatus, &c., but no distinctive species. 

The Oolite Marl (Oolite Marlstone of J. Buckman) being- 
characterized by Terehratula fimbria, was termed the " Fimbria- 
stage" by Dr. Lycett. It contains also Terebratula maxillata 
(var. submaxillata), Waldheimia Leckenbyi, Rhynchonella sub- 
ohsoleta, and R. Lycetti : an assemblage not met with in Dorset- 

At the base of the Freestone there is at Leckhampton a bed ot 
" Flaggy Oolite " according to Prof. Buckman ( = " Slielly Free- 
stone " of Brodie) that is extensively quarried for rough kinds of 
stone-work, and in which there are many forms of life similar to 
those of the Great Oolite.f The strata likewise present great 
similarities in llthological characters with some beds in the Great 
Oolite of Minchinhampton. These lower beds are not separated by 
any marked plane of division from the underlying Pea Grit Series. 

The Upper Freestone (which includes the " Rubbly Oolite " of 
Brodie) is often a pale closely-packed oolite, and is of variable 
thickness, being from 6 to 20 feet at Stroud and Nailswortb, 
20 feet at Leckhampton, and about SO feet at Cleeve Cloud. 

In the neighbourhood of Oleeve Cloud and north-eastwards, 
sandy and clayey subdivisions become associated with the higher 
portions of the Freestone Series, replacing to a certain extent the 
Upper Freestone. 

The Coral Bed that occurs in the Oolite Marl has been termed 
the Middle Coral Bed, but other Coral Beds having been subse- 
quently observed, it is noted as the Third Coral Bed (in descend- 
ing order) in the beds of this district. It has been found at 
Juniper and Birdlip Hills, at Leckhampton, and Notgrove. 

The following fossils are among those recorded from the Oolite 

Marl : — 

Ammonites Murchisonse (Fig, 

Nautilus clausus. " ^^ 

Discohelix (Solarium) cottes- t 

Natica cincta (leokhamptoii' 

Nerinsea cotteswoldias. 


Astarte depressa. 

elegans (Fig. 12). 


Ceromya concentrica. 
OuouUaea cucullata. 
Cyprina curvirostris. 

Gervillia aurita. 
Hinnites abjectus. 
Lima pectiniformis. 

- pontonis. 
Luoina Wrigliti. 
Modiola imbricata. 
Mytilus pectinatus. 
Ostrea flabelloides. 

palmetta, var. montiformis. 

Pecten subcomatus. 
Perna rugosa, var. quadrata. 
Pholadomya Heraulti. 
TrioMtes uodosus. 
Trigonia angulata. 



* J. F. "Walker, Geol. Mag., 1878, p. 556. 

t Buckman, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xiT. p. 109 ; Brodie, Ibid., vol. vi. pp. 
244, &o. 

H 2 


Trigonia striata (Fig. 9). 
Ehynclionella concinna (Fie. 






Terebratula ourvifrons. 

fimbria (Fig 23). 

maxillata (submaxillata) 

(Fig. 78). 

Terebratula plioata. 
Waldheimia carinata. 


Eryma elegans (Guisei). 
Comoseris vermicnlaris. 
OonvexastrEea "Waltoni. 
Isastraja limitata. 
Latimseandra Fleming!. 
Sty Una solida. 
Thamnastraea defranciana. 
Tbecosmilia gregaria. 

This division has by some authorities been placed in the sub- 
zone of A. Sowerbyi. 


This general name is applied to the upper beds of the Inferior 
Oolite in the Ootteswold area : beds that furnish little or no free- 
stone. They comprise layers of more or less earthy ferruginous 
and oolitic limestone, and are far more fossiliferous than the FVee- 
stones below. Occasionally they yield blocks serviceable for 
building-purposes, for rough walling, &,c., but they are chiefly 
employed for road-metal. They are from 20 to 40 feet thick. 

Very many local divisions have been made, to which the name 
" Grit " has unfortunately been applied, for, strickly speaking, this 
term should be confined to coarse-grained sandstones. The 
" Grits " of the Oolitic series are for the most parteaiWl^ Jime- 
stones, and occasionally calciferous sandstones, as is the case, with 
certain beds in the CoraUian Series. 

In this Upper Division of the Inferior Oolite Series we have 
locally the " Gryphite Grit," a term used by Murcl)t\«t)n in 1834, 
because the beds are characterized by Gryphaa svhlohata, a form 
which occurs very abundantly. 

The " Trigonia Grits " (recognized by Murchison and Buck- 
man in 1845) of which two horizons were pointed out by Lycett 
in 1857, are characterized by an abundance of Trigonias, but the 
upper bed is more extensively developed than the lower. A 
•' Chemnitzia Grit " has also been noticed locally by Dr. Wright 
in association with the Lower Trigonia Grit ; but the forms at 
one time identified as Pha.iianella and Chemnitzia, are now named 
Bourguetia and Pseudomelania. 

On top of these Grits there are beds characterized by an abun- 
dance of Clypeui Ploti; to them the name " Olypeus Grit" has 
been applied (=Clypeus Brash of J. Buokman) ; and in this 
subdivision a " Pholadomya Grit " was noticed by Lycett. 
Again, from the prevalance of Rhynchonella spinosa in all these 
Grits or Ragstones, the term " Spinosa-stage " was applied to 
them collectively by Lycett. 

In some localities above the Clypeus Grit there have been 
noticed certain beds of pale oolite termed the White Oolite (or 
Freestone) by Witchell.* This bed is not very fossiliferous, but 
it contains Terebratula globata, Trigonia, and Pecten. 

* Proc. Cottesw. Club, vol. vii. p. 117. 

INFERIOR oolite: ragstones. 117 

The Upper Trigonla Grit, and more especially the Olypeus 
Grit, yield in abundance Terebratula globata : hence these divi- 
sions are sometimes known as the " Globata Beds." 

Thus the following minor palseontological divisions have been 
recognized in the Upper Division of the Inferior Oolite near 
Cheltenham : — 

Ft. Ih. 

■Rl?=?nL= 1 White Oolite 5 © 

(Hulir J Clypeiis Grit (with Pholadomya Grit) - 6 to 15 © 

Lower r TrigOBia Grit (Upper Trigonia Grit) - 2 to 12 

Eagstoiies i Gryphite Grit (including Lower Trigonia 

(Hull). L Grit and " Che mnitzia " Grit) - 2 to 12 

These subdivisions may be looked upon as fossil-beds of a more 
or less local character, for as Lycett remarked in reference to 
them, probably in no single locality are they all exhibited ; and 
in some places (ms will be noticed) lithological divisions occur that 
cannot be precisely correlated with any of these fossil-beds. 

In the Kagstones there are few Cephalopoda, Gasteropoda, and 
few Ecliinoderms (excepting Clypeus) ; but Lamellibranchs and 
Brachiopoda are abundant. 

Two Coral Beds have been observed ; the Second Coral Bed, 
which occurs at the bottom of the Lower Trigonia Grit, having 
been observed at liavensgate Hill, Birdlip, Leckhampton, Cleeve 
Hill, Juniper Hill, near Painswick, and Brown's Hill, nearer 
to Stroud. The First or Upper Coral Bed occurs at the base 
of the Clypeus Grit or on top of the Upper Trigonia Grit, at 
Stroud Hill, Rodborough, and in the Slad Valley, Stroud. 

Specimens of Clypeus Ploti {^sinuatus) are very abundant in 
some places. Prof. Buckroan stated that " The platform upon 
which the houses at Birdlip stand, rests on th's bed, which is well 
exposed by the denudation of the Fuller's earth. Here the 
plough on the Stone-brash turns up this Urchin in large quan- 
tities ; the same is the case in the Stow district, where we have 
frequently seen it gathered up in heaps for removal from the 
barley-field, and have not always succeeded in convincing our 
bucolic friends that it was not an annual production."* Some of 
the railway-cuttings near iNotgi'ove, and the ploughed fields near 
Naunton have also yielded these fossils in abundance. John 
Phillips mentions that they were known as " poundstones " or 
" quoitstones," and were in the early days of William Smith not 
unfrequently employed as a "pound-weight" by the dairy- 
women.f Strict regulations with regard to weights and measures 
were not in force. 

The following fossils have 'been recorded from the Gryphite 
Grit (including the Lower Trigonia Grit) : — 

Ammonites humphrieBianus 

(Fig. 17). 
Nautilus lineatus» 

Belemnites canaliculatus. 
Bourguetia striata (Ohemnitzia 
Sasmanni or Phasianella). 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soo., vol. xiv. p. 108. 
t Memoirs of Wm. Smith, p. 3. 



tseudomelania prooera. 
Astarte elegana (Fig. 12). 
— ^ exoavata (Pig. 20). 
Ceromya bajociana (Fig. 21). 
OucuUsea oblonga. 
Oyprioardia cordiformis (Fig. 19). 
Gervillia HartmaBni. 


Gresslya abducta. 

Gryphsea sublobata (Backmani). 

Homomya Vezelayi. 

Isocardia cordata. 

Lima pectiniformis. 

strigillata (bellula). 

Macrodon hirsonensis. 
Myacites tenuistriatus. 
Myooonclia cra'ssa. 
Ostrea flabelloides. 

palmetta, var. montiformis. 

Pecten articulatus. 

Peoten demissus. 


Perna rugosa. 

Pholadomya fidicula (Fig. 11). 




Pinna cuneata. 
TricMtes undulatus. 
Trigonia angulata. 




striata (Fig. 9). 

TJnicardium depressum. 
Terebratula Buckmani. 

Phillipsi (Fig. 27). 

Isastrsea tennistriata. 
Thamnastraea defranciana. 
Thecosmilia gregaria. 

The following fossils have been recorded from the Upper 
Trigonia Grit : — 

Ammonites Martinai. 

Parkinsoni (Fig. 26). 

Belemnites abbreviatus. 
Avicula digitata. 
Oardium Buckmani. 
Oeromya striata. 
Gresslya abducta. 
Lima gibbosa. 


Macrodon hirsonensis. 

Ostrea coiicentrica, var. mimda. 

Pecten articulatus. 


Perna rug-osa. 

Pholadomya Heraulti. 
Triohites undulatus. 
Trigonia angulata. 





Ehynclionella angulata. 

concinna (Fig. 77). 

spinosa (Fig. 29). 

Terebratula globata (Fig. 28). 
Waldbeimia carinata. 
Verm.ilia sulcata. 
Holectypus depressus. 

The following fossils have been recorded from the Oly.peus 

Ammonites Brocchii. 

Parkinsoni (Fig. 26). 

Nerinsea Guisei. 
Astarte depressa. 
Oardium cognatum. 
Ceromya plioata. 


Gucullasa oblonga. 

Oyprioardia cordiformis (Fig. 19). 

Oyprina Lucyi. 

Homomya gibbosa. 

Isoarca clypeata. 

Lima gibbosa. 


Lucina clypeata. 

Modiola sowerbyana (Fig. 10). 

Myacites asquatus. 

Myacites compressiusoulus. 
Ostrea flabelloides. 
Pecten demissus. 
Pholadomya Dewalquei. 


So-werbya elongata. 
Trichites undulatus. 
Unicardium incertum. 
Ehynchonella angulata. 

spinosa (Fig. 29). 


Terebratula globata (Fig. 28). 



Vermilia sulcata. 

Clypeus Ploti (sinuatus) (Fig. 30). 

Holectypus depressus. 

The White Oolite (or Freestone), described by Witchell, con- 
stitutes over a limited area the uppermost division of the Inferior 
Oolite, underlying the Fuller's Earth on Rodborough Common, 



and at Stroud Hill.. It is a white fine-grained oolite ; but has 
not, so far as I know, been eaiployed as a freestone. The few 
fossils recorded from it include Pecten demissus, Trigonia costata, 
and Terebratula globata. 

It is now desirable to note some of the principal sections that 
have been exposed from Dursley to Leckhampton. 

The following section at Ooaley Wood, Uley Bury, has been 
described in deUil by Mr. S. S. Buckman,* in whose company I 
had the advantage of examining the strata : — 


Base of Pea Grit Series (^'•°T-^ *«"^S™°^^ ^^""^^ 
L oolite ... 

fHard brown iron-stot 

Zone of I oolite, Am. opalinus 

Ammonites <( Marly ircn-shot limestone, 

ojoalinue. | Am. opalinus, Belem- 

[_ nites, Chemnitzia 

Marl witli Am. Wrighti, 

Belemnites, Astarte 

lurida, CyprioarcUa, 


rlron-shot marly limestone. 

Sub-zone of J A. discoides 

A. striaiulus.j Iron-shot marl, A. siriatu- 

L lus, A. radians - 3 to 

Fine yellow micaceous 

sands with bands and 

nodules of calcareous 

sandstone, A. sublinea- 

tus, A. variabilis, Pecten 


Fine yellow sands - about 

Sandstone with A. hifrons 

var., and A. compactilis- 

Tellaw sands - about 


Ft. In. 


Upper Lias 


Sub-zone of J 

A. variabilis. \ 









The Cephalopoda Bed may be examined in other places along 
the wooded escarpment which extends to Frocester Hill.f The 
Pea Grit Series, Freestones, and Kagstones are here and there 
exposed. The beds may also be studied at Selsley Hill. 

Excellent sections of the Inferior Oolite are again to be seen 
on Eodborough Common, and on the hill (Stroud Hill) east of 
Stroud. Here lived and laboured for many years Edwin Witchell, 
who (following Lycett) worked out the palaeontology of the beds 
in great detail. Under his guidance I had the advantage of 
seeing in this neighbourhood the principal sections, of which the 
following may be taken as a summary. 

General section of the Inferior Oolite Series near Stroud J : — 

* Inf. Ool. Ammonites (Pal. Soc), pp. 45, 166. 

t For accounts of the beds at Frocester, see Brodie, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. 
vii. p. 210 ; J. Bnckman, Ibid., vol. xiv. p. 103 ; Witchell, Geol. Stroud, p. 32. 

J Witchell, Geol. Stroud, p. 5 (plate), and pp. 55, &c. See also Hudleston, Gas- 
teropoda of Inf. Oolite (Pal. Soc), p. 62. 



Eagstones < 


Pea Grit 



Ft. In, 

White Oolite. Pale oolite with few 
fossils - - - - - 5 

Clypeus Grit. Coarse marly oolite ; 
Terebrakila globata very abundant, 
especially in upper part. Clypeus 
Floti, Nerinoea Guisei {Onisei-hed of 
Hudleston), &c. - - - - 6 ff 

Hard earthy and sandy limestones with 
few fossils - - - . 4ft 

Upper Coral Bed - - - - 3 

Upper Trigonia Grit. Hard grey 
shelly and marly limestones, with 
Trigonia angulata, T. costata, Rhyn- 
chonella spinosa, &c. - 2 6 to 4 0' 

Gryphite Grit. Brown ferruginous 

marly and sandy limestone, with 

loamy layers, Gryphcsa sublohata, 

Astarte elegans, &o.- - 1 6 to 12 

'Upper Freestone. False-bedded oolite, 

bored on tdp ; with few fossils 10 to 20 

Oolite Marl. Soft oolitic marly lime- 
stone and marl ; Nerinoea, Terebratula 
fimbria, Bhynchonella suhohsoleta, &o. 4 to 6 

Lower Freestone. Fine and coarse- 
grained oolite, more or less false- 
bedded, and with shelly detritus in 
places - - - - 50 to 90 O 

r Pea Grit - - - - 3 to 4 

Lower Limestone - - - 15 to 25 

. Brown Ferruginous Beds ■ - 9 

r Cephalopoda Bed ... 50 

1 Cotteswold Sands - - about 110 0' 

In addition to the sections on Stroud Hill, which aro known a» 
the Workhouse quarry, Conygre quarrj% and another quarry in 
Horns Valley on the southern slope of the hill, there are many 
sections along the borders of the Stroudwater Hills. The same 
subdivisions may be studied in different places ; thus the opening 
known as Walls quarrv, south of Brinascombe, affords a good 
section of the Ragstones, Upper Freestone, Oolite Marl, and 
Lower Freestone, and the building-stones have been worked by 
means of extensive galleries in this quarry.* Other sections are 
exposed in the Golden Valley east of Ohalford. 

Sapperton Oanal-tunnel, which was completed in 1789, showed^ 
at the Stroud end, Fuller's Earth overlying; Inferior Oolite. 
From the latter rock Rhynchonella spinosa and also Terebratula 
fimbria were obtained ; thus indicating that; tiie Oolite Marl as 
well as the Eagstones were penetnited. Further on, a mass of 
Fuller's Earth was encountered, faulted against the Inferior 
Oolite on the Stroud side, and against the Great Oolite on the 
other side, and this latter rock continued until the end of the 
tunnel. Its length was 3,81 7 yards and the water-level was 363 
feet above sea-level. 

* See Geol. parts of Wills and Gloucester, p. 



In the tunnel of the Great Western Railway, the beds exposed, 
near the Stroud valley, were Fuller's Earth resting on Inferior 
Oolite ; and these dipped towards the hill, being followed by the 
Great Oolite, and being only slightly faulted in one place.* In 
the Frampton.Cuttii>gthe Ragstones, yielding Terebratula globata 
and Rhynchonella spinosa, ■were exposed. 

At a quarry, by the first milestone, on the Bath road, beyond 
Nailsworth, the following section was noted : — 

Ft. Im. 
"Pale nibbly and fissured oolite - - about 8 

Hard white oolite, with Terehratula globata, 

Pholadomya, Clypeus Floti, Nerincea Ouisei - 1 10 
Bagstones < Hard brown oolite, with Trigonia, Lima pectini- 

^ formis, Rhynchonella spinosa, &c. - - 2 6 

Shelly oolite, with T. globata, Bhynchonella ■ 
■ concinna, and Trigonia - - - - 6 

Upper r White oolitic freestone, very hard, and bored at 
Freestone. \ top . - - - ' seen to depth of 7 

The freestones burn to a good lime ; while the ragstones here yield the 
best weatherstone. , 

It is noteworthy that at this locality we have no trace of the 
Gryphite Grit; and the Oolite Marl is hardly discernible, so that 
the Upper .and Lower Freestones practically form one division, 
that is estimated to be about 35 feet thick. 

The Lower Freestone, as remarked by Witchell, has been 
largely quarried at Ball's Green, near Nailsworth, where galleries, 
a quarter of a mile long, have been driven into the hill. The 
Pea Grit (3 feet thick), as remarked by Mr. Hudleston, has been 
well exposed at Longford Mill, east of Nailsworth, and has 
yielded several species of Nerinaa. The Lower Limestones attain 
a thickness of about 25 feet ; and the Gloucestershire Cephalo- 
poda Bed about 14 feet.f 

North-east of Stroud, the beds may be studied at Swift's Hill, 
near Knap Farm, and on the spur that separates Painswick Slade 
from Painswick, at the Frith quarry, and at Longridge, S.E. of 
Painswick. J 

At the Frith quarry, the Upper Freestone and Oolite Marl 
are not separable, for the latter consists of oolitic marl, with 
bands of hard pale earthy and fine oolitic limestone, merging 
upwards into the Upper Freestone. Together these beds attain 
a thickness of upwards of 30 feet. They yield in some abundance 
a variety of Rhynchonella cynocephala and R. Tatei, the former 
occursing in quite the highest part of the beds, where it was found 
by Mr. P. N. Datta, who accompanied Mr. Witchell and myself. 

On the spur of Inferior Oolite, that extends to Standish Hill 
or Haresfield Beacon, Eandwick Hill, and Ruscombe, there are 
numerous exposures of the beds, including the quarries at White 
Hill (Whiteshiil), the Horsepools, Painswick Hill, and Kims- 
bury Castle, § 

* J. H. TanntOD, Froc. Cottesw. Club, vol. T. p. 255 ; Ibbetson, Eep. Brit. Assoc, 
for 1846, Sections, p. 61. 

t Witchell, Geol. Stroud, pp. 46, &c. ; Hudleston, Gasteropoda of Inf. Ool, p. 60. 

J See also Hudleston, Inf. Ool. Gasteropoda, p. 63. 

§ See Witchell, Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. vii. p. 117, ?nd vcJl. viii. p. 44. 


The following section at Haresfield Beacon was examined 
under the guidance of Mr. S. S. Buckman, who has published a 
detailed account of it* : — 

Pea Grit 



Ft. In. 
'Pea Grit - - • . -50 

Lower Limestones ... about 35 
Brown ferruginous sandy limestones and 
. oolite with quartz grains - - - 8 4 

'5. Iron-shot marly limestones and marl; 
Ammonites opalinus, A. convptus, A. 
aalensis, Trigonia Bamsayi . - 2 1 

4. Brown marl, with Bhynchonella cynoce- 
juaiopuLia,,^ ;p7iaZa, A. Moorei, A. Wrighii . 2 to 6 
■ 3. Iron-shot marl, with Terehratula punctata, 

var. liaresfieldensis - - - 5 

2. Hard nodular bluish-grey sandy lime- 
stone, Am. striatulus, Ostrea • - 7 
Cotteswold / 1. Yellow sands ; with Am. bifrons, var. about 

Sands. L 70 feet down in sandy stone - about 100 

The division between the zone of Ammonites opalimis (Cephalopoda 
Bed) and overlying beds is from a palsentological point of view indefinite. 
Mr. Buckman includes beds 2 and 3 in the sub-zone of Ammonites 
striatulus. Belemnites are abundant in the Cephalopoda Bed. 

The Cotteswold Sands, and traces of the Cephalopoda Bed, 
were exposed in a lane-cutting, west of Edge, and south o£ the 
Horsepools. The sands here contain very fine mealy beds, that, 
according to Mr. W. C. Lucy, were formerly used for cleaning 

The Lower Limestones were exposed in a quarry near by, and 
again further north of the Horsepools. At the latter place the 
beds were much tilted, with appearances of " terminal curvature " 
on top. Here we find sandy, shelly, ferruginous, and oolitic lime- 
stones, with rolled pebbles of oolite, and occasionally small quartz 
pebbles, as pointed out many years ago by Strickland. Annelide 
borings occur In different layers, and there is a marked band with 
ramifying ferruginous markings, like the bed seen-at the base of 
the Frith section, and resembling the Great Oolite "Dagham 
Stone." (See p 286.) Mr. Lucy, who has described these beds, 
considers that the quartz grains may have been derived from the 
older rocks of the Forest of Dean. In the Huddingknoll quarry, 
at Horsepools, the conglomeratic Oolite Is known as the " Dapple 
Bed " ; it contains tiny quartz pebbles, and pebbles of oolite, and 
is from 9 inches to 1 foot thick.t 

The Lower Freestone, Oolite Marl (6 feet), and Upper Free- 
stone are shown on Quar hill to the south of the Horsepools, 
where the beds are quarried for building-stone, and burnt for 
lime. Freestone is largely worked on Painswick Hill. The 
stone-beds are somewhat shattered, and consist of pale oolite 
with alternate layers of darker oolite. The stone, although 
reckoned a good weatherstone, does not last well if placed 
directly on the ground. 

* Inf. Ool. Ammonites, p. 43 ; and Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxv. p. 737. 
t Proo. Cotteswold Club, vol. ix. p. 388. A specimen of this Dapple Bed, was 
presented to the Museum of Practical Geology by Mr. S. S. Buckman. 


Traces of Gryphite Grit occur by Kimsbury Castle, and below 
this camp, on the western side, tough ferruginous oolite, a good 
weatherstone has been worked at the Jackdaw quarry. This 
stone (or set of rag-beds) has been used for road-metal, and also 
for the new reservoir near Gloucester. Ammonites have been 
found ^ere. The beds overlie the Freestone ; but there are many 
faults in the neighbourhood, and without detailed mapping on 
on the 6-inch scale, it is difficult to make out the relations of the 
beds seen in different quarries. 

Passing to the north-east, we have fine sections at Birdlip, 
Crickley, and Leckhampton, near Cheltenham.* Birdlip is of 
especial historic interest, for at its " Black Horse " the Cotteswold 
Club was founded in 1846. The Pea Grit is well exposed in the 
lower part of the scarp by the Knap, and higher up come the 
Freestones and Kagstones : the latter are also exposed in the 
banks of the lane south of ihe Black Horse. The Clypeus Grit 
yields many specimens of Clypeus Ploti and Terebratula globata, 
including the variety known as T. globata, var. birdlipensis, which 
is found also in Dorsetshire. The Gryphite Grit has however not 
been noticed at this locality, and the relations of the several sub- 
divisions are not so clearly exhibited as at Leckhampton. 

A well-boring made south-east of Birdlip, showed that the 
Inferior Oolite, from the Clypeus Grit to the top of the Cepha- 
lopoda Bed, attains a thickness of 187 feet. The boring further 
penetrated sands and clay 1 16 feet.f 

The Pea Grit Series is well exposed along the southern scarp 
of Crickley Hill. It comprises thick beds of pisolite, alternating 
with marly pisolitic layers, the talus here and there being largely 
made up of loose pisolitic concretions. Beds of more or less 
pisolitic oolite occur here and there, especially in the upper part 
of the series, which is overlaid by a hard and ragged bed (the 
Polyzoa Bed), sometimes two layers of which are present. The 
beds are bored In places by Annelides ; and they contain 
Terebratula plicata, Ostrea, Ammonites Murchisoncs, &c. 

The nature of the particular layers varies considerably as the 
beds are traced along the scarp. The following section gives their 
general characters : — 

Ft. In. 
Lower /Pale oolitic freestones, with hard limestone at 
Freestone. I base. 

'Eubbly pisolitic beds, merging into - - 2 6 

Hard shelly layer "with Gasteropods {Nerinma), 

Bhynchonella, Polyzoa. [Coral Bed] 2 to 4 
More or less rubbly and shelly marl, oolitic and 

slightly pisoliiic ; Terebratula plicata - - 1 6 

Hard shelly oolites and pisolitic limestones, 
current-bedded in places ; Bhynchonella - 7 9 

Pea Grrit J Alternations of pisolitic limestone and marly 
Series. | pisolitic beds - - - - - 12 6 

* The term Cheltenham Beds has been used by Sir A. Geikie for the Inferior 
Oolite. Text Book of Geology, Ed. 2, 1885, p. 788. 
t W. C. Lacy, Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. viii. p. 161. 


Ft. Ik. 
Hard shelly and pisolitio limestones, current- 
bedded in places and bored at different 
horizons - - - - - 11 8 

White oolites, bored here and there - - 8 10 

White and brown ochreous and sparry oolitic 
and slightly pisolitic limestones ; Ostreci, Peeten 
^ articulatus, Corals - - - - 6 

rPale brown marly iron-shot and ochreous beds ; 
Cephalopoda J Belemnites - - - 16to26 

Bed. I Sandy marl with Bhynchonella cynocephala, &c. - 2 
L Sands. (Not exposed.) 

The beds are somewhat diiFerently grouped by different ob- 
servers, but practically there are no marked divisions to be made 
in the Pea Grit Series at this locality.* E. Witchell has grouped 
the beds as foUowst : — 

Ft. In. 

•p . n -f r Pisolite - • - - 35 

rea, uric j j^^^^^. Limestone - - - 22 6 

oeries. ]_ Sandy Limestone - - - 6 3 

On a higher liorizon, a lenticular Coral Bed, 11 feet thick in 
places, was shown S.E. of Crickley Hill, resting on rubbly oolitic 
marls 3 or 4 feet thick, beneath which came the Pea Grit 
Series. , 

The best known sections of the Inferior Oolite on the Oottes- 
wold Hills, are those at Lecl<hampton Hill. They have been 
described by numerous geologists, whose measurements and des- 
criptive details differ to some extent, on account of the varying 
nature of the beds.J The following is an account of tlie strata 
exposed in the quarries, though it does not include the highest 
beds present in the hill :— 

Ft. In, 
fHard irregular earthy shelly and oolitic 

I limestones ; Ammonites Pa7-Mnsoni, Lima, 
pectiniformis, Trigonia, Terebratula 
Trigonia -^ gldbata, Bhynchonella, &o. - - 6 

Hard oolite, bored at surface; passing 
down into hai-d shelly oolite (? = the 
Notgrove Freestone, p. 132) - - 3 6 

Hard brown rubbly and gritty oolitic and 
iron-shot limestone, in several beds ; with 
Gryphcea suhlohata in abundance 5 to 
Lower Trigonia r Rubbly limestones - - 5 to 

Grit, &c. (not < -Marly and shelly oolite 
clearly exposed). L Brown marly layer - . - - 

* An excessive thickness of about 70 feet was assigned to the Pisolitic Beds by 
Mr. T. B. lT. Baker, Froo. Cottcswold Club, vol. ii. p. iv. ; see also J. Buokman, 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xiv. p. 106 j Hudleston, Gasteropoda of Inf. Oolite, 
p. 67 ; E. Witchell, Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. viii. p. 43 ; and W. C. Lucy, Ibid., 
vol. ix. p. 288. 

t Quart. Journ. Gedl. Soc, ifol. xlii.-p. 2G8. " 

j H. E. Strickland, Quart. .Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. vi. pp. 242, &c. ; and Memoirs, 
p. 189 ; J. Buokman, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xiv. p. 101, and Froc. Cotteswold 
Club, vol. ii. p. ix. ; Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, pp. 28, 32, 44, 45, and plate 2 ; 'Wright, 
Lias Ammonites (Pal. Soc), p. 150 ; Witchell, Geol. Stroud, pp. 37, &c. ; S. S. 
Buckman, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlix., p. 511. 

Grit, &o. 







infekiob oolite series : cheltenham. 125 

Ft. In. 

Tipper Freestone I ^'^^f-^'^'^l'l °°-^''.^ u^^j*^ f^'^'^^ on^'Tf ' <». n 
*^^ I shading down into beds below - 20 to 25 

r Soft marly oolite or rnbbly marl, with 

Oolite Marl i Lima, Lucina hellona, Terehratula fimbria, 

L &c. - ._ - - 7 to 10 

rPale oolite, witb occasional marly layers, 

Lower Freestone-^ *^^J'PP1'' Fu''\ '^'"'^ false-bedded and 
I shattered, the lower part more or less 
L shelly .... about 130 

TEubbly ochreous shelly and pisolitic beds, 
] with Lamellibranchs, Brachiopods, 

Pea Grit Series i r, ^''^^i' ^^^ Polyzoa . . . 12 

j Coarse oolitic and pisolitic limestone, iron- 
stained - - - 15 to 20 
LBrown and grey limestones - - about 6 
Cephalopoda Bed. — Ferruginous iron-shot limestone and sandy 

beds with Bhynchonella cynoeephala 1 to 4 
Cotteswold Sands. — Sands. 

Witchell estimated the total thickness of the Inferior Oolite at 
236 feet : including the uppermost beds, not above noted ; the 
full thickness may be about 250 feet. 

The thickness of the Sands was estimated at 20 feet by Prof. 
Hull, but the beds have not been clearly exposed ; for the lower 
strata along the scarp are much obscured by oolitic rubble, which 
is used as ''gravel" for mending paths. The harder pisolitic 
limestones are employed for building walls and for road-metal. 

Many of the pisolitic granules are covered with Polyzoa, in- 
dicating paucity of sediment and slow accumulation of the beds. 
At or near the lop of the Pea Grit Series there is usually a 
marked Polyzoa Bed, but here and there at lower horizons similar 
beds occur. A weathered slab obtained by Mr. J. J. H. Teall 
from the top of the series, contained the following fossils, which 
were identified by Mr. G. Sharman : — Lima, Ostrea, Acrosalenia, 
Pseudodiadema, Pentacrinus cingulatus ?, Diastopora, Heteropora, 
and Entalophora (^Spiropora) straminea. 

The Crustacean, Eryma elegans {Guisei), was found in the Oolite 
Marl of Leckhampton ;* such remains are rare, but an example 
of the same genus was lately found at Dundry, by Mr. H. W. 
Monckton, and it has been obtained at Cleeve Hill, and also at 
Chideock in Dorset. 

Northern and Eastern Cotteswolds — Cleeve Cloud, Bredon Hill, 
Chipping Campden, and Burford. 

The cuttings on the railway between Andoversford and Ohed- 
worth exhibited some fine sections of the Inferior Oolite, the 
records of„ which may be summarize! as foUowsf : — 

* Wright, Free. Cotteswold Club, vol. viii., p. 58. The species is regarded by 
Mr. J. Carter as E. elegans. 

f Tbe sections hare also been described in detail by Mr. S. S. Buckman, Proc. 
Cotteswold Club, voir x. p. 94. 



Fuller's Earth 

Clypeus Grit 

Trigonia Grit 
(6). ^ 

Grit (5). 

Upper Free- 
stone (4). 

Lower Free- 
stone (4). 

° < 

Pea Grit Series 



Midford Sand 

Clay, ■with bands of reddish, ferru- 
ginous limestone at base : Avi- 
cula echinata, Somomya, Phola- 
domya, &c. ... 

'22. Soft marly and rnbbly beds, 
with coarse oolitic grains — 
the top layer a hard brown 
iron-shot bed : Olypewe Ploti, 
Homomya, Pholadomya, Tere- 
hratula glohata, &o. - 

21. Hard earthy and shelly oolitic 
limestones, nnfossiliferous in 
places. Ammonites Martinsi, 
Cardium Buchmani, Modiola, 
Myacites, TricJiites, Ottrea, 
Peoten, Ithynchonella spmosa,, 
Terebratula globata, &c. 

20. Marly ferruginous oolite, 
Ammonites, Gryphcea suhlo' 
lata, Modiola, Myacites, Pho- 
ladomya fidicula, &c. 16 to 

19. Black shelly clay and lami- 
nated loamy bed - 8 to 

18. Hard freestone, bored on top, 
shelly in places, Trigonia 
# m * 

17. Rather sandy oolite, iron- 
stained in places and 
obliquely bedded, with cal- 
careous sandy beds - 15 to 
16. Ferruginous marly bed, nodu- 
lar in places (impersistent) 

1 Oto 
K. False-bedded white oolite, 
bored at various horizons 

8 Oto 
14. Marl .... 
13. Oolite ... - 

Oolitic and pisolitic marl 
Shelly oolite and pea-grit in 
massive beds, used for build- 
ing: Echini, Trichites, Tere- 
bratula plicata 
Ferruginous oolite or iron- 
stone, and brownish shelly 
limestone, with earthy layers, 
Gresslya - - 10 to 

9. Ferruginous earthy limestone,^ 
with veins like Dagham 
Stone, and softer earthy and 
sandy layers : Belemnites, 
Isocardia ... 
8. Hard ferruginous, shelly and 

orinoidal limestone - 
7. Brown sand 
6. Clay 

6. Yellow ferruginous sand 
4. Bluish-grey clay with ferru 

ginous streaks 
3. Yellow micaceous and ferru- 
ginous sands 
2. Bubbly ironstone layer 
1. Grey laminated clay and sand 

Ft. In. 





1 6 



1 2 







- 2 






- 5 


- 4 

. 2 

. 2 


Interesting modifications of the beds are met with, but the series is not 
complete, as we have no exposure of the Oolite Marl in these railway- 
cuttings, although that division may be found in the neighbourhood of 
Chedworth. These marls with Terebratula fimbria were exposed by the 
road-side to the east of the Eoman Villa, and they occur above freestone 
that is worked in a quarry on Tanworth Common. 

Commencing with the lowest strata, the Midford Sand, or passage- 
beds from the Upper Lias Clay ; we find them well exposed in cuttings 
west of Cleevely "Wood (c) and again at Withington (e). Beds 1 to 
11 were exposed at Cleveley Wood (c), and they are intimately 
connected with the Pea Grit Series. . .The Cephalopoda Bed may be 
represented, in point of time, by beds 8 and 9, but no particular fossil 
evidence was forthcoming to distinguish it. Bed 10 may represent the 
Brown Ferruginous Beds (or Lower Limestone) that elsewhere belong to 
the lower part of the Pea Grit Series. (See Fig. 42.) 

A cutting at Withington (e), disclosed about 30 feet of more or less 
micaceous clays, alternating with greenish-grey sands. Fine sections of 
Pea Grit, in massive beds, that were employed for building-purposes, were 
shown in the cutting south of Frogmill Inn (b), and in the cutting north 
of Withington (d). The beds were overlaid by the Lower Freestone 
(including beds 11 to 16) ; and south of Frogmill (b) the oolitic and sandy 
beds (No. 17) were likewise shown. These beds were more or less shattered 
and disturbed, features due partly to faulting, but in great measure to the 
local dissolution of calcareous matter from the sandy limestones. The 
lower beds of white oolite, above the Pea Grit, are shelly in places, and 
also bored by Anneiides. They were shown again in a cutting east of the 
river Coin, and west of Eavenswell (d), where the beds are much 
disturbed and faulted. There can be little doubt that the strata exposed 
in the cutting to the south of Withington (r) belong to the same series. The 
section showed, at the base, some 8 or 9 feet of false-bedded oolitic 
freestone, bored at various horizons by Anneiides. The beds reminded me 
of the Upper Freestone of Nailsworth, but the evidence is in favour of 
their belonging to the Lower Freestone. Besting on them was an 
impersistent ferruginous nodular and marly layer, about 1 foot thick, and 
on the top there was from 15 to 25 feet of obliquely bedded, rather sandy 
oolite (resembUng the Chipping Norton Limestone) iron-stained in places 
and much lime-washed. The mass of the beds here shown, evidently 
belongs to the group immediately above the Pea Grit, as seen in sections 
further north, 

Evidence of Upper Freestone* overlaid by Gryphite Grit, was obtained 
in a cutting north of Chedworth tunnel and south-west of the Roman 
Villa (l) ; and again further north in the great cutting west of the 
Barrow (k). At the latter spot a bed of black shelly clay, 8 inches to 
1 foot thick, separated these divisions. This clay-bed becomes a trifle 
thicker in a northerly direction, for east of Woodbridge a cutting showed 
the following section (h) : — 

Ft. In. 
Gryphite Grit - - • - - - 6 

Laminated loamy bed - -• - - -ltol6 

Upper Freestone (at base of cutting). 

The clay-bed forms part of a more marked layer further north. {See 
pp. 137-143.) 

The Gryphite Grit, having a thickness of from 15 to 18 feet, was well 
shown in the cutting (r) west of the Barrow (near Chedworth Villa). This, 
and the overlying beds, were faulted on the north against the Clypeus 
Grit, and on the south against the Fuller's Earth. 

The Trigonia Grits comprise a variable set of hard earthy and shelly 
oolites. On the north side of Chedworth tunnel (l) they were shown to a 
depth of from 10 to 18 feet, and here are fairly fossiliferous. In the 
cutting (k) west of Barrow the beds attain a thickness of 85 feet, yielding 

* This bed is regarded by Mr. Buckman as representing the " Lo-wer Trigonia 



































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a Trigonia-hed at the base, but are otberwise somewbat barren. Mr. 
Backman identifies the " Notgrove freestone " as forming the lower and 
greater portion of this division. To the.S.S.B. of "Woodbridge (j) the 
Trigonia Beds are shown beneath the Olypeus Grit, and, in their upper 
portion, they yield Bhynchonella spinosa and Terehratula gldbata, but are 
otherwise not very fossiliferons. 

The Olypeus Grit was well shown in the cutting at the north end of 
Chedworth tunnel (m), where it consists of about 15 feet of coarse-grained 
rubbly oolite with many specimens of Pholadomya and Glypews Floti. 
On top a thin layer of reddish clay, probably belonging to the Fuller's 
Earth, was exposed. The Olypeus Grit was again exposed, in faulted 
positions, at the northern and southern ends of the deep cutting west of 
the Barrow (k) , where it was overlaid by the Fuller's Earth. The top 
portion was somewhat ferruginous, and presented the aspect of iron-shot 
oolite. The best section of the beds was shown in the cutting S.S.E. of 
Woodbridge (j), where the beds occupy a gentle synclinal; we see the 
junction with the Trigonia Grit at the northern and southern ends, and 
the beds are overlaid, in the centre of the basin, by the Fuller's Earth. 

The top of the Olypeus Grit, is a hard brown iron-^ot oolite, with 
Pholadomya, Somomya, Terebratula gldbata, and Olypeus Floti ; and above, 
there is about 6 feet of stifi" red and blue clay with, bands of ferruginous 
limestone at the base, yielding also Pholadomya and Homomya. These 
bands, which here seem hardly separable from the Fuller's Earth, are 
doubtless equivalent to the oolitic and sandy ragstones that overlie the 
Olypeus Grit between Notgrove and Bourton-on-the-Water. {See p. 133.) 

The cuttings on tHe railway between Andoversford and 
Bourton-on-the-Water, have furnished a number of interesting 
sections of the Inferior Oolite, as well as of the Great Oolite 
Series. Attention was first drawn to some of these sections iu 
1883 by Mr. E. A. Walford.* The beds, however,^re faulted in 
fio many places that it is only by piecing together the evidence in 
different cuttings that the sequence can be made out. This has 
been done by Mr. Buckman,t who has given a minute account of 
the beds and their fossils, and I have independently measured the 
auctions and constructed diagrams of the strata exhibited in each 
cutting. In some minor respects my reading differs from that of 
Mr. Buckman. 

The General Section of the Inferior Oolite Series, between 
Andoversford and Bourton-on-the-Water, is as follows : — 



'10. Ferruginous beds (local) - 
9. Olypeus Grit 
8. Trigonia Grit 
7. NoDgrove Freestone 
_ 6. Gryphite Grit 
" 5. Upper Freestone and Har- 
ford Sands - about 
4. Oolite Marl 
, 3. Lower Freestone (not fully seen) 
MidfordSand - 2. Sands 
Upper Lias - 1. Olay. 

The Cotteswold (Midf ord) Sands were shown in the first cutting (t) west 
of Bourton station. There 12 to 15 feet of yellow slightly calcareous 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Sec, vol. xxxix. p. 225. 

t Pwt Cstteswold Club, vol. ix. p. 108 ; see also Hudleston, Inf. Ool. Gastero- 
poda, pp. 69, 70. 

E 75928. T 


In. Ft. In 


Oto 8 


to 40 


8 to 4 8 

- 10 

- 15 


to 14 

- 30 


) 25 


to 15 



micaceous Bands, with, concretions of calcareous sandstone, were to be 
Been. iBelemnites, Myacites, and Serpnlse occur in them. The beds rest 
on blue micaceous loamy clay, and are overlaid by tumbled masses of the 
Lower Freestones, including flaggy and shelly oolite, and beds like the 
" yellow freestone " of the northern Cotteswolds. Pecten personal/as, 
and Pholadomya fidicula were found. 

The junction with the Sands was not clearly exposed, but there was no 
evidence ' of the occTU-rence of the Pea Grit nor of the Gloucestershire 
Cephalopoda Bed, although both may be represented in point of time. 

The full thickness of the Lower Freestone cannot here be estimated, 
for we find little more than 20 feet of the beds along the line of railway. 
Evidently there is a considerable fault near by, for the next cutting 
westwards (s) shows the Clypeus Grit, faulted against the Oolite Marl 
and top of the Lower Freestone, and we have no more evidence of Lower 
Freestone along the line of railway until we reach Syreford, except 
perhaps at the base of the cutting east of Notgrove. (Fig. 43.) 

Proceeding further west to near Syreford, the following beds were 
exposed in the cutting east of Andoversford : — 

Lower Free- 

Micaceous and ferruginous sands more 
or less indurated at different levels, 
yielding few fossils : Lima and Tere- 
hratula - - . . about 

False-bedded white oolite. 

Ft. In. 


This sandy series was originally grouped with the Midford Sands on 
the Geological Survey Map ; but the occurrence of the Oolite below clearly 
disproved this view; and Mr. Buckman at first regarded these sands 
as equivalent to the Harford Sands, which further west come beneath 
the Gryphite Grit. Later on sections on the railway between Andovers- 
ford and GhediYorth disclosed, south of Frogmill Hill, sections of 
hardened calcareous sand and rubble resting on Oolite, belonging to the 
Lower Freestone series, and there can be little doubt, as Mr. Buckman 
points out, that the sandy beds and underlying oolite of Syreford belong 
to this division. 

The Oolite Marl is well shown in the cutting east of Notgrove railway 
station, where the following beds were shown : — 

Harford Sands 
and Upper 



Oolite Marl -■: 

Lower Free- 

rEubble- - . . 3 Oto 

J Tellow sand .... about 
I Sandy fissile stone 
L Fissile marly and stony beds - 
'Brown shelly clay and marl 
Harder oolitic beds, with irregular 

bluish patches - - - 4 to 5 

Soft bluish oolitic marls, with in- 
durated shelly and ochreous bands : 
Natica cineta, Ceromya concentrica, 
Lueiiia, Lima, Terebratula, fimbria, 
Shynchonella subohsoleta, Corals 

18 Oto 20 
Hard marly and oolitic limestone, and 
soft shaly marl, with Lima and many 
Brachiopoda; Rhynchonella Lycetti, 
Terebratula curvifrons, T. maxillata, 
T. plieata, T. Whitalceri, Waldheirhia 
Leckenhyx, &c. - - - 4 3 

\ Hard brown oolite (at base of cutting). 

Many of the fossils mentioned, and others, have been recorded by Mr. 


O U 

a. 3 

OS 5 


eg S -Jj B '-* 

(S-s .SB in. 

sjijoQ jouajuj 



S . ■"■ 3 -^ S o 

05 .ti 'G O 'C » .to 

B tOOO S'C S! 

oO S 3 S? 



The Oolite Marl may be estimated at from 28 to 38 feet in thickness, 
for it shades upwards into the Upper Freestone series. In the second 
cutting west of Bourton (that by Aston Farm) the Oolite Marl passes into 
a pale fissile and false-bedded oolite, which is shown to a depth of about 
20 feet, beneath a series of sandy beds and oolite, as near Notgrove. 
Some of the lower fissile and shelly beds resemble the slaty beds of 
Hyatt's Pits {see p. 140). The junction with the overlying beds was as 
follows* : — 

Gryphite Grit ■ 

Harford Sands 

and Upper 


passing down 

into Oolite 


■ Shelly oolitic rag, with Myaeites, 
Ostrea flabelloides, Pecten, &c., and 
occasional pebbles of oolite. 
"Oolite, shelly in places and bored 
Yellow sand and bands of calcareous 
sandstone . . . - 

Loamy sand and fissile oolite marl 
-^ Coarse-grained and false-bedded oolite, 
bored at difierent horizons ; pale, 
fissile, oolite, and oolite marl, with 
Natica, Ceromya, Terebratula fimbria, 
&c. . . - - about 

Ft. In. 



Cuttings to the S.E. 
sibn : — 

of Lower Harford showed the following succes- 

Harford Sands 
and Upper 

Gryphite Grit, &o. 

Oolite bored, and with marly fragments 
in upper portion 

Oolite, merging downwards into blue- 
hearted calcareous sandstone 

Yellow sand with fissile sandstone 

Hard, blue-hearted, calcareous sand- 
atone - - - - - 
_Calcareous sandy loam or clay - 

Ft. In. 







These sandy beds have been termed the Harford Sands by Mr. S. S. 
Buckman from their development in this neighbourhood. They form a 
variable sandy, calcareous, and argillaceous division, from 8 to 11 feet 
thick, that in great measure replaces the Upper Freestone, and connects 
the Oolite Marl with the Gryphite Grit. These beds have been exposed 
at Bourton Clump. 

Overlying this sandy and oolitic series, we find the Gryphite Grit and 
succeeding strata up to the Glypeus Grit. This succession is clearly 
shown in a cutting west of Lower Harford. At the base of the section, 
4 feet of oolite was seen, and above it from 1 to 2 feet of yellow mica- 
ceous and calcareous sands, and thin ironstone. Then comes the 
Gryphite Grit, which includes 15 feet of tough sandy and calcareous 
ragstones with sandy partings, and wi,th, in places, flat bean-like pebbles 
or rolled concretions. Belemnites occur, but the chief fossils are the 
Lamellibranchs, Gryphoea suhlohata, Gresslya, Myaeites, and Pholadomya. 

Above the Gryphite Grit is a bed of Oolite, termed by Mr. Buckman 
the "Notgrove Freestone." Here it attains a thickness of 10 feet. 
It comprises hard grey and brown, limestones presenting a baiyded 
appearance and with white oolitic grains (thus resembling beds in the 
'Great Oolite, seen near Minchinhampton and Bisley). Annelide borings 
occur, and Ostrea is abundant on the upper surface. This bed may be 
xepresented in the Leckhampton section. (See p. 124.) 

The Trigonia Grit, 3 feet thick, comprising hard grey, and brown 
shelly, and oolitic limestone, is found above this Notgrove Oolite, and on 
top there is the Olypeus Grit. 

* See also Hudleston, Gasteropoda of Inf. Ool., p, 68. 



Clype\is Grit 

Upper Trigonia 

The cutting west of Nobgrove station showed the following beds : — 

Ft. In. 
^BrowD rubbly and pasty oolites ; Gly- 

pens Ploti abundant, Fholadomya - 5 
Paler marly oolites, with indurated 
bands, blue-hearted in places ; G. 
Ploti and Terebraiula globata abun- 
dant ; also Somomya, Ostrex, Fhola- 
domya, Bhynchonella, &o. - 9 
Brown marly layer, with T. globata, &C- 
Harder pale and marly oolites, with 
bluish bands here and there ; G. 
Ploti occasionally, T. glohata abun- 
dant here and there, Fholadomya 
Meraulti not uncommon, large speci- 
mens of Somomya, also Modiola 
sowerhyana, Myacites, Quenstedtia ? , 
&c. - - - about 25 
'Hard brown shelly, marly, and iron- 
shot oolite, with bored top; Am- 
monites Parhinsoni, Belenmites, Lima 
gibhosa, Ostrea, Pecten demissus, Tri- 
gonia, Rhynchonella spinosa, Serpula, 
L &c. - - - - 4 8 
(Pale oolite, with white grains in darker 
I matrix, and with bored top ; large 
Notgrove Oolite<^ Bhynohonella ohsoleta ? - - - 10 
I Harder fine-grained oolites, shelly in 
(_ places ; Trigonia, small Pecten - 4 6 
f Brown oolitic andiron-shot limestones, 
&c., with Gryphcea svhlohata, Lima 
pectiniformis, Myoconcha ? (not 
L clearly exposed). 

South-east of Roundhill Farm the following beds were shown : — 

Stonesfleld Slate. ' Fi. In. 

Fuller's Earth. 

Brown obscurely oolitic and sandy rag- 
stone, weathering in an irregular 
fissile way ; with Homomya, Ostrea, 
acuminata, Trigonia • - 8 

Coarse rubbly oolitic and marly lime- 
stones, with Glypeus Ploti (Olypeus 

Gryphile Grit ■ 

Inferior Oolite 
(Upper Kag- «; 

The Olypeus Grit with its characteristic Urchin, was well exposed. 
The overlying beds, which are first seen in the cutting east of Notgrove 
Station, thicken eastwards, and probably represeiit the Chipping Norton 
Limestone. Attention was first drawn to them by Mr. E. A. Walford,* 
who remarks on the Bathonian aspect of that limestone, and compares it 
with the "White Oolite" of Witchell, that; occupies a similar position 
aboTe the Clypeus Grit in the Stroud district. {8ee p. 149.) 

Returning to the western side o£ the Cotteswold Hills we come 
to the well-known sections at Oleeve Hill or Oleeve OJoud. Beds 
belonging to the Pea Grit Series crop out on the slope of the hill 
and stand out in thick massive layers irregularly modified by the 
action of the weather. (See Fig. 44.) 

The lowest beds of the Lower Freestone consist of false- 
bedded oolite with Annelide borings, Rhynchonella, Polyzoa, &c. ; 
and at their base are thick and ragged beds of shelly oolite, 
termed the Polyzoa Bed by Messrs. Buckman and Wethered. 

* Quart. Joum. Geol. See, vol. xxxix. pp. 225, 237. 



Pea Grit Series* 

The strata beneath are about 30 feet thick and very variable 
in character ; they are as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
'Sandy beds. 

Pale oolite -with tubiform makings. 
Sandy beds with Pholadomya. 

Massive beds of brown oolite. 

Shelly and oolitic, more or leas pisolitio, 
limestones in harder and softer beds, 
Terehratula, Trigonia - -96 

fMarly and ferruginous limestone, 
JMidford Sand - < Myacites. 

. Sands .... about 25 

The pisolitic beds are worked for building-stone. The upper 
'beds, below the Polyzoa Bed, become sandy further north, resemb- 
ling in soine measure the sandy series in the cutting east of 
Andoversford. The Pea Grrit Series has yielded also Lima, Lucina 
■ bellona, Ostrea gregaria, Myacites dilatus, Waldheimia Leckenbyi, 

Fig. 44. 

Outcrop of Pea Grit at Cleeve Hill, near Cheltenham. 
(From a Photograph by Mr. E. Wethered.) 



The general section of the Inferior Ool'te Series at Cleeve Hill, 
described by Wright and others,* appears to be as follows : — 


Harford Sands 


Upper Freestone. 

Oolite Marl 








Lower Freestone 3 
Pea Grit Series - 2. 
Midford Sand - 1, 

Hard irregular beds of ferra- 

ginous and oolitic limestone, 

■with Trigonia, and a Coral 

Bed (Upper Trigonia Grit) - 

Sandy limestone, with Ory- 

plicsa suhlobata, Astarte ele- 
gans, &c. (Grypliite Grit) - 

Sandy and marly bed (Chem-" 
nitzia" Grit of Wright) with 
Pseudomelania (Chemnitzia) 

Hard limestones with many 
specira.ens of Terebratula 
Buchmani, T. PMllipsi, &c. 
(BraohiopodaBed of Wright)^ 

Brown ferruginous oolitic 
limestones (Road-stone of 
Wright), with Pseudomelania 
lineata, Bourguetia striata, 
Lima peatiniformis, Pecten 
articulatus, Trigonia, Phola- 
domya Heraulti, P. media, 
Triohites, &c. 

Coarse brown ferruginous" 
sandy marl (Oyster Bed of 
Wright) with Osirea flabel- 

Yellow and brown calciferous 
sands - - - 

Hard wavy sandstone, with 
GaleoJaria socialis 

Sandy and oolitic limestone 
bored by Annelides 

Marl passing down into bed 
below . . . 


Pisolitic beds, &c. 


Ft. In. 

>-about 17 

6 8 



? 35 


about 60 


As the beds are not shown In one connected section. It Is some- 
what difficult to place them In direct sequence. The district is 
more or less faulted.^ and detailed mapping on the 6-inch scale Is 
needed for the Interpretation of the structure. The sequence 
here noted corresponds with that of which we have evidence 
further east. 

Near the "Rising Sun" thfire are several quarries, one 
known as the Pavingstone quarry, another as the Rolling Bank 
quarry from an undulation in the strata, and a third as the Free- 
stone quarry. In the Rolling Bank quarry, beds Nos. 9 to 13 
have been exposed, and the measurements of these strata are 
given on the authority of Mr. S. S. Buckman. 

* Wright, Proo. Cotteswold Club, vol. iv. p. 62 ; and Lias Ammonites (Pal. Soc), 
pp. 155, 157 ; Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, p. 45 ; H. B. Holl, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 
Tol. xix. p. 313 ; S. S. Buckman, Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. ix. p. 132 ; vol. x. 
p. 95. 


From bed 9 (the Koad-stones of Cleeve Hill) Dr. Wright 
records Ammonites Brocchii, A. Braihenridgei, A. humphriesianus, 
and A. Sowerbyi, &c., an assemblage that recalls that noted at 
Dundry {see p. 100). As remarked by Dr. HoU, " at Oleeve a 
series of beds of very unstable character occupies the interval 
between the top of the Oolite Marl and the base of the Lower 
Ragstone." From his description it would appear that the Rolling 
Bank quarry was originally excavated through much debris, and 
that many of the fossils (which belong to the Lower Ragstone) 
were obtained from this tumbled material. The Rev. T. W. 
Norwood informed me that he obtained A. Sowerbyi and Tere- 
hratula Wrighti in an old quarry north'-east of Hewlets, near 
Cheltenham. The large specimens of " Chemnitzia ScBmanni," 
noted by Dr. Wright, are identical with the Corallian species 
Bourguetia (Phasianella) striata* Examples of Pholadomya 
found at Cleeve Hill, attain large dimensions. 

The Freestone quarry showed the Upper Freestone overlaid by 
about 12 feet of sandy beds. 

The beds on Huntly Hill to the south-east of Cleeve Hill, are 
noted in a general way by Prof. HuU.t 

The general section of the Inferior Oolite Series at the northern 
end of the Cotteswolds is as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
„, ri -i f Coarse Oolite, -vrith G. Ploti, Terehra- 

OlypeusGm -| ^^ giolata, &o. .- 5 

m • ■ rt -i. f Hard irregular limestone, with nodular 
TrigomaGrnt -|, and pebbly beds • - 1 8 

r Oolitic freestone, hard brown and 
Notgrove Oolite - i sbelly stone ; Feeten personatus, 

L Ostrea - - 15 to 18 

{Hard rubbly sandy limestones and 
marls ; Belemnites, Gryphcea, Mya- 
cites, Serpula - - - 8 

TT p J o J r Brown and white sandstones and sands, 
Harford bands J ^^^ ^^^^ ^j^^^ ^^^ ^^^-^^^ - 7 to 17 

TT ^ 1. I Hard limestone and shelly oolite, with 

Upper Freestone. (_ g^^ji^ ^^^^ _ ' . ' .30 

^ ,.,-,, , r Pale marly and oolitic limestone and 

Oolite Marl "{ marl - - 

f False-bedded and shelly oolite - 

I Ferruginous sandy layer (local) - 

T _ -m J. J White and yellow freestones 

Lower Freestone^ * * ^^f^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ * * ^^^^^ 

I Eag bed, yellow oohreous oolite (bored), 

l_ and fissite shelly oolite - - ]2 

{Sandy beds with concretions of cal- 
careous sandstone and shelly lime- 
stone - - - . about 26 

Sections of the Midford Sand are but rarely exposed. The 
beds were to be seen at Hewlets Hill, near Cheltenham, at Farm- 
cott Hill, south-east of Winchcomb, and in the valley at Kyneton, 
south of Temple Guiting, where their thickness was estimated at 

* See Hudleston, Geol. Mag., 1880, p. 396, 1884, p. 49; and Inf. Ool. Gastero- 
poda, p. 249. 

t Explan. Hor. Sec, Sheet 59, pp. 4.. 5. 










from 25 to 30 feet by Prof. Hull, Sections also are exposed in 
the lane- and road-cuttings at Coscomb Grove, south-east of 
Stanway, where we find yellow sands with concretions of 
calcareous sandstone and very shelly limestone. These beds are 
overlaid by ferruginous sandy beds (probably belonging to the Pea 
Grit Series), and these again are surmounted by the Lower Free- 
stones. The bottom beds of the Freestone were shown in a quarry 
north of Coscomb Farm, where there were exposed about 12 feet 
of yellowish oolite with qchreous infiUings, and fissile shelly oolite 
yielding a few fossils — Myacites, Rhynchonella, and ^erehratula 

The mass of the Freestone, near Stanway, was exposed at the 
Jackdaw quarry (worked for Lord Elcho), where the section 
showed the following beds : — 

Ft. In. 
Well-bedded oolite, mucli jointed and false-bedded in 
places ....... 

White oolite ...... 

Brown oolite (best freestone) ... 

Yellow oolite ...... 

We have no evidence of the Oolite Marl, although its presence 
is noted by Prof. Hull in the hills east of Winchcomb. He gives 
the following section of the quarry east of Stanway HiU Barn* : — 

Ft. In. 

'Thin-bedded, brown calcareous sand- 
stone, -alternating with marly beds, 
with Modiola sowerhyana, Ostrea 
fldbelloides, and Trigonia (casts) 
Yellow calcareOQS sandstone 
Variegated sandy shales 
Light brown sandstone - . . 

Variegated sandy shales and clay 
Yellow, brown, and black shale, with a 
bed of small oysters - 
Upper Freestone- Hard limestone with blue centre 

The mass of these beds evidently belongs to the horizon of the 
Lower Trigonia Grit and Gryphite Grit of Oleeve, but they 
appear to a certain extent to replace ^portions of the Upper 
Freestone. The beds in this quarry were not well exposed at the 
time of my visit, but I obtained from the upper beds of impure 
limestone, Belemnites, Myacites,Gryph(Ba sullobata, Finna cuneata, 
and Serpula ; while beds of iron-shot oolite were intercalated 
with the clays and sandy rocks beneath. The beds were much 
disturbed and bent into a synclinal, and those exposed were 
somewhat different in detail from the strata recorded by Prof. 

About 12 feet of the Lower Freestone has been opened up on 
Stanley Hill to the west of "Winchcomb ; the underlying beds of 
Inferior Oohte appear to be much reduced in thickness, the Pea 

[Gryphite Grit 

Harford Sands.] 










* Geol. Cheltenham, p. 45. 


Grit being represented by a 2-foot bed of coarse-grained oolite, 
full of broken shells. Echini, &c. Underlying this bed there 
is a layer of calcareous sandstone with Belemnites, also 2 feet 
thick, and about 4 feet of yellow sand,* 

The Inferior Oolite has been quarried in several places on 
Bredon Hill, and there are good exposures west of Overbury. 
As remarked by Prof. Hull, " Everywhere on the Bredon outlier 
the oolite is in a most disjointed state, showing apparent dips in 
all directions, and this not only along the skirts but in the very 
centre of the area/'t These appearances are partly due to the 
dissolution of calcareous matter from the calcareous sandstones, 
whereby the strata (like the "broken beds" of Purbeck) present 
a disturbed and shattered aspect to a depth of from 20 to nearly 
40 feet {see Fig. 134, p, 460). I am disposed, however, to think 
that the excessive weathering of the Inferior Oolite may belong 
to Glacial times, when some of the thick accumulations of rubble 
were formed along the slopes of the Cotteswold Hills. 

The beds are of the age of the Lower Freestone and underlying 
strata. The basement-beds consist according to Prof. Hull, of 
thick-bedded calcareous sandstone, highly ferruginous in character. 
Overlying these are the brown and more or less shelly oolites that 
are worked in the quarries. Some of the beds are largely made 
up of Oi'inoidal fragments. Fossils, however, are scarce, and 
those that do occur are poorly preserved. Among these Ammo- 
nites, Belemnites ellipticus, Hinnitcs abjectus, Pecten personatus, 
Trigonia, Terehratula plicata, T. perovalis, T. maxillata, and 
Polyzoa have been recorded. J Prof. Judd notes the occurrence 
of Ithynclionella cynocephala in the sandy and ferruginous rocks 
at the base of the. series, and most of the species above mentioned, 
are recorded by him from these strata. He remarks that in an old 
pit opposite to Kemerton Castle House, we find the upper beds to 
be composed of white freestone, that pass down into a ferruginous 
rock of the most variable character ; sometimes consisting of loose 
brown sand, at other times of brown sand indurated by carbonate 
of lime into a hard rock, and again becoming oolitic and shelly. 
Certain beds consist of brown sandstone, including hard calcareous 
ramifying masses, which cause the whole to weather into blocks with 
very rough surfaces. Some of the layers have a curious vesicular 
structure, being made up of rounded fragments of white or pink 
oolitic limestone cemented together by crystallized carbonate of 
lime, the interstices being filled with brown sand. Occasionally 
the rock is traversed by bands of hydrated peroxide of iron, and 
in places these assume that cellular and concentric arrangement, 
due to weathering along the joint planes, which is so commonly 
presented by both the calcareous and arenaceous varieties of the 

* Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, p. 29. 
t Ibid., p. 40. 

% See Memoirs of H. E. Strickland, p. 82 ; H. B. Holl, Quart. Journ. Geol." See, 
vol. xix. p. 31S ; and Judd, Geol. Rutland, p. 15. 



Northampton Sand. 
Bredon Hill, we find, 
bury, a similar series 
Benbury) Stone is a 











■ o 










■ rH 












He adds that in the eame great outlier of 
above the villages of Oonderton and Over- 
of sections.* The Bambm-y (Banbury or 
block of the Inferior Oolite, of a more or 
less riibbly character, 
cemented into a hard 
rock, as in the cases above 

The railway-cuttings 
between Andoversford 
and Bourton - on - the- . 
Water prepare us for 
some modifications in the 
Inferior Oolite Series 
that may occur further 
north. We have, how- 
ever, to piece together 
isolated sections, and this 
can only be done ap- 
proximately until the area 
is mapped in detail. 

The Ragstones are well 
shown at Snowshill 
where we find theOlypeus 
Grit and Upper Trigonia 
Grit, resting on freestone 
that is exposed to a depth 
lifl:: of 18 feet. TheTrigor.ia 

Grit is a hard irregular 
ferruginous and earthy 
limestone, about 1 foot 8 
inches thick and of a 
somewhat nodular charac- 
ter. The freesitone below 
exhibits a bored surface. 
It contains Pecten per- 
sonatus and Ostred, and 
appears rather to belong 
to the main Freestone 
division than to the 
horizon noted previously 
■/; as the ISTotgrove Free- 

stone. In this case there 
is evidence of some over- 
lap of the Ragstones in 
this neighbourhood. 

By the farm, to 'the 
east of Snowshill, we find 



"SI'S o 


* Geology of Rutland, p. 14. 

t G. P. Playne, Proo. Cottesw. Club, vol. vi. p. 225. 

Harford Sands, &c.< 


an opening in sandy beds like those described by Prof. Hull at 
Stanway Hill Barn (see p. 137). , The section, which I visited 
in company with Mr. T. J. Slatter, was as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
'Brown sandy and loamy bed - 2 to 2 6 
Flaggy oolitic and sandy limestone ; 
■with. Nerincea, Lucina iellona, 
Modiola, Pholadomya, SoleatypviS 
liemisphcBricus, and Serpula (as near 
Grlendon) - _ - - 1 6 to 2 

Pale buff or whitisb sand, witb cal- 
careous concretions near top, below 
joint - - - - - 4 

The sand is dug for mortar-making. 

These beds reminded me of the Lincolnshire Limestone of 
Glendon which there overlies the Lower Estuarine Sands. They 
occur above the mass of the Lower Freestone, and are probably 
intimately connected with the Upper Freestone.* 

North of the sand-pit, freestone-beds, like those at the base of 
Snowshill quarry, were exposed. (See p. 139.) 

Slaty beds were formerly worked for roofing-purposes on the 
summit of the Ootteswold Hills, south-east of Snowshill, at a 
spot known as Hyatt's pits ; and there also were " slate quarries " 
further to the south-east. The stone-tiles have been used in the 
village of Snowshill together with Kyneton (Keynton). Slates 
from the Great Oolite. The former are very thick and heavy. 
Somewhat similar beds are exposed in the freestone quarries near 
Longborough, and there can be little doubt that these slaty beds 
belong to the upper part of the Lower Freestone, or to the 
horizon of the Oolite Marl. 

Near the Fish Inn, Broadway, the following section was shown : — 

Ft. In. 
'Bubbly limestone, oolitic - 2 to 3 
Softer earthy and oolitic limestones 

(? Oolite Marl) - 7 6 

Hard shelly lim.estone, with Fecten per-^ 

sonatus - - " L ■? fi 

Impure limestone - - - ( 

_Shelly and oolitic limestone - - J 

West of the Fish Inn, there is a large quarry, now abandoned, 
as there is no call for the stone. The freestones there are faulted 
on the west against the upper beds of the Inferior Oolite. We 
see rubbly Clypeus Grit, &c., with Nerincea, underlaid by a thin 
band of greenish-grey clay (as at Bourton Clump), brought 
abruptly, and at a high angle, against the lower beds. The 
section ot freestone was as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
fEubble and shattered beds - - 10 

1 False-bedded oolite in thin beds ; 
T 1? + J " White Stone " - - 8 to 

Lower Freestone.^ Massive bed of oolite, including on top 
"Eed bed," about 4 feet, and below 
[_ " Tellpw bed " -„. _, ..- .. 5 ^ to 5__.6._ 

• Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, p. 45. 

Freestones -< 



An important section has been exposed at Westington Hill 
quarry, about two miles south of Chipping Oampden; it is as 
follows : — 

Upper Freestone 

Oolite Marl -< 

Lower Freestones 

Yellowish sand, in pockets. 

Thin-bedded oolite and fissile cal- 
careous sandstone 

Pale marly stone, with occasional grains 
of oolite .... 

Rubbly marl and clay - 

Hard oolite . - - - 

Indurated pale marl and marly stone, 
with scattered grains of oolite ; with 
seam of clay near the middle 

Hard brpwn false-bedded shelly oolite, 
with closely-packed grains. Stone 
used for planking, covering drains, 
culverts, and road-mending - 5 6 to 

Irregular ferruginous sandy and cal- 
careous bed with fossils : called 
" Ironstone " - - 1 6 to 

Oolitic freestones : — 

White Post, used for building 6 to 

TeUow freestone, with bored-bed in 

the middle of the stone ; used for 

carving - - - 5 to 

Freestone - . . 

Ragstone and sandy and ferruginous 

beds proved by boring to depth of 

44 feet. 

Ft. In. 



From the Oolite Marl, I obtained a number of fossils, including 
Natica cincta, Pleurotomaria, Lima pectiniformis, Liicina bellona, 
Ostreajldbelloides, Pholadomya, Rhynchonella subobsoleta ? Tere- 
bratula fimbria, T. maxillata, &c.* I was informed also that 
Ammonites were found in these beds (a fact subsequently confirmed 
by Mr. T, J. Slatter), and a good specimen of Ammonites 
humphriesianus was forwarded to me. This came, as I was told by 
the workman who obtained it, from the top layer of pale marly 
and oolitic limestone. These uppermost beds clearly belong to the 
Upper Freestone and Harford Sands. The fossils were named by 
Messrs. Sharman and Newton. 

At Stanley's quarry, north-east of Northwick Hill Farm, near 
Blockley, about 30 feet of oolite has been exposed. The top layers 
are much lime-washed, and these beds are too hard, as a rule, to be 
worked as freestone ; they are burnt for lime, and used for buiidino- 
walls, and for road-metal. The lower layers, which are more false- 
bedded, are quarried for freestone. West of Blockley, the Oolite 
Marl, with Terebratula fimbria, and T. maxillata, has been 

' The beds on Ebrington Hill, much resemble those of Bredon. 
No sections of the Midford Sand have been observed on the 
borders of the hill, although Mr. Howell has stated that these 
beds " may be concealed in the broken ground, round the edge of 
the tumbled Inferior Oolite that caps the hill."t 

* See also Judd, Geol. Eutland, p. 15. 
t Hull, Geol. Chelwnham, p. 30. 


In reference to the strata on Ebrington Hill, Prof. Judd re- 
marks that the beds of the Inferior Oolite, which constitute an 
outlying mass, consist mainly of yellow and brown, somewhat 
siliceous and coarsely oolitic limestone-rock, and exhibit in places 
ferruginous banding like that of the Northampton Sand. Some 
of the beds are composed of a ferruginous shelly rock, in places 
almost wholly made up of plates of Pentacrinus, with abundant 
specimens of Pecten personatus, Trigonia signata, Terehratiila 
perovalis, &c. In one of the pits he noticed a very instructive 
section. At its southern end arc yellow and ferruginous sands, 
a little to the northward irregular hard beds occur in these sands, 
and still farther north the whole passes into a calciferous sand- 
stone rock with ironstone-banding ; in fact there is presented, in 
one section, " examples of the different aspects which the North- 
ampton Sand assumes at various points. Still further north, 
however, the rock becomes more and more oolitic in structure, 
and thus passes into the ordinary oolitic limestone which caps the 
hill. All these changes take place within a distance of about 40 
yards. Everywhere on this outlier of Ebrington Hill, the lime- 
stones of the Lower Freestones may be seen to assume arenaceous 
characters, thus graduating in places into calcareous sand-rock, or 
or into sandy calcareous stone with some imperfect cellular iron- 
stone." Prof Judd adds, that above Ilmington Downs, on the 
north side of the Hill, we find the ordinary yellow freestones 
passing down into beds of sand, sometimes containing " pot-lids," 
and graduating into a mass of fissile calcareo-iiliceous rock with 
ferruginous banding Beds similar to these are found above 
Stoke Wood. In the extensive pits above Little Hilcole, courses 
of the fine oolitic rock with ferruginous banding, occur, sometimes 
interstratified with beds of sand. At the rabbit-warren above 
Great Hilcote, though no good faces of rock are exposed, the 
strata, which constitute the lower part of the Inferior Oolite, are 
seen to consist of yellowish-red, calcareo-ferruginous sand, with 
layers of fissile, iron-banded, calcareo-siliceous stone. These beds, 
he says, are undistinguishable in character from many portions of 
the Northampton Sand, as seen in Oxfordshire and Northampton- 

Although the sands and soft sandstones of the Midford Beds 
have been traced along the northern borders of the Cotteswold 
Hills, no traces of the Cephalopoda Bed have been observed. 
The junction with the Upper Lias clay was exposed on Cadley 
Hill, above Batsford, as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
Eeddish-brown loamy soil. 
Midford Sand. — Brown and yellow sands - - 5 

Tipper Lias / Stiff grey and blue clay, with small 

Clay. L hard sejjtarian nodules • .60 

Further south near Selzincote, the sands and calcareous sana 
stones were observed by Prof. Hull.f {See p. 12.) 

* Geol. Rutland, p. 15. 
t Geol. Cheltenham, p. 29. 


Large freestones quarries have been opened to the west of the 
village of Bourton-on-lhe-Hill, where the following beds were 
exposed : — 

Lower Freestone* 

False-bedded oolite ; White Eock : 
burnt for lime, and need for rough 
inside walling - - 11 to 

Earthy sand . . . . 

Hard and rough oolitic limestone, with 
irregular ferruginous bands ; Eed 
Bed, used for foundations 

Buff oolite ; Tellow Bed ; good free- 
stone - - - 

Ferruginous oolitic limestone with 
'irregular cfiTities 

Brown sandy and oolitic limestones ; 
Bottom Beds - . 5 to 

Ft. Iir. 



- 10 

I obtained a specimen of Hianites abjectus from this quarry. 
North of Boiirton Clump, the following section was exposed 


Harford Sands 
and <^ 

Upper Freestone, 

Bubble of oolite with Homomya, FTiola- 
domya, Pecten, Hhynchonella, Tere- 
hratula gldbata, &o. ... 

Blue, brown, and grey racy clay 

Calcareous, sandy, and ferruginous 
rock - - . . . 

Grey and brown clay ... 

White and yellow sand with concre- 
tionary band of calcareous sandy rock 

Brown sandy oolitic rock 

Shelly oolite .... 

Ft. In. 

These argillaceous and sandy beds are no doubt on the horizon 
of the strata seen east of Snowshill, at Stanway Hill Barn, and 
again near Harford, north-west of Bourton-on-the-Water ; they 
represent the Harford Sands and Upper Freestone. 

The thickness of the Inferior Oolite, proved in a well at the 
Worcester Lodge, Batsford Park, north-west of Bourton-on-the- 
Hill, was J 60 feet. The Oolite Marl was not observed in this 
immediate neighbourhood, but its presence at Condicote was noted 
by Prof. HuU. 

On the hill above Longborough, we again find good sections 
of the Lower Freestones as follows : — 

Fissile and false-bedded shelly oolite, like the slaty 
beds of Hyatt's Pits ; with pisolitic band near the 
middle ..... 

White freestone . . - . - 6 to 

Freestone, shelly in places, with concretionary ferru- 
ginous patches and veins (Eed and Yellow free- 
stones) - - - - -90 to 

Ft. In. 


The stone is here mostly quarried for road-metal. 

Further south there is a quarry to the east of Banks Fee Farm, 
tliat showed from 18 to 20 feet of pale shelly limestones, with 
Ostrea, the beds were more or less oolitic, and minutely current- 
bedded. The higher layers were fissile like the slaty beds of 


Hyatt's Pits, and these are overlaid by a bed of hand brown 
oolitic limestonej and by about 3 feet of rubbly oolitic limestones 
with Ostrea. Still further south the lower beds of the Inferior 
Oolite become much attenuated. The Midford Sands have been 
exposed near Stow-on-the-Wold to a depth of from 6 to 10 feet, 
and above them are beds with Polyzoa and Crinoidal remains,* 
suggestive of the Pea Grit Series ; but there the Lower Freestones 
appear to be much reduced in thickness, while the higher strata 
become more important. Thus in the .road-cutting, and in a 
quarry to the west of Stow, the following beds were shown : — 

Ft. In. 
'Flaggy oolitic limestone, and hard 
■T f ■ n r+ brown obscurely oolitic limestone 

rStones) N (resembling the -Chipping Norton 
(iiagstones;. | Limestone) - - - - 8 

[_Eubbly oolite with Glypeus Ploti. 

Again at Little Eissington, as remarked by Prof. Hull, the 
Glypeus Grit comes very near to the Upper Lias, the intervening 
subdivisions being for the most part unrepresented.! 

The easterly attenuation of the Inferior Oolite rnay be judged 
from the following sections. Prof. Hull states that at Turkdean, 
north of Northleach, the thickness of the Inferior Oolite is as 
follows : — 

Ft. In. 

Eagstone l24 

Oolitic Marl - - - -/'=*" 

Lower Freestone - - - - - 46 

Tellow Sandstone - - - - 14 

South-west of Bourton-on-the-Water, freestone with bored-beds 
has been quarried along the Foss Way, and near Clapton, while 
further south at Sherborne, east of Northleach, Prof. Hull gives 
the following sectionj : — 

Fi. In. 
TEubbly oolite, with Olypeus Ploti, 
I Gresslya, Lima gibbosa, Trigonia cos- 
Inferior Oolite< tata, Terebratula glohata, &o. 
and Sands. Freestone ... about 5 

LTellow sandstone and sands • - 8 

Upper Lias - Blue clay with Ammonites bifrons. 

The thickness of the Inferior Oolite between Northleach and 
Bourton-on-the-Water probably varies from 40 to 80 feet, attenua- 
tion taking place generally in an easterly or south-easterly 

North-east of Dodds Mill, Barrlngton Spinneys, a section 
showed apparently the upper beds of the Inferior Oolite, consisting 
of about 6 feet of rubbly and marly oolite, with grey clay in 
pockets on the top. Terebratula glohata is abundant, and 
Rhynchonella also occurs. 

* Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, p. 30 ; and E. A. Walford, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 
vol. xxxix. p. 225. 
t Hull, op. cit., p. 47. 
J Ibid., p. 40. 


East of the county-boundary, at Little Barrington, where the 
stone is quarried for road-metal, the following section was 
exposed : — 

Ft. In. 

r Tough unctuous and marly grey and 
Fuller's Earth. - i yellowish clay, small Ostrea acumi- 

L naia ■• racy at base - - - 2 + 

Inferior Oolite f Pale coarse-grained oolite, lime-washed. 
(Olypeua Grit). \ Terebratula glohata, Gly^eus Ploti. 

The Clypeus Grit was also exposed at Weston, to the north- 
west of Burford, in close proximity to the Upper Lias Olay as 
represented on the Geological Survey Map. There is evidence 
therefore of overlap of the lower beds of the Inferior Oolite, as we 
proceed southwards from Stow-on-the-Wold to the neighbourhood 
of Sherborne and Burford. (See Fig. 46.) • 

B 75928. 




2. Oxfordshire. 

Chipping Norton to Fawler and Banhury. 

In the area commencing in Oxfordshire and extending north- 
eastwards through the counties of Northampton, Rutland, and 
Lincoln, the Inferior Oolite Series undergoes considerable modifi- 
cations ; for in its Lower Division we find evidences of estuarine 
and terrestrial conditions, characters that are more prominently 
exhibited in the greater portion of the series in Yorkshire.* 

The geographical extent of the several beds, now grouped as 
belonging to the Great and Inferior Oolite Series, was, as early as 
1822, indicated with much accuracy by Oonybeare ; but the two 
divisions were not clearly distinguished over the Midland area.f 
This is by no means surprising, for during the succeeding fifty years 
the relations of the beds above the Upper Lias in the country 
around Chipping Norton, Deddington, and Banbury, proved a 
source of much perplexity to geologists. It is true that the main por- 
tion of the Great Oolite — the white marly limestones and marls — 
l;ave in general been clearly recognized ;'and the Geological Survey 
Map by Messrs, H. Bauerman and T. R. Polwhele, showed 
these beds resting on a complex series denominated the " North- 
ampton Sand." The diflSculties arose in connection with the age 
and relations o£ this so-called " Northampton Sand," for the 
Savvey at that time, on the evidence of some fossils obtained near 
Deddington, regarded certain beds (now grouped with the In- 
ferior Oolite) as of the age of the lower part of the Great Oolite,, 
equivalent to the StonesSeld Slate. J 

Later on, the researches of Samuel Sharp, near Northampton, 
and those of Prof. Judd (who re-surveyed portions of the North- 
ampton area), showed that the true Northampton Sand of North- 
ampton belonged entirely to the Inferior Oolite. Prof. Judd, 
who re-examined the country around Banbury and Chipping 
Norton, while recognizing that portions of the so-called North- 
ampton Sand of that area belonged to the Inferior Oolite, was 
unable to devote sufficient time to the matter to draw any satis- 
factory line between these beds and certain sandy strata considered 
to belong to the base of the Great Oolite ; consequently while a 
new edition of the map was issued in 1871, the geological lines 
were unaltered, but the colcfurlng of the Northampton Sand was 
modified, and the grouping adopted was as follows : — 

* See Morris, Geol. Mag., 1869, p. 104; and Judd, Geol. Rutland, p. 52. 
t Conybeare and Phillips, Outlines of Geol. Eng. and Wales, 1822, pp. 216, 237, 
246, &c. 
J Green, Geol. Banbury, p. 12. 


Great or Bath Oolite. Upper Zone. 

Northampton Sand (Sands, calc. sandstones, ironstones, and lime- 
stones) — 

Upjser part = Lower Zone of Grreat Oolite. 
Lower part = Inferior Oolite. 
Inferior Oolite. (Olypeus Grit.) 

The construction of a line of railway from Chipping Norton 
to Banbury has exposed a number of sections, clearly showing 
the presence of the upper and lower portions of the Great 
Oolite — ^the latter comprising the Stonesfield Slate division, 
which here, as in other places, appears to be intimately connected 
with the Fuller's Earth. These beds will be described further on, 
but it may be stated that where fully developed, as west of 
Bourton-on-the- Water, there is no discordance between them and 
the Inferior Oolite Series below. In other cases there is consider- 
able unconformity. 

Near Chipping Norton, the Inferior Oolite Series comprises a 
very variable set of beds, the uppermost portion of which is a 
thick mass of hard oolitic and sandy limestones (Chipping Norton 
Limestone), while, at lower horizons, we have evidence of the 
Clypeus Grit, and of beds of white and brown sand, calciferous 
sandstone, and occasional oolitic beds, the precise relations of 
which are exceedingly difficult to determine. 

It would appear that the divisions of the Inferior Oolite are 
inconstant in extent, as well as variable in character, overlapping 
some of the minor divisions, while they are overlaid irregularly by 
• different portions of the Great Oolite Series, which thus rests un- 
conformably on various members of the Inferior Oolite. By the 
light of recent researches there will be much less difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing Great Oolite from Inferior Oolite ; but this has yet to 
be done on the Geological Survey Maps in the country around 
Chipping Norton — portions of the Great Oolite being included in 
the " Northampton Sand " in some places, and of Inferior Oolite 
in the " Great Oolite " and " Stonesfield Slate " of other areas, 
more especially between Chipping Norton and Stonesfield. 

The observations of Mr. T. Beesley, and of Mr. E. A. "Walford, 
of Banbury, of Mr. J. Windoes, of Chipping Norton, and of Mr. 
W. H. Hudleston, have tended largely to elucidate the structure 
of the district, and to augment our knowledge of the fossil contents 
of the strata. . Many difficulties, however, still remain for future 
workers. Sections are not sufficiently abundant to clearly show the 
relations of all the subdivisions of the Inferioj- Oolite, to demonstrate 
their lateral variations or attenuation ; and, where fossils are rare 
or absent, it is not always say to which particular division 
or " zone " of the Inferior Oolite every outlying mass or isolated 
section of tbe beds may belong ; for faults, as well as irregular over* 
laps, serve to complicate the geology of this area. Indeed it is 
not unlikely that some undulations affected the Inferior Oolite 
prior to the deposition of the Great Oolite ; and owing to denuda- 
tion, the Great Oolite thus rests irregularly on different members 
of the Inferior Oolite. (See p. 325.) 

K 2 


It is, however, clear that the mass of tlie sandy strata previously 
grouped, as belonging partly to the Great Oolite and partly to the 
Inferior Oolite, belongs to the latter series ; but until the area has 
been mapped in detail on the 6-incli scale, it is hardly likely that the 
remaining doubts with regard to the correlation of particular sub- 
divisions, will be dispelled. There is no more complicated tract 
among the Oolitic rocks of England than this region of the In- 
ferior Oolite betweeu Chipping Norton, Charlburj, and Banbury, 
We enter a region of changing sedimentation, which to some 
extent corresponds with the change in the general strike of the 
beds. Thus the general northerly strike of the Inferior Oolite, 
from Dorsetshire to the Cotteswoids, is modified by undulations 
and faults that appear eastwards of Northleach, and a generaJ 
easterly or north-easterly strike is maintained for some distance, 
until the main outcrop again turns in a northerly direction towards 
the Lincolnshire " Cliff." In the following remarks, the correla- 
tions that are indicated, musi be taken as provisional. 

In passing eastwards across the Vale of Moreton we And that 
the representatives of the Cotteswold Sands are no longer to be 
identified, and that the lowest beds of v.-hich we have evidence 
above the Upper Lias Clay, are those containing Ammonites 
opalinus and Rhynchonella cynocephala, fossils which characterize 
the upper stage of the Gloucestershire Cephalopoda Bed. In this 
area, then, we have a more definite division between Upper Lias 
and Inferior Oolite, and the name Midford Sand, applied to the 
passage-beds, is no longer applicable. 

We find no evidence of Pea Grit, nor of any mass of the 
Freestones, nor of the Gryphite Grit, but there are sandy bed» 
at different horizons ; and it will be remembered that in the 
northern portion of the Cotteswoids we find the incoming of 
sandy conditions, marked by the calcareous sandstones in the 
Lower Freestone division and by the sands (termed Harford 
Sands) that are associated with the Upper Freestone. In this 
area of Oxfordshire we have not only sandy equivalents of the 
Freestone Series, but sandy beds equivalent to portions of the 
Kagstone division of the Cotteswold Hills. Moreover we have 
occasional limestones that belong sometimes to the Freestone 
Series, sometimes to the very highest portion of the Inferior Oolite 
The local divisions of the Inferior Oolite Series may be sum- 
marized as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
"Hard oolitic and sandy limestones 
(Chipping Norton Limestone) ; un- 
derlaid in some places by iron-shot 
oolitic beds (Clypeus Grit), in otters 
by white and yellow sands, ferru- 
■Ro ■>.»+«„ o i ginous or calcareous sandstones with 
sfries S ^'S^'*® (Sandy Series with lignite), 
and sometimes resting directly on 
limestone of a conglomeratic nature 
(Trigonia and Coral Bed) with Astarte 
minima, Lithodomus, Trigonia pro- 
ducta, T. signata, Terebratula glohata, 
&nd Bhynchonella spinosa - 10 to 50 

infkbtor oolite : chipping norton limestone. 149 

Ft. Ik. 


OoTtR ("Pale marly find flaggy oolitic lime- 

-jy \ < stones, yielding Natiea cincia, Tere- 

L hratula fimbvM; &c. (local) 

rCalcareous sandstones and sands, con- 

mrthamptonj glomeraticin places ; witk ^m- 

■Rpdq \ inomtes corrugams, A. opannus, 

1 Rhynchonella eynocepliala, and Tere- 

(_ hratula trilineata - • 3 to 15 

The Chipping Norton Limestone consists of oolitic and 
sandy limestones of variable character, some of the beds becom- 
ing -rather siliceous in places, like certain beds of the Inferior 
Oolite near Frome, as in a quarry half-a-niile N.E. of Churchill. 
Here and there the stone is made up of comminuted shells, and 
it contains small quartz pebbles and rolled pebbles of oolite. 
■Clayey seams occur now and again, and concretionary iron-stone 
is also present. The stone usually is sharply jointed. In places 
the beds decompose into a friable sandy loam or marl. In many 
quarries the exposed faces of the bed.s become lime-washed or 
incrusted with a calcareous coating. This is the " Rock Milk" 
{^Lac LuncB) of old mineralogists, sometimes also termed the 
"Agaric Mineral," from its supposed resemblauce to fungoid 

The beds are often much shattered, and the " rifts " or 
■" Bwillies " are filled with clay and debris from the overlying 
Great Oolite Series. In some cases the broken beds are due to 
dissolution of calcareous matter, from the more sandy limestones 
that occur in the lower part of this division. 

The total thickness of this Limestone is probably never more 
than 30 feet, and is usually less, The beds do not constitute a 
good freestone, but they are employed for building-purposes, for 
dry-walling, and for road-metal. 

The Chipping Norton Limestone was described under this name 
in 1878 by Mr. Hudleston.f It forms the highest part of the 
Inferior Oolite in this district, and has been compared with the 
White Freestone of the Stroud district, and with certain ferru- 
ginous limestones seen in the railway-cuttings between Notgrove 
and Bourtonron-the-Water (p. 133). 

It is overlaid in places by oolitic limestones, and by clays and 
marls with Ostrea acuminata, O. Sowerbyi, NerincBa Eudesi, &c. 
belonging to the Great Oolite Series. It clearly underlies the 
Stoneslield Series Avith which is associated the Fuller's Earth, and 
there is evidence in places of unconformable overlap' of the 
Chipping Norton Limestone by the superincumbent strata. 
Nevertheless, it has been pointed out by Mr. Walford and others, 
that the Limestone presents Bathonian characters in its fossils. 
We are indebted mainly to Mr. James Windoes, of Chipping 
Norton, for our acquaintance with the Ammonites, which are far 
from abundant. From the lower portion of the limestone he has 

* See Kidd, Outlines of Mineralogy, vol. i. p. 39 ; and "Weaver, Trans. Geol. Soc. 
uer. 2, vol. i. p. 351. 

f Free. Geol. Assoc, vol. v. p. 384. 









































<D S ^ r^ ^ 

O C3 CO l> CO 


obtained Ammonites Parkinsoni ; and from higher bed?, species 
identified as A. arbustigerus siaA. A. bullatus ; but the occurrence 
of the two last-named species is not accepted by Messrs. Sharman 
and Newton, who have recently examined the specimens. They 
recognize only the species noted below. 

The following fossils have been obtained by INIr. Windoes from 
the Chipping Norton Limestone*: — 


Ammonites (near to) Bakerise. 



• var. dorsetensis. 


Gervillia pernoides. 
Leda lachryma. 
Lima cardiiformis. 
Modiola furcata. 


Opis similis. 
Peoten retiferus. 
Sowerbya Woodwardi. 
Trigonia Painei. 



Terebratula maxillata. 


Holeotypus depressus. 
Pseudodiadema depressam. 



Ceritbium limsaforme ? 

Littorina Pbillipsi. 


Natica canaliculata. 


Nerita mgosa ? 






Ceromya undulata. 

In places near Langton Bridge, as remarked by Mr. Beesley, 
the upper part of the Chipping Norton Limestone had the 
appearance of "olJ weathered mortar," and this mortar-like 
limestone has yielded obscure plant-remains, and portions of 
Chara; an identification confirmed by Mr. James Groves, from 
specimens obtained by Mr. Windoes. Mr. Walford has procured 
from the same peculiar bed, Nerincea Eudesi, &c. 

Stratigraphically we must include the Chipping Norton Lime- 
stone with the Inferior Oolite, although it exhibits evidence that 
would lead us to regard it as forming a passage from that 
formation into the Great Oolite Series, Perhaps we may be 
contented with the view that Inferior Oolite conditions endur«d 
somewhat longer in this area than Avas the case elsewhere in the 
south-^western counties ; or, in other words, it may be a case, such 
as not unfrequently occurs, where a stratigraphical formation 
trangresses the limits of a zone. 

The Chipping Norton Limestone has been v/ell exposed in 
quarries between Chipping Norton and Churchill ; in the railwajy- 
cntting west of Langton Bridge, about If miles north of Cliipping^ 
Norton church, and in a quarry to the north of the cutting; in 
another (Padley's) quarry, east of Chipping Norton, an opening 
known as the " Cetiosaurus quarry " {see p. 327) ; and on the 
Burford Eoad, south-east of the Toll Gate near Chipping Norton. . 
■ At Langton Bridge, the top-bed of the Limestone, which contains 
fragments of shells and Echini, and quartz grains, is couHidered 
by Mr. Beesley to exactly resemble the material of the so-called 

* See also Walford, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxix. pp. 231, 237 ; and 
Hudleston and Wilson, Catalogue of British Jurassic Gasteropoda. 



Druidical, but doubtless sepulchral "Rollrioh (or Roliright) 
stones," situated on the hill north-east of Little Roliright 
village.* I have noticed similar beds in quarries north-west of 
Little Roliright, and again near Heythrop. Mr. Beesley also 
referred to the decomposition of the sandy limestone as resulting 
in a reddish sand. (See Fig. 92, p. 329.) 

Fig. 47. 

Section south-went of Chadlington Down Farm, south of Chipping 



<! 1 


Limestone. ) 

7. Brown loamy soil - - - . 

6. Compact grey and slightly oolitic lime- 
stone ; with rubbly bed (5) at base, that 
may be due to the subterranean action 
of springs flowing over the surface of 
the clay beneath ... 

4. Grey clay, passing down into brown 
clay ; with layer at base (3) containing 
lumps of hard and rather oherty lime- 
stone, probably derived from beds 
below . . . . - 

False-bedded limestone, sbelly and 

oolitic in places. 
False-bedded brown sandy limestone, 
crinoidal and finely oolitic in places ; 
soma layers more sandy than others - 





Proceeding southwards we find the Chipping Norton Lime- 
house exposed beneath the Great Oolite Series south-west of 
Chadlington Down Farm. Some curious bee-hive shaped 
excavations are occasionally found in the surface-strata (2 to 7) 
at this locality.t They are probably pre-historic. Here the 
Chipping Norton Limestone is shelly, oolitic and crinoidal in 

* Proo. Geol. Assoc, vol. v. p. 179; and Hudleston, Ibid., p. 380. See also 
Phillips, Geol. Oxford, p. 55. Some blocks of similar rock have been employed for 
the monument erected at Churchill by the Earl of Ducie in memory of William 
Smith, who -was born at that Tillage j see Geol. Mag., 1892, p. 94. 

f See Essex Naturalist, vol. i. p. 265. 


places, but much of it is a finely oolitic and calcareous sandstone. 
(iSi?e Fig. 47.) Some of the layers, as shown in a quarry east 
of SarsgroYCj are remarkably false-bedded. 

North of Castle Barn, south-enst of Sarsden, the lower beds of 
stone, which appear to belong to the Chipping Norton Limestone, 
contain an impersistent bed of soft grey oolitic marl, I'ft. 8 in. 
thick, yielding Gasteropods, (Natica ? and others) very poorly 
preserved. (See p. 326.) I feel, however,- some doubt with 
regard to the correlation of these beds, for comparing them with 
those at North Aston, they might belong to the Great Oolite. 

South of Lyneham Barrow, and by the Camp, there are 
quarries showing false-bedded sandy and oolitic limestones, and 
sandy rock with hard concretions, resembling beds elsewhere 
associated with the Colly weston Slate. It is difficult to correlate 
the beds that are exposed in tliis neighbourhood. 

The Chipping Norton Limestone is quarried for road-metal, &c. 
near Handbrake on Chastleton Hill, near the Cross Hands Inn, 
and north-west of Little Eollright. 

The Clypeus Grit may be traced at the base of the "Chipping 
Norton Limestone in a quarry by the main road east of Adles- 
trop, and again above the Upper Lias clay in the disused brickyard 
west of Salford, as observed by Mr. Walfbrd. It is from 10 to 20 
feet thick. The sequence proved in this neighbourhood is aa 
follows : — 

Ft. In. 
" Flaggy oolitic limestones and marly 
clay, with Ostrea acuminata, 0. 
Bowerbyi, &c. 
Oolitic limestones, fissile when near 
the surface, passing down into less 
oolitic and somewhat sandy beds, 
and into thick, fine-grained, oolitic 
limestones below; with lignite in 
places, rolled fragments of oolite and 
tiny quartz pebbles - - about 12 

' Coarse and rubbly oolite, iron-shot in 
places, with Clypeus Ploti, Trigonia, 
Tereh'aiula globata, &c. - about 10 

Northampton f Brown calcareous sandstone - - 1 8 

Beds. 1 Brown sands, with pebbly layer at base 1 2 
Upper Lias - Grey clay. 

The Clypeus Grit, as I am informed by Mr. James Windoes, 
has been proved In several places in the neighbourhood of 
Chipping Norton, more especially in the escarpment between the 
town and Churchill. It has also been proved beneath the town 
itself, where its thickness must be nearly 20 feet, judging by one 
well sunk to a depth of 55 feet. 

A trace of the division has been exposed, faulted against the 
Chipping Norton Limestone, in a quarry south-east of the town, 
on the Burford Koad ; and an exposure of sandy and ferruginous 
limestone (classed by Mr. Windoes with the Clypeus Grit) occurs 
in the deep road-cutting by the cross roads, south of Lime-kiln 


Great Oolite 






Farm.* It is also exposed in a deep road-cutting through Bright 
Hill east of the Five Knights. 

The following species, collected from the Clypeus Grit by- 
Mr. Windoes, have been recorded by Mr. Hudleston: — f 

Trigonia signata. 
Erhyaclionella angnlata, 


Terebratula globata. 
Clypeus Ploti. 
Holectypus depressuB. 
Anabaoia complanata (orbulites). 


Montlivaltia troohoides. 

Ammonites Parkinsoni. 
ActaBonina. (H. B. W.) 
Oardinm citrinoidoum. 
Hompmya gibbosa. 
Lima duplicata. 

Ptoladomya Dewalquei. 
— Heraulti. 
Trigonia costata. 

North of Chipping Norton the Clypeus Grit appears to die out, 
or, if not, it merges into the sandy beds which at Hook Norton 
directly underlie the Chipping Norton Limestone, and yield but 
few fossils. Nor do we find this bed anywhere distinctly 
represented to the east. Southwards, Prof. Hull records a thick- 
ness of about 20 feet at Sarsden, but only a trace at Enstone. J 

At Fawler we have the following section of beds : — § 

Norton -^ 



Ft. In. 
Oolitic limestone of variable texture, 
with occasional marly layers. The 
beds, which are quarried for lime- 
burning, are much tumbled, shat- 
tered, and lime-washed. Few 
fossils occur ; but Fholadomya and 
Echini may be found - 12 to 
, ( Rubbly oolitic marls and coarse 
marly oolites, with Clypeus Ploti, 
Ammonites Farkinso ni, Fholadomya 
Dewalquei, Terebratula globata, 
_ &c. - - - 8 Oto 

'Marly limestones - - 5 to 

Coarse oolitic, and almost pisolitic, 
limestones, with Gervillia, Isocar- 
dia, Lima gibbosa, Modiola Lons- 
dalei, Myaoites, Pecten vagans, 
Bhynchonella concinna, R. obsoleta, 
El. varians, Serpula, &c. 
Hard iron-Shot limestone, with 
pebbly layer at base; Corals, 
Echinolrissus elu/nicularis, Bhyn- 
chonella spinosa, Terebratula 
globata, and T. maxillata (smooth 
form) - » • ._ 

Upper LifS. — Blue Clay. 

From the basement-bed (above the Upper Lias Clay) Mr. 
Walford obtained small blocks of limestone covered with Plicatulm 


Beds of 




> 4 

* Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. v. p. 386 ; and Walford, Quart. Journ. Geol. See, 
vol. xxxix. pp. aae, 238. 

t Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. T. p. 384. 

X Geol. Country around Woodstock, p. 13. 

§ See also Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. iv. p. 95 ; Hull, Geologist, vol. iii. p. 304; 
Hull, Geol. Woodstock, p. 15 ; Walford, Quart. Jouru. Geol. See, vol. xli. p. 39 ; 
F. A. Bather, Ibid., vol. ilii. p. 144. 



and pierced witli Lithodomi ; and he records the occurrence of 
Trigonia producta, T. angulata, Rhynclionella quadriplicata ?, &c. 

The basement-bed of the Inferior Oolite (Eagstones) at Fawler 
indicates that, in this southerly direction, the upper beds of the 
Inferior Oolite overlap the lower beds and rest directly on the 
Upper Lias, as is also the case near Burford (p. 145). 

The same basement-bed appears to be represented (as pointed 
out by Mr. Walford), in the pebbly beds with bored-stones, 
Trigonia, and Corals, at Hooi< Norton, and in the sections north 
of Dunthrop, at Otley Hill, and at Sharpe's Hill. 

The cutting at Hook Norton, east of the tunnel, has afforded a 
good section of the stratn, which have been described by Mr. T. 
Beesley, and more particularly by Mr. Walford, in whose com- 
pany I have had the opportunity of examining the beds, and on 
whose authority most of the fossils are enumerated.* The 
following is a summarized account of the beds : — 

Ft. In. 

Soil and rubble of Great Oolite. 
'Flaggy white oolitic limestone - - 2 

Hard concretionary calcareous sand- 
stone and yellow and white sand ; 
Ostrea, - - _ - - - 3 6 

Hard close-grained slightly oolitic and 
sandy limestone, with Ostrea on 
surface - - - - 1 9 

Ferruginous and sandy beds, with 
lignite and plant-remains - 10 to 12 
Kagstones. •^ Shelly and iron-shot limestones, with 
rolled fragments of limestone : 
Astarte minima, Lima, Lucina des- 
pecta, Feclen lens, Trigonia producta, 
T. gemmata, T. signata, and Bhyn- 
chonella spinosa - - 3 to 4 

Conglomeratic iron-shot .limestone, 
with bored stones : Ostrea, Trigonia, 
Bhynchonella spinosa, Serpula, Isas- 
. trcea, and Thamnastrcea - 10 to 1 2 

'Hard grey sandy limestone, oolitic in 
places : Ammonites opalinus, Tere- 
bratula perovalis, &c. - 2 8 to 3 

N°^*^^™P*°" <! Br^own^^shelly and calcareous sand-^ 

stones: Belemnites gingensis, Gonio- j 

mya, Gresslya, Rhynclionella cyno- ^3 6 

cephala, Terebratula plicata, &c. - I 

^Brown sandy clay with pebbles -J 

Upper Lias. — ^Blue clay. 

The Chipping Norton Limestone is no doubt represented in 
the upper strata, while lower down the Clypeus Grit and the 
Trio'onia Grit of the Cotteswolds may be represented in point of 
time. (See Fig. 92, p. 329.) 


* Walford, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxix. p. 220 ; Beesley, Proc. Warwick- 
shire Field Club, 1876, p. 29, and Vroo. Geol. Assoc, vol. iv. p. 170; Hudleston, 
Jbid., p. 389-, and Gasteropoda of Inf. Oolite, p. 71 ; Tomeg, Proo. Geol. Assoc, 
TOl. Tl. p. 157. 


Over the country east and north-east of Hook Norton, the 
evidence tends to show that both upper and lower portions of the 
Inferior Oolite are represented in a sandy series that passes into 
the Northamptonshire area. Over portions of that area the 
general divisions comprise the Lower Estuarine Beds resting on 
the Northampton Sands. 

Prof. Judd remarks that outliers of the Oolites cap a number 
of mere or less isolated hills in the north of Oxfordshire, such as 
Erailes Hill, Mine Hill, Ty.-oe Hill, Shenlow Hill, Epwell Hill, 
Long Hill, and the high grounds above Epwell, Sibford, and Which- 
ford. " The variable beds of limestones, sands, ironstones, &c., 
which form these outliers, have been classed with the Northampton 
Sand, and indeed they can be traced from this point northward 
and eastward almost continuously with that series of more or 
less ferruginous beds. * * * Tracing the same beds to the 
southwards, we find in the outlier above Whichford and Long 
Oompton, thick beds of white freestone underlaid by sands; 
beneath these occur beds of calcareo-siliceous stone with but few 
well-preserved fossils." From these beds Mr. Walford has 
recorded Astarte elegans and Trigonia signata* Near Long 
Compton a specimen of Ammonites gai'antianus, was obtained 
from the " Northampton Sand."t 

A section at Sharpe's Hill, south-west of Hook Norton Leys 
and north-west of Hook Norton, showed the following section : — 

Great Oolite Series 

Ft. In. 
'Brown clay and rubble 
Greenisb. marly clay - 

Band of limestone - - V3 to 4 

WJiite marl with Gervillia 
Dark clay 

Ferruginous marly bed. 
Hard false-bedded oolitic and shelly 
Tj , J limestone - - - 6 

Jiagstones ■< (j^itty oolitic and conglomeratic 
Inferior „ I limestone ; with lignite, Trigonia 

Oolite. ^ L signata, &c. - - 8 to 1 

-i.^ ,, , f Brown ferruginous sands and cal- 

JNorttiampton J ggreous sandstone (blue-hearted) 

iieasf - ^ with sheUy beds - - -60 

The upper beds in this quarry show resemblances to beds seen 
north of Lower Tadmarton : they belong to the Great Oolite 
Series. The^ Oolite below is the Chipping Norton Limestone. 
The sandy beds may represent the Northampton Sands ; at any 
rate they are equivalent to beds seen at Newbottle Spinney and 
near Bloxham. Mr. Walford records from the lower beds Avicula 
hraamburiensis, Gervillia, Ostrea, a.nA Trigonia costata;X and he 
recognizes no strata older than the zone of Ammonites Parkinsoni. 

North-west of Nill Farm, and west of Hook Norton Lodge, 
the following section was exposed : — 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxix. p. 233. 

t Judd, Geol. Rutland, pp. 13, 17, 21. 

j Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxii. p. 233. 


Ft. In. 
'Brown sandy and loamy soil - - 3 6 

Tellowish-brown and white sanda - 2 6 
Hard flaggy oolitic limestone ; with 
Kagstones <( lignite and plant-remains - - 6 

Brown oolitic limestone, becoming 
sandy and conglomeratic (?) at the 
base - - - - - 1 3 

Northampton TSlightly oolitic and shelly limestone 

Beds P t - Trigonia and lignite - - - 7 

From limestones beneath the sandy beds of Tadmarton Camp 
and Milcomb Hill, Mr. Walford records Pecten demissus, P. lens, 
P. personatus, Trigonia Brodiei, Montlivaltia lens, &;c.* Possibly 
the bottom layer of limestone (above noted) may belong to this 
lower portion of the Inferior Oolite Series ; the section at any 
rate may be compared with that in the Hook Norton railway- 
cutting (p. 155). 

At " Otley Hill " on the west of Hotley Hill Farm, and on the 
western side of the road leading towards Traitor's Ford, the 
following section was shown : — 

Ft. In. 

rKubbly oolitic beds - -■) 

r Kagstones J Hard sandy and oolitic bed I 3 ^ 
Inferior • "^^^ ^°^^^ ^*°^^^ ^^^ I 

Oorte "^ '- ^°^^'® '■' pebbly at base -J 

^ ■ I Northampton / Hard sandy and ferruginous 

l_ Beds. 1 limestones - - 4 

Prof. Judd, Mr. "Walford, and Mr. J. Windoes have obtained 
a number of fossils from this pit, but the horizons have not in all 
cases been clearly stated.f Isastrma Conybearei, Lithodomi, &c. 
occur in the pebbly bed, an equivalent to which is seen beneath 
the Clypeus Grit at Fawler. The lower beds have yielded the 
following species: — 

Ammonites corrugatus. Trigonia Brodiei. 

opalinus. striata. 

Nerinssa cingenda. Ehynchonella cynocephala. 

pisolitica. Acrosalenia. 

Pholadomya fidicula. Montlivaltia lens. 

Large specimens of Nautilus also occur. The assemblage 
compares well with that recorded from Brailes. 

Prof. Judd states that in the pits opened at the summit of 
Brailes Hill, there are beds of white oolitic freestone (slightly 
siliceous), which by weathering assume a somewhat fissile character. 
Among these upper beds there is a white, coarsely oolitic rock, 
graduating into a regulay freestone undistinguishable from that of 
the Lower Freestones of Gloucestershire ; in its upper part this 
bed becomes shelly and contains numerous Corals and fragments 
of Echinoderms. Below, there is an irregular bed of brown sand 
and good ironstone, presenting the usual features of the 

• Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxix. p. 328. 

f Judd, Geol. Rutland, p. 21 ; Walford, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xzziz. 
pp. 234, 242, 244 J S. S. Buckman, Inf. Ool. Ammonites, pp. 52, 53. 


Northampton Sand. Beneath the sand and ironstone, a thickness 
of about 8 feet of calcareo-siliceous rock is exposed, one bed near 
the bottom being crowded with fossils, among which Prof. Judd 
recognized the following* : — 

Ammonites corrugatus. Hinnites abjeotus. 

Murchisonae. Pecten articulatus. 

Belemnitea aalensis. demissus. 

ellipticus. personatQS. 

Astarte elegans. Trigonia oostata. 

minima. Pentacrinus Milleri. 

Ceromya bajociana. Latimaeandra Davidsoni. 

CucullEea oblonga. Montlivaltia trocboides. 

Gresslya peregrina. Thamnastreea defranoiana. 

The Limestones here may belong to the Chipping Norton 
Limestone. From the lower beds, similar assemblages of fossils 
were collected by Prof. Judd, at Mine Hill and Tysoe Mill Hill. 

Prof. Judd refers to a pit, about 20 feet deep, on the hill on 
which Tysoe Mill stands ; this exhibited siliceous limestones with 
ironstone-bandings, in some places passing into loose calcareous 
sands, in others into the ordinary iron-ore of the Northampton 
Sand, At this place marine fossils were rare in the beds, but 
fragments of lignite and plant-remains were very abundant. He 
further states that " In the long spur capped by Northampton 
Sand, which stretches northwards as far as Compton Winyate, we 
find many illustrations of the variable character of the beds which 
lie upon the Upper I>ias Clay. Sometimes, as near White House 
Warren, white sands with numerous bands of carbonaceous matter 
occur ; in some places these white sands are found passing into 
hard sand-rock, at others into ferruginous sand, and ^at others 
again, as near Broomhill Farm, into cellular ironstone rock. 
At not a few points the sands graduate, within very short 
distances, into a more or less fissile calcareo-siliceous rock 
traversed by hard ferruginous bands. The same rapid variations — 
so characteristic of the Northampton Sand throughout its whole 
range — from arenaceous to more or less ferruginous and cal- 
careous rocks, is seen in the numerous outliers to the east of this 
spur, one of which, Epwell Hill, rises to an elevation of 836 feet, 
and constitutes the highest point in the county of Oxford."! 

A pit north-east of White House, north-west of Epwell, 

showed the following section : — 

Ft. In. 
G-rey sandy soil - • 6 to 1 

White quartzose sand, bere and tbere 

sligbtly indurated; passing down 

into bed below - - - 2 6 

Brown sand with ferruginous veins, 

and layers only slightly indurated ; 

with patches of white sand - 4 6 to 5 

The sand resembles that east of Newbottle Spinney, and may 
perhaps be grouped with the Northampton Beds. It is, however, 

• Geol. Eutland, pp. 17, 18. 
t Geol. Butland, p. 20. 



hazardous to speak with certainty of the correlation of such beds 
of sand, detailed mappinor on the 6-inch scale being needful to 
determine theiv stratigraphical relations. Similar sands occur at a 
higher horizon, as noted in a section west of Hook Norton Lodge 
(p. 156). 

Brown and white sands, probably equivalent to those seen in the 
Epwell section, have been dug near Tadmarton Oamp, and these 
beds have been again exposed beneath the Great Oolite Series 
on Constitution Hill, near Withycombe Farm, Banbury, 
Mr. Walford says " all that remains of the Inferior Oolite is from 
12 to 20 feet of white and fawn-coloured sands with occasional 
bands of stone." From these he obtained plant-remains, and 
some fossils, including Avicula braamburiensis, Corbicella 
bathonica, Gresslya abducta, Ostrea gregaria, Pecten articulatus, 
Trigonia angnlata, T. v.-costata, an Alga, &c.* These beds 
probably belong to the lower division grouped with the North- 
ampton Beds. 

It has been noted that to the south of Chipping Norton there 
is a variable set of sandy and oolitic limestones, underlaid by more 
decidedly sandy rock, with hard concretionary nodules ; but these 
lower sandy beds are overlapped in the direction of Fawler. 

To the north-east of Chipping Norton, in pits near the Priory 
Farm, Heythrop Common, north of Showell Farm, near Pomfret 
Castle, and thence to Great Tew, and in the west of Swerford, we 
find evidence of the same general sequence. 

On top we find in places the irregular capping of clays and 
rubbly stone,, belonging to the Great Oolite Series. At Swerford 
these beds resemble those seen above the Inferior Oolite Series 
at Newbottle Spinney : the section is as follows : — 



f 7. Brown clay .... 
I 6. Grey and blue-black clay 
■^ 5. Bluish grey rubbly sandy and shelly 
limestone and clay, with Ostrea 
acuminata . - . . 

'4. Calcareous sandy and shelly stone 
3. Clay seam .... 

2. riaggy sandy, shelly, and (in places) 
J slightly oolitic limestone 

) 1. Tellow sands with small concretionary 
nodules of calcareous sandstone ; 
piped where at the surface, and 
passing into harder stone 

Ft. In. 


>about 10 

The rubbly bed 5, appears to be in part decomposed or re- 
constructed portions of the bed below. It is termed the " Rift 
Bed " by Mr. Walford, for it sometimes fills rifts or crevices In the 
underlying strata. A fuller account of this section, differing 
somewhat in detail, is given by him.f Here there is evidently a 
break between the Great Oolite Series and underlying strata, for 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxiz. p. 228 ; Bee also Beesley, Proc, Geol. 
Assoc, vol. v. p. 174. 
t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. zzzix. pp. 230, 233, 234. 


elsewhere in the neighbourhood there is to be found 6 feet of 
flaggy oolite representing the Chipping Norton Limestone. 

It is difiBcult to fix horizons in the beds in this neighbourhood, 
and it is likely that more than one zone of the Inferior Oolite may 
be represented in the calcareous sandy beds, some of which are 
obscurely oolitic. Fossils are not abundant; we may find Ostrea 
and Trigonia signata, Galeolaria socialis, and Lignite, but otherwise 
our search may be unrewarded by any zonal species, for Trigonia 
signata does not appear to characterize any definite horizon. 
Very fine examples of this fossil were obtained by Mr. Windoes 
and the late S. Stutterd from a pit near Priory Farm, on Hey- 
throp Common. It locally forms a Trigonia-heA, that occurs in 
the upper part of the sand)' limestones, which have been exposed 
to a depth of about 12 feet, at Swerford Park and Grreat Tew. 

The lower portion of this sandy development of the Inferior 
Oolite Series, comprises layers of hard blue-hearted calcareous 
sandstone, like the L'lwer Calcareous Grit, and in places it is 
conglomeratic. These beds have been quarried to the N.W. of 
Little Tew and S.W. of Great Tew, where they are shown to a 
depth of 12 feet. The section north of Heythrop Common is as 
follows : — 


Brown clay. 

Rubbly oolitic stone witli Ostrea 

Marly Osirea-bed, with small concretionary 

nodules of calcareous sandstone at the 


Ft. Iir. 

Oolite •{ Flaggy calcareous sandstone, with Trigonia 
Series. signata. - - - 10 to 16 

Sandy and flaggy, false-bedded calcareous 
sandstone, with nodules o£ similar rock 
in upper part - - - - 6 

North of Showell Farm, and again eastwards near the turning 
to Little Tew, we find flaggy and marly oolite, 6 to 8 feet thick, 
with Ostrea and Gasteropoda ; these beds rest on calcareous 
sandstone and sand, the former sometimes obscurely oolitic. 

By the park-drive, a little north-west of Heythrop Church, 
there are extensive quarries, where beds of coarse-grained and 
more or less shelly oolite have been worked to a depth of nearly 
20 feet. The beds contain spines of Echini, Ostrea, and very 
small pebbles of quartz : they are more massive at the base and 
rubbly on top, and Lave furnished much building-stone for the 
neighbourhood. The beds are very irregular and false-bedded. 
In places a thick Oyster-bed is to be seen in the quarries on the 
north-eastern side of the drive. It occurs in irregular masses, 
5 feet thick in places, and composed of pale marly oolite crowded 
with Ostrea, with occasionally Lima cardiiformis and pebbles of 
oolite : it dies away more or less abruptly into loose marly oolite. 
It is overlaid by 8 or 10 feet of oolite, part of which is worked for 
building-stone, and it is underlaid by 4 feet of stone, also worked. 

The upper portion of this division is seen in a quarry north- 
east of Enstone, where about 1 2 feet of fissile and false-bedded 


ooliteand sandy oolitic limestone have been opened up. The beds 
contain Trigonia and Lima, and are overlaid by about 3 feet of 
clay with fragments of Ostrea. South of Enstone (east of the 
b9th milestone) the beds were again exposed ; and the Giant's 
fetone or Hoar Stone, a block about 11 x 7 x 3 feet, is formed 
of the rock. In character these beds correspond with the Chip- 
ping Norton Limestone ; but they may include strata on a lower 

About one-third of a mile north of Dunthrop the foUowino- 
section was exposed : — r o 

Ft. In. 
-Brown clayey soil - - . - 6 

'-Flaggy oolite . . . - 1 3 

Coarse marly oolite with Ostrex [? = Clypeus 
Grit] . . . - 1 

Kagstones< ^^^^^7 oolite with pebbles of oolite and 
] numerous casts of shells, especially 
Trigonia costata; with Ammonites (rare), 
Lima, ' Ostrea, and Corals, Isastrcea 
[_ Richardsoni, &c. - - - - 1 9 

. r Hard false-bedded marly oolitic limestone, 

Oolite J with Ostrea: passing down into coarse 
Marl ? I shelly, pisolitic and oolitic limestone, 

L with Lima cardiiformis . - - 13 

These beds may be compared with those opened up north-west 
of Heythrop Church; in the quarries east of Sarsgrove on the 
road from Burford to Chipping Norton ; and in a quarry on the 
Banbury Eoad about 3^ miles from Chipping Norton. The 
junction with the sandy series below was shown, in a quarry 
about a quarter of a mile to the eastwards of the one last-- 
mentioned, on the road to Little Tew. 

These sections at Dunthrop and Heythrop are important, for 
here _ it would appear that we have evidence of two limestone 
divisions— the upper portion of which represents the Chippino- 
Norton Limestone, perhaps the Clypeus Grit, and the Trigonia 
Bed at Fawler and the Coral Bed of Hook Norton : the lower 
portion may represent beds parallelled with the Oolite Marl and 
with portions of the Lincolnshire Limestone. Precise correlation 
is however veiy hazardous. 

Proceeding further east we come, near Deddington, to the two- 
important sections described by Prof. Judd. The lists published 
by him suggest that we have representatives there, not only of the 
Oolite Marl or LTpper Freestone of the Cotteswolds, but of higher 
stages, indicated by Clypeus Ploti, Terebratula glolata, S;c. 

Judging also from the fossils obtained from the Lincolnshire 
Limestone in certain places, as at Tinkler's quarry, Stamford,* it 
would seem the upper portion of the Inferior Oolite is to 
some extent represented in that division. 

About a mile north-west of Deddington, in the parishes of 
Little Barford (or Barford St, John) and Great Barford (or 

* See Judd, Geol. Rutland, p. 160. 
E 75928. T 



Bnvford St. ]\Iichael), there are two small outliers wblch have 
been preserved, in consequence of the Inferior Oolite having 
been let down by faults. In the small outlier north of the Eiver 
Swere (Oombe Hill), Prof. Judd found about 15 feet of white 
oolitic limestone, some of the beds being very shelly ; at the time 
of my visit only about half that thickness of rock was exposed. 
Many fossils have been collected from the beds, by Mr, Beesley, 
Mr. E. Gibbs, Prof. Judd, and Mr. Walford :* they include the 
following species : — 

X Stropiodus. 


Perna rugosa, var. quadrata, 

X Ammonites MurcMsonSB. 


Trigonia beesleyana. 

X Belomnites el-lipticuB. 


X Nautilus. 

Terebratula fimbria. 

X Natica cincta. 


X Patella rugosa. 


maxillata (submaxillata) 

Area Pratti. 



X Astarte elegans. 


X Hinnites abjectus. 


Graleolaria (Serpula) socialis. 

X Lima caTdiiformis. 


Pentacrinus Milleri. 

eleotra. (H. B. W.) 


Pygaster semisuloatus. 

X pectiniformia. (H, B. "W.) 


Stomechinus germinans. 

Luciiia Wrighti. 


Montlivaltia trochoides. 

X Ostrea flabelloides. 

ThamnastrEea defranciana. 

X Pecten lens. 

Thecosmilia Wrighti. 

X personatus. 

Those marked X occur also in the pit next mentioned. 

Prof. Judd also states that " On the south side of the Eiver 
Swere, at a place known as Blackingrove, we find a pit opened in 
beds of stone similar to that on the other side of the river at 
Combe Hill; as wo go lower in the series, however, the oolitic 
limestones are seen passing down into beds of a more siliceous 
and shelly character, and finally into the hard siliceo-calcareous 
rock, which occurs so commonly in the Northampton Sand. The 
whole of these beds are crowded with shells which have been 
collected both by the late [Charles] Faulkner, of Deddington, 
and the officers of the Geological Survey ; thus we have been 
made acquainted with a very large and interesting fauna from 
this locality, which enables us to refer the beds without doubt to 
the base of the Inferior Oolite. The strata representing the 
Northampton Sand here, as at many other places, contain 
numerous rounded pebbles of argillaceous limestone ; it Is in 
places banded with brown oxide of iron in its lower part, and 
rests directly upon the Upper Lias Clay." 

The following fossils have been collected at Blackingrove in the 
sandy limestone of the Northampton Sand : — 

Mesodon (Pycnodus). Belemnites aalensis. 
StrophoduB. G-resslya peregrina. 
Ammonites corrugatus. Pholadomya fidicula. 

* Judd, Geol. Eutland, p. 25 ; Beesley, Proc. Warwickshire Field Club, 1872, 
p. 28, and Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. iii. p. 204 ; Walford, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 
vol. xxxix. pp. 227, 239. 


Prof. Judd also mentions Clypeus Ploti from this locality. 
The beds (according to Mr. Beesley) have been worked since 
the Eoraan occupation, but the quarry has now for many years 
been closed. 

The general succession of the strata at Steeple Aston, south- 
east of Deddington, was given as follows by William Smith, in 


[Great Oolite. 1 ( White Stone [shelly oolite underlaid by 
'- -■ I marly clay]. 

f White sand .... 6 


'- '■' \ Oven stone or soft sandstone 

[Upper Lias.] "Wet clay .... [35j 

[Middle Lias.] [^^X ollj. ' " " " ^0 








A general section in the same area was afterwards given by 
Prof. PhillipSjt whose measurements are given in square brackets. 
The thickness of the Upper Lias in this neighbourhood is in 
places reduced to iO or 15 feet.J 

At Worton, between Steeple Aston and Banbury, the following 
section, showing details of the Inferior Oolite, was noted in 1854 
by Prof. Phillips :— 

Ft. In. 
Shelly and sandy layers, with patches of calcareous 

flagstone (" plank "J . . - . 

Iron-ore (oolitic) in undulated and folded masses 
Stony bands, with plant-remains - . . 

Sands, with nodules of iron-ore and shells 
Calcareous band ..... 

Ferruginous clay (top of Upper Lias) 

This section is suggestive of the Northampton Beds ; and it is 
interesting to know that the bands of iron-ore above the Upper 
Lias, as well as those beneath it (JNIiddle Lias), were formerly 
■worked near Steeple Aston, by means of a shaft 90 feet deep.§ 

Phillips remarks that in the country about Sandford the above 
beds become white and yellow sand (16 or more feet thick) with 
ii-regular laminae of calcareous sandstone, blue in the centre, 
and called " plank." This is sometimes covered by 6 feet of 
clay. Strickland mentioned that near Lower Heyford " about a 
mile south of Kousham the [Great Western] railway again cuts 
into a hill and exposes some beds of siliceous sand of various 
colours. Above this is a bluish clay with numerous small oblong 
Ostrese."|| The clay doubtless belongs to the Great Oolite 
Series. . 

Yellow ferruginous sands passing upwards into the calcareous 
sandstone, and resting on the Upper Lias clay, were noticed by 
Prof. Hull in the valley of the Dome east of Steeple Barton, where 

» Life of William Smith, by J. Phillips, p. 61. 

f Quart. Journ. Geol. See, vol. xvi. p. 116 ; Geol. Oxford, p. 145. 

j Hull, Explan. of Hor. See., Sheets 71 and 72, p. 4. 

§ E. Meade, Coal and Iron Industries, 1882. 

I| Memoirs of H. E. Strickland, p. 184. 

L 2 


they are 30 feet thick ; and he observed that they could be traced 
as far south as Linch Farm. He considered that the sandy beds 
here and at Heyford represented the " Upper Lias Sands " of" 
Gloucestershire ; but he subsequently deferred to the opinion of 
Mr. T. R. Polwhele that they belonged to the base of the Great 
Oolite.* The original view was the more correct one. (See- 
Fig. 91, p. 324.) 

On the hill above Beesley's Barn, about one mile N.W. of 
Bloxham, the following section was exposed : — 

, ^ ^ - Ft. Ik. 

'Brown sandy loam - - - - & 

riaggy beds of oqlite, and calcareous sand- 
stone wit]}, plant-remains - - 1 ft 
Inferior Calcareous and mortar-like beds, with 
Oolite "i ferruginous veins - - - - 3 6 
Series. Sandy ferruginous and concretionary bed -07 
Hard pebbly oolitic bed - - - 8 
Hard ferruginous and marly sandstones, pale 

and bluish ; Pecten at top - - - 1 10 

These beds are probably on the sam3 horizon as those at New- 
bottle Spinney. (See p. 176.) 

* Geol. Woodstock, p. 17; see also Hull, Explan. of Hor. Sec, Sheets 71 and 72, 
p. 4. 

Inferior Oolite 




3. North AM]«TONSHiREj Eutlandshiee, and Linoolnshiee. 

General Account of the Strata. 

In the tracts now to be described, the beds admit of the fol- 
lowing divisions, but these are not everywhere represented : — 

'Lincolnshire Limestone. 

CoUyweston Slate. 

Lower Estuarine Seriesl xr .1 i tj j 
-.-r w . a J V JSlorthamptou Beds. 

IMorthampton Sand J ^ 

Some of these divisions have been recognized in areas already 
•described, but a fuller account of them may now be given, 

Northampton Beds. 

The term " Northampton yellow and brown Sandstone and 
Sand" was employed as early as 1815 by John Farey;* but the 
name Northampton Sand was not extensively used until it was 
adopted in 1860 by the Cleologicnl Survey.f At that time the 
beds were taken to be the equivalent of the Stonesfield Slate : a 
fiupposition supported by the similarity betvvcea that stratum and 
the CoUyweston Slate (See p. 170.) 

The Rev. P. B. Brodie, however, in 1853, recognized that the 
Norlhamptonshire Ironstone belonged to the Inferior Oolite ;t 
and Morris in 1869 showed that the "Ferruginous Sand and 
Sand-i-ock" (Northampton Sands) were probably equivalent in 
part to the Yorkshire "Dogger." He also concluded that the 
CoUyweston and Whittering Slates, and part if not all of the over- 
lying oolite of Ponton, Oorby, Stamford, Barnack, &c., repre- 
sented the beds overlying the Dogger, or higher portions of the 
Inferior Oolite. § 

Our detailed knowledge of the beds, as will be pointed out, is 
mainly owing to the researches carried on during the course of 
the Geological Survey by Prof. Judd, and to the observations of 
the late Samuel Sharp, of Dallington Hall. 

The Northampton Beds, which attain a maximum thickness of 
about 70 or 80 ieet, were divided by Prof. Judd, as follows : — 

Lower Estuarine Series. 
Northampton Sand. 


' Supp. jDdex to Sowerljy's Mineral Concholopy, vol. i. 

t W. T. Aveline and B. Trench, Geol. part of Northamptonsliire, p. 8. 

X Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. ii. p. 132. 

§ Geol. Mag., 1869, p. 104. 


The Lower Estuarine Series consists of white, brown, and 
grey sands with plant-remaina, and "vertical markings" of their 
rootlets, with inconstant beds of clay, ferruginous nodules, &c. 
The beds are 10 or 20 feet thick. Cyrena occurs rarely ; and 
other fossils are seldom found. Like the Upper Estuarine Series, 
there is evidence of the alternation of fluvio-marine, and terrestrial 
conditions ; while the Northampton Sand below is essentially 
marine. In many localities however it is not possible to fix any 
plane of division between the strata ; and where a boundary can 
be taken, it is likely to vary in horizon at diiFerent places. 

The Northampton Sand comprises beds of hard calcareous 
sandstone, ironstone, and occasional oolitic sandy limestone ; these 
pass, often within short distances, into beds of white sand or iron- 
stone. As Prof. Judd remarks, " Sometimes the whole thickness of 
the Northampton Sand is made up of white sands with occasional 
beds of clay ; . . . but in the majority of instances a greater 
or less portion of its mass, usually towards its lower part, is con- 
verted into a solid bluish or greenish ironstone rock of oolitic struc- 
ture, exactly resembling many parts of the Dogger and Middle 
Lias ironstones»of Yorkshire ; this rock, by weathering action set 
up from its joint planes, assumes a brown colour and a banded or 
cellular structure of a very peculiar and striking character. 
. . . This structure is due to the chemical action set up in 
the mass by the atmospheric waters, which, penetrating from the 
joint and bedding planes, have caused the concentration of 
hydrated peroxide of iron along surfaces haying a general 
pai-allelism with those planes. The hard bands are often concen- 
trically arranged. Frequently the change by weathering from 
blue and green carbonate and silicate to brown haematite has only 
partially taken place, and the centres of the blocks consist of the 
former while their outer portions are constituted by the latter, 
displaying the usual hard bands. The brown ore, when examined 
microscopically, is often seen to retain the same oolitic structure 
which is found in the unweathered rock."* (See Eig. 137, p. 494). 

The thickness of the Northampton Sand is variable; as Pro- 
fessor Judd remarks, it probably never exceeds 40 feet, while it is 
frequently reduced to very insignificant proportions, and some- 
times, as about LufFenh&m, almost entirely disappears, being 
there represented by thin beds of white sand, clay, and ironstone. 
These beds apparently die out for a space east of Barrowden and 
Wakerlej', where they are from 2 to 3 feet thick, and then 
the Lincolnshire Limestone rests on the Upper Lias Olay.t 

Fossils are not, as a rule, very abundant, and they are for 
the most part in the condition of surface casts and internal moulds. 
Occasionally, however, they are well preserved, as in a stratum 
at Aldwinkle, where "the substance of the shell usually remains, 
sometimes even, when first exposed, retaining the nacreous 
]ustre."J In this case the rock is calcareous sandstone. 

* Judd, Geol. Rutland, pp. 32, 33, 90, 91, 101. 
t Ibid., pp. 91, 85. 
j Ibid,, p. 98. 


List of Fossils from the Northampton Sand :- 


Ammonites corrugatus. 

insignis (Fig. 4). 

-• — jurensis (Fig. 3). 

Mnrohisonse (Fig. 16). 

opalinus (Fig. 6) . 


Nautilus multiseptatus. 


Belemnites aalensis. 


Nautilus jurensis. 

Natica canaliculata. 

Nerinsea cingenda (Fig. 22). 


Astarte elegans (Pig. 12). 

excavata (Fig. 20). 


Avicula braamburiensis (Fig. 13). 



Cardium Buckmani. 


Ceromya bajooiana (Fig. 21), 
CucuUaea canoellata. 


Cypricardia bathonica. 

oordiformis (Fig. 19). 

Gervillia acuta. 



Goniomya angulifera. 
Gresslya abducta. 


Hinnites abjectns. 

tumidus (velatus). 

Isocardia cordata. 
Lima oardiiformis. 




Lycetti P 





Lucina bellona. 


Macrodon hirsonensis. 

Modiola cuneata. 




Myacites calceiformis. 
Myoconcba crassa. 
Ostrea flabelloides. 
Pecten articulatus. 




Pholadomya fldicula. 


Pinna cuneata. 


Pteroperna plana. 
Quenstedtia tevigata. 


Tanoredia axiniformis. 
Trigonia compta. 





V. costata. 

Unicardium gibbosum. 
Ebyncbonella angulata. 



Terebratula Buckmani. 

maxillata (submaxillata). 



Galeolaria socialis. 
Serpula convoluta. 
Acrosalenia Lycetti. 

Eohinobrissus clunioularis. 
Galeropygus agariciformis.. 
Pygaster semisulcatus. 
IsastrEea Ricbardsoni. 
Latimaeandra Davidsoni. 
llontlivaltia trocboides. 
Tbamnastrsea defrauciana. 
Thecosmilia gregaria. 

Other species have been recorded, but some of these require confirma- 
tion. See Morris, Geol. Mag., 1869, pp. 101, &c. ; Sharp, Quart, journ. 
Geol. Soc, vol. xxvi. p. 354, vol. xxix. p. 296 ; Judd, Geol. Rutland, pp. 276, 
&c. ; E. T. Newton, Geol. Mag. 1891, p. 493 ; and S. S. Buckman, lUd., 
1892, p. 258. 

The Northampton Sand, where fully developed, represents the 
upper part of the zone of Ammonites jurensis, Ihe zone of A. 
opalinus, and portions of the zone of A. Murchisonce. There is 
at amy rate no evidence of the beds with A. striatulus, so that, as 
remarked by Sharp, we may have only a portion of the passage-beds 
between the Upper Lias and Inferior Oolite reprrsented in these 


In most localities there is evidence of erosion on top of the 
Upper Lias clay, and the base of the Northampton Sand contains 
pebbles of argillaceous limestone and ironstone, sometimes covered 
with Serpulse and Polyzoa or bored^ by Lithodomi. With these 
pebbles, as pointed out by Prof. Judd and Mr. Beeby Thompson, 
we occasionally find examples oi Ammonites bifrons, evidently due 
to the destruction of Upper Lias beds with septaria and cement- 

The Lower Estuarine Beds, as Prof Judd has suggested, may 
represent in part the Lower Freestones of the Cotteswold Hills ; 
but ovving to the absence of distinctive fossils, we are not in a 
position to slate the zones that may in places be represented in 
the sub-division. Over considerable tracts in North Oxfordshire 
and South Northamptonshire, these strata are directly o\terlaid by 
the Upper Estuaiine Beds.* 

Prof'. Judd has pointed out many instances of unconformity 
where the junction of the Upper and Lower. Estuarine Series 
can be examined. " The bottom-bed of- the Upper Estuarine 
Series, whenever this formation is distinctly developed, is found 
to be a band of ironstone-nodules, and these always rest on an 
eroded surface" of the underlying strata. This band however 
is not always present, and it is difficult sometimes to separate 
the two Estuarine Series. Moreover some of the irregular 
junctions may be attributed, partially at any rate, to subsequent 
erosion or dissolution of the underlying strata. As an example 
of the appearance presented by the junction of these two series 
of beds, the illustration of a pit near the Itace-course at 
Northampton was given by Prof. Judd. " Here we have, 
in the lower part of the pit, beds of well stratified white 
sard with vertical plant-markings, and sandrock (the latter 
quarried as a building-stone), passing downwards into a dark 
brown sandstone with a very thin representative of the North- 
amptonshire ironstone at its base. On the eroded surface of 
these beds lie the light-blue, and often highly carbonaceous, clays 
of the Upper Estuarine Series, with the very constant layer of 
nodules (' ironstone junction-band ') at its base." (Fig. 48. See 
also Figs. 51, p. 188, and 53, p. 191.) 

" Bearing in mind the existence of an unconformity between 
these two series of e-ituarine beds, we are not surprised to find 
that, in the country to the north, a thick series of beds (the Lincoln- 
shire Oolite) comes in like a great wedge between them. Thus 
in the northern part of the county of Northampton, along the 
valley of the Nene, the succession of beds is the same as that 
which we have already pointed out as presented in the neigh- 
bourhood of Northampton, while along the valley of the Welland, 
and in the country to the westward and northward, we have 
the same series of beds, with the addition of a new forma- 
tion, to which the Geological Survey has given the name of the 

* Judd, Geol. Eutland, pp. 39, 90, 92 ; Sharp, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, rol. xxvi, 
p. 375. 




X/incolnshire Oolite Limestone/' now generally spoken of as the 
Lincolnshire Limestone.* (See Fig. 112, p. 399.) 

These divisions of Lower Estuarine Series and Lincolnshire 
Limestone, frequently shade one into the other by insensible 
gradations; and occasionally, at their junction, beds of fissile 
sandy limestone occur, which constitute the Collyweston Slate. 
We pass thus from Estuarine Beds to those exhibiting shallow 
marine or littoral conditions, and thence into the somewhat deeper- 
water deposits of the Lincolnshire Limestone. 

The term Collyweston Slate is adopted from the name in 
common use, in the district between Stamford and Rockingham, 
where " slates " have been worked since the time of Henry VII. 
The chief localities are Collyweston, Easton, Dene, and Kirby, 

The term " Collyweston Limestone and Grey Slate " was used 
by John Farey ;t the earlier name of " Northamptonshire Lime " 
used by Michell in 178S, referring mainly to the Great Oolite. 
The stratigraphical position of the beds, overlying Ironstone and 
Lias, was noted in 1831 by John Phillips, f 

The base of the Lincolnshire Limestone becomes more or less 
arenaceous, and •we find a gradual passage through the Colly- 
weston Slate and its equivalents into the Lower Estiiarine Series 
below. These junction-beds consist of sands alternating with 
sandy limestones, both often containing concretionary masses. 
The larger forms are known to the quarrymen as* " Pot-lids." 
Where these beds become suflSciently fissile, after exposure to frost, 
to be utilized for roofing purposes, they constitute the Collyweston 
Slate : but in many places we find only indurated sandy layers. 
Tiiey are from 2 to 10 feet thick. 

These beds, as remarked by Prof. Judd, exhibit ripple- 
markings, worm-tracks, and burrows, and numerous plant- 
remains.§ It is most interesting to observe (and the fact has 
been noted by others) || that in lithological characters the Colly- 
weston Slate exhibits nearly all the features of the Stonesfield 
Slate, although it is not so oolitic as some of the older beds. 
Moreover there is a striking general similarity in some of the 
fossils, as for instance in the occurrence in both formations of 
Belemnites bessinus, Gervillia acuta, Trigonia impressa, and Pla- 
cunopsis socialis. Vertebrate remains are however comparatively 
scarce in the Collyweston Slate, and no remains of Insects and 
Crustacea have been recorded from it ; although a few specimens 
of Saurians and Crustacea have been obtained from the North- 
ampton Sand. One of the most characteristic fossils of the 
Collyweston Slate is the Gasteropod, Malaptera {Pterocera) 

* Geol. Kutland, pp. 33, 90, 140. 

t Agrio. Derbyshire, 1811, p. xxix ; and Supp. Index to SoTverby's Mineral 
Conchology, vol. i. 1815. 

X Geikie, Life of Murehison, vol. i. p. 1 B2. See also Brodie, Proo. Cotteswold 
Club, vol. i. p. 53.' 

§ Geol. Rutland, pp. 140, 157. 

II J. Phillips, Geol. Yorkshire, Part 1, cd. 2, 1835, p. 131. 


List of Fossils from the CoUyweston Slate : — 

PiBh-remains. Lucina 'Wrigliti. 

Belenmites bessiBtts. Macrodon hirsonensis. 

Alaria hamus, Tar. Phillipsi. Modiola gibbosa. 

Malaptera (Pterocera) Bentleyi. sowerbyana (Pig. 10). 

Natica canaliculata. Myacites scarbnrgensis. 

cincta. Ostrea flabelloides. 

Patella rugosa. rugoea. 

Astarte elegans. Pecten articnlatus. 

excavata. demissus. 

Ayicula braamburiensis (Fig. 13). lens. 

Miinsteri. paradoxus. 

Cardinm Buokmani. personatus. 

cognatum. Perna rugosa. 

Ceromya bajociana (Pig. 21). Pholadomya fidicula. 

concentrica. • Heraulti. 

CucuUsea oanoellata. Pinna cuneata. 

cucuUata. Placunopsis socialis. 

Gervillia acuta. Pteroperna coHtatula. 

Goniomya literata. plana. 

Hinnites abjectus. Trigonia compta. 

tumidus. costata. 

Homomya crassiuscula. bemisphserica. 

Lima pectiniformis. impressa. 

Lycetti P . Unicardium gibbosuro . 

Lucina orbigniana. Phlebopteris polypodioides. 

The age of the Lincolnshire Limestone was settled mainly 
through the labours of Samuel Sharp and Prqf. Judd. The 
Eev. P. B. Brodie, in 1850, had published opinions on the 
Inferior Oolite age of certain beds near Grantham, a view sup- 
ported at the time by Lycett.* John Phillips in 1860 mentions 
the probable Inferior Oolite age of the Lincolnshire Oolite, but 
adopted (not without hesitation) a different correlation ; probably 
because the Yorkshire equivalents were then regarded as of 
Great Oolite age.t For the same reason, no doubt, the specimens 
collected by Mr. Howell from the Lincolnshire Limestone in the 
Northampton area, during the origiiial Geological Survey of the 
district, were considered to be Great Oolite species. 

As pointed out by Prof. Judd, the chief difficulty seems to 
have arisen from the confusion between the Stonesfield Slate and 
the Oollyweston Slate, shared by Lonsdale, Morris, and Ibbetson, 
and adopted by Brodie; but Phillips had in 1835 rightly com- 
pared the Collyweston and Whittering Slates with those of 
Brandsby in Yorkshire, and the Lincolnshire Oolite with the Grey 
Limestone of Scarborougb. Subsequently Samuel Sharp of 
Dallington near Northampton, and Mr. Thomas Beesley of Ban- 
bury, were, by the study of the fossils in their respective areas, 
independenth' led to the conclusion that the Northampton Sand 
and Lincolnshire Oolite belonged to the Inferior Oolite. 

While studying the general relations of the Lincolnshire strata 
and the characters of their faunas, in 1866 and subsequent years, 

* Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. i. pp. 55, Src. ; Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1850, 
Sections, p. 74. 

■f Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xvi. pp. 17 (Address) and 119 ; see also Geol. 
Yorkshire, Part 1, ed. 2, pp. 3, 124. 


Professor Judd was induced on stratigraphical and palaeontological 
grounds to regard the great calcareous series in that county, 
and also the ferruginous beds below, as belonging undoubtedly 
to the Inferior Oolite.* From 1867 to 1871 he was actively 
engaged on the Geological Survey in Rutlandshire, and parts of 
Northamptonshire and Lincolnshire, and the results of his detailed 
work fully established the classification that has since been 
generally adopted. 

In describing the main features of the Lincolnshire Limestone 
it will be proper to quote largely from Prof. Judd's Memoir : — 

"The beds of the Lincolnshire Oolite display very various 
characters in different localities. Two aspects which it assumes, 
however, may be specially characterised." 

" The first of these we have called the ' coralline facies ' and it 
is characterised by beds of slightly argillaceous limestone, of com- 
pact, sub-crystalline, or but slightly oolitic texture, abounding with 
corals, which are usually converted into masses of finely crystallized 
carbonate of lime." The shells, which by their great abundance 
specially characterize this facies, often occur in the form of casts 
only, and consist of several species of Nerincea, Natica cincta, 
Pholadomya fidiciila, and P. Heraulti, Ceromya bajociana, Pinna 
cuneata, Modiola sowerhyana, several species of Lima, and Tere- 
hratula maxillata. " The patches of limestone rock constituted 
in this manner afford ample evidence of having once been coral- 
reefs (see p. 36 ) ; near Castle Bytliam a pit is opened in a rock 
seen to be almost wholly made up of corals." 

" The other variety of the Lincolnshire Oolite, which we have 
called the ' shelly facies,' consists almost wholly of small shells or 
fragments of shells, sometimes waterworn and at other times en- 
crusted with carbonate of lime. The shells belong to the genera 
Cerithium, Trochus, Monodonta, Turlo, Nerinaa, Astarte, Lima, 
Ostrea, Pecten, Trigonia, Terebratula, Rhynchonella, &c. ; and 
spines and plates of Echinoderms, joints of Pentracrinites, and 
teeth of Fishes also occur abundantly in these strata, which exhibit 
much false-bedding. The Gasteropods are usually waterworn, 
and the specimens of Conchifera and Brachiopoda usually consist 
o£ single valves often broken and eroded. These beds it is clear 
were originally dead-shell banks, accumulated under the influence 
of constantly varying currents." 

" The rocks of the two facies of the Lincolnshire Oolite do not 
maintain any constant relations with one another ; at some places, 
as Barnack and Weldon, beds of the shelly facies occur almost at 
the base of the series, while at others, as about Geddington and 
Stamford, the strata with the coralline facies occupy that position. 
Sometimes, as at Ketton and Wansford, we find beds in the Lin- 
colnshire Oolite entirely made up of fine oolitic grains, and these 
constitute some of the most valuable freestones. Very rarely the 
grains of which the rock is composed are very coarse, and it 
becomes a pisolite." 

* Geol. Eutland, p. 4. 


" Its horizontal extent is, however, by no means commensurate 
with its great thickness and importance, for it is found to thin 
away rapidly southwards, eastwards, and northwards ; it should 
probably be considered as ihe eastern portion of a great lenticular 
mass of marine limestones intercalated between the Upper and 
Lower Estuarine Series." 

At Stamford the Lincolnshire Oolite is about 80 feet thick, and 
northwards it increases to about 100 feet: At Geddington, it is 
only 12^ feet thick, and it thins out entirely a few miles further 
south near Harrington and Maldwell. As we go eastward we also 
find it rapidly thinning out, between Thrapston and Fotheringhay ; 
and at Water Newton Brickyard, Wansford Tunnel, Wood 
Newton, near Cross Way Hands Lodge, and Stone-pit Field 
Lodge, it is seen as a bed only a few feet in thickness separating 
the TJpper and Lower Estuarine Series ; these beds a little further 
to the east being found in actual contact.* Probably therefore the 
Lincolnshire Limestone is not present below Peterborough. 

The Lincolnshire Limestone has been regarded as belonging 
mainly to the upper part of the zone of Ammonites MurcMsona ; 
it was referred by Prof. Judd to the sub-zone of A. Sowerbyi, and 
considered by him as an extension of the Oolite Marl of the 
Cotteswolds. Whether however the entire mass of the beds 
belongs to this restricted horizon may fairly be questioned. 
Prof, Judd points out that the Upper Estuarine Claj's which rest 
unconformably on the Northampton Sand, maintain similar rela- 
tions with the Lincolnshire Limestone near Weekley, north-east of 
Kettering. Here indeed the Limestone was upheaved and to 
some extent denuded prior to the deposition of the Upper Estuarine 
Series.- In the neighbourhood of Brigstock, Stanion, and Little 
Oakley he noticed similar evidence of unconformity. " Further 
— at some points, as for example the Ketton Quarries, the upper 
surface of the Lincolnshire Oolite is seen to be not only water- 
worn and denuded, but to have been bored by Lithodomi before 
the deposition of the beds of the Great Oolite series." t Such, 
borings as remarked by Prof. Morris indicate a period of arrested 
deposition, and show that the rock was already partly consolidated. J 

The evidence all tends to show that some unconformity exists 
between the Great Oolite and Inferior Oolite Series in Lincoln- 
shire ; and as we proceed in a south-westerly direction to Kettering, 
Northampton, and Towcester, this unconformity is more and more 
marked. Proceeding towards Lincoln, "however, there is no such 
distinct evidence of a break in the series. 

Mr. Hudleston has remarked that the Gasteropoda of the 
Lincolnshire Limestone have Bathonian affinities ; and he adds, 
that while regarding the Lincolnshire Limestone as being in the 
Lower Division of the Inferior Oolite (zone of Ammonites 
MurchisoncB), an exception should have been made as regards the 

* See Judd, Geology of Eutland, pp. 139, &c. 
t Geol Eutland, pp. 36-38. 

J Goal. Mag., 186?, p. 102 ; see also Snarp, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, toI. xxit. 
p. 241. 



fossiliferous beds of Weldon and Great Ponton,* which appear to 
be high in the Inferior Oolite Series. 

The stratigraphical evidence shows that there are various shelly- 
horizons in the Lincolnshire Limestone ; thus the rag or shelly- 
bed of Barnacle is quite loW in the series ; that of Weldon an J 
the Great Ponton shell-bed are higher. It is possible that the 
fossils may in some places be remanie, as suggested by Mr. 
Hudleston ; but it is very diflSicult to fix any definite subdivisions 
other than very local ones. 

The recorded occurrence in the Lincolnshire Limestone of such 
species as Ammonites subradiatus, and A. Blagdeni; of Terebratula 
globata, T. spharoidalis, and Rhynchonella spinosa ; and of Clypeus 
Ploti, suggest that the upper division of the Inferior Oolite is 
represented in some localities. More attention however needs to 
be given to the local stratigraphical horizons from which these 
fossils have been obtained. 

The principal beds in the Inferior Oolite Series (Lincolnshire 
Limestone, Oollyweston Slate, and Northampton Beds), may be 
roughly arranged as follows : — 

Ponton Upper Shelly beds, Wansford, Ketton, Stamford, Oasterton, 
Clipsham, Castle Bytham, and Anoaster freestones, Hibaldsto-w Beds . 

Ponton oolite and gasteropod-bed, Houghton freestone, Stamford Marble, 
Weldon freestone and shell-beds, Kirton clay-bed. 

Barnaok Eag, Lincoln silver-bed, Kirton Beds. 

Oollyweston Slate, Whittering Pendle. 

Dnston Beds. 

List of Fossils recorded from the Lincolnshire Limestone : — ■ 

Aateracanthus ornatissimus. 


Ammonites Blagdeni. 

Murchisonse (Fig. 16). 



Belemnites bessinus. 


Nautilus polygonalis. 

Aoteeonina glabra. 

Alaria pontonis. 

Ataphrus (Monodonta) Isevigatua. 

Cerithium attritura. 


var. -weldonis. 

limsBforme, var. pontonis. 


Oylindrites turriculatns. 
Littorina (Turbt) Phillipsi. 
Natica adducta. 




Nerinsea cingenda (Fig. 22). 

Nerineea cottes-vroldisei 

Eudesi, var. 


Onustus ornatissimus. 
Patella tnornata. 
Pleurotomaria armata. 


Rissoina obliquata. 
Trochotoma calix. 
Trochus spiratus. 
Area Pratti. 
Astarte elegans. 





Avicula braamburiensis (Fig. 13). 



Cardium Bnckmani. 


Ceromya bajociana (Pig. 21). 


Cucullaea cancellata. 

luf. Ool. Gasteropoda, pp. 196, 215. 



Cucullfea cucullata. 


Cypricardia bathonica. 
Gervillia acuta. 



Goniomya literata. 

T. scripta. 

Gresslya latirosiria. 
Hinnites abjectus. 


Homomya crassinscula. 
Isocardia cordata. 
Lima cardiiformia. 










Lucina bellona. 



Macrodon birsonensis. 
Modiola cuneata. 



sowerbyana (Fig. 10). 

Myacites calcciformis. 


Myoconcba crassa. 
Opis gibbosns. 
Ostrea flabelloidea. 

palmetta, Tar. montiformia. 

Pecten aratus. 







Pema rugoaa. 
Pholadomya fidioula. 




Pholas oolitica. 

Pinna cuneata. 
Placunopsis socialia. 
PHcatula tuberculosa. 
Pteroperna costatula. 




Quenstedtia tevigata. 
Tanoredia axiniformis. 


Trigonia costata. 




atriata (Fig. 9). 

Unioardium depressum. 
Rbynchonella cynocephala. 





Terebratula Bnckmani. 






Entalophora straminea. 
Galeolaria socialia. 
Acrosalenia Lycetti. 
Clypeos Ploti. 


Echinobrissus clunicularis. 
Galeropygus agarioiformis. 
Pedina rotata. 
Pseudodiadema depressum 
Pygaster semisnlcatus. 
Stomecbinua germinans. 
Anabacia complanata. 
Isastreea limitata. 


Latimaeandra Davidaoni. 
Thamnastrsea defranciana. 


Thecosmilia gregaria. 
Nilssonia compta. 
Phlebopteris polypodioides. 
Ptilopbyllum aoutifolium. 

Local Details. 
King's Sutton to Towcester and Stony Stratford. 

Two of the more important sections in this district, to which 
my attention was directed by Mr. E. A. WaJford, are those 
exposed in a sand-pit and stone-quarry at Newbottle Spinney, 
between King's Sutton and Newbottle. 

In the sand-pit, situated about a quarter of a mile south-west 
of Newbottle Church, the following section was exposed (see 
Fig. 49) :- 



Ft. Ik. 

Great Oolite 




7. Brown clayey soil, 

6. Flaggy beds of brown shelly and 
oolitic limestone, and gritty lime- 

6. Pale marly, and slightly oolitic, 
limestone, with spines of Echini, 
Modiola, &c. ... 

4. Brown shelly marl (Oyster Bed), 
with nodules of earthy limestone : 
Ostrea Sowerhyi, Cyprina, Modiola, 
Trigoiiia, JRhynchonella - 2 to 
" 3. Black, bluish-grey, brown and 
greenish clay (resting irregularly 
on beds below) 
'2. White and grey clay and sand. 

1. White brown and purplish-coloured 
sand, with ochreons nodules, seen 
to depth of ... 


In the Spinney, apparently on a slightly lower horizon, the 
following beds were shown : — 


Brown ferruginous and micaceous false- 
bedded sandy limestone, often blue- 
hearted. Some beds are very hard 
and fissile, others are softer, more cal- 
-( careous, and slightly oolitic, in some 
places, with shelly layers and plant- 
remains and lignite. Hard pebbly 
concretions or pebbles occur in 
places. Exposed to depth of 

Ft. In. 


Fig. 49. 

Section south-west of Newbottle, near Kviff's Sutton. 

The sequence here Indicated, and the general character of the 
beds, so well compare with the series near Northampton, that the 
grouping above noted may on stratigraphical grounds be adopted 
with confidence. Fossils are not abundant nor well-preserved, 
but T have obtained Avicula hraamhuriensis, Lima, Ostrea, Pecten, 
Rhynr.honella, Crustacean remains, &c. Mr. Walford informed 
me that he had obtained casts of Trigonia signata ; and he is 
disposed to place the beds in the Upper Division of the Inferior 


The same beds liave been opened up to the south and north- 
west of Croughton. The sands were dug east of Warren Farm, 
and the stone-beds a little further north. There we find cal- 
careous and obscure!}' oolitic sandy limestones, some layers 
splitting up so as to form flags that might be used for tiling, like 
the " slates " of Duston. Slaty beds of this character evidently 
favoured the notion that these beds, and associated sands, 
belonged to the Stonesfield Slate. Beds of sand and slaty 
sandstone were observed by Prof. Green, above the Upper Lias, 
in the railway-cutting north-west of Brackley Station.* 

At the Brickyard north-east of Brackley, the following beds 
were exposed : — 

Fi. In. 

Lower Estuarine 

Series and 



Upper Lias 

Loamy soil - - - - 1 6 

Purplish loam and clay and white and 

brown sand - . • . 8 

Greenish and dark sand and slightly 
calcareous sandstone, very hard and 
ferruginous : Avicula braaniburiensis, 
Pecten, Ostrea, pebbles of hardened 
Upper Lias clay bored: (rusty 
springs) ... 36 

'Blue pyritic clay with Ammonites 
fibulatus : the clay is worked for the 
manufacture of red bricks, tiles, and 
. drain-pipes - - - - 8 










The junction of Great Oolite and Inferior Oolite has been 
exposed in quarries south of Helmedon, and between Brackley 
and Radston. In the latter neighbourhood the following section 
was observed by Prof. Green : — 

TTT in i. • r Soft whitish sandstone - 

[Upper Estnarme 1 ^i^yey sand with Ostrm 
Series.] 1 Da/k blue clay ■ 

TAT ii. i. r Hard rubbly sand full of fossils 
^Bd'Ti Hard blue limestone - 
jje S.J 1^ Flaggy or slaty sandstone. 

It is often difficult, where the Upper and Lower Estuarine 
Beds come together, to fix a divisional-line between them. In 
the above section it appears most likely that the Upper Estuarine 
Beds have overlapped the Lower Beds, so as to rest unconform- 
ably on the Northampton Sand. 

Helmedon (according to Morton) was long celebrated for its 
extensive freestone-quarries : the stone, " which lies next under- 
neath a stratum of clay," having been used for the mansions of 
Stowe and Wobum ; but even in his time the stone was no longer 
worked for the purpose. The same writer gives the following 
details of a stone-pit at Eydon,t and these indicate that the beds 
belonged to the Northampton Sand : — 

* See Green, Geol. Banbury, pp. 12, 19. 

t John Morton, Natural History of Northamptonshire, 1705, pp. 108, 126, &c. 

E 75928. M 


Ft. In. 

iKeddish sandy soil - - - 1 
Sand witli a small Mixture of Earth in 

it, about - - - - 4 
Ordinary Reddish Walling- Stone, in 

I several thin courses - - - 3 

LFreestone [sandstones], in five courses - 6 

At Thorpe Mandeville the rock, which has been quarried for 
building-stone, consists of a calcareous and slightly micaceous 
sandstone. Many outliers of North ampton Sand are met with on 
Burton Dassett Hills, and between Wardington and Daventry. 
As a rule they furnish little evidence beyond more or less ferru- 
ginous sands and thin-bedded sandstone, with occasional ironstone 
and lignite, but some fossil shells have been obtained from the 
sands at Dane's Hill, east of Daventry.* Iron-ore was at one 
time worked at Culworth. 

A fine series of sections showing the sequence from the North- 
ampton Sand to the Oxford Clay has been opened up at Stowe- 
Nine-Churches ; the beds seen below the Great Oolite were as 
follows : — 

Ft. In. 

^PP^^gJ;^™«} Grey and bluish clay - . .30 

["White and brown sands, with vertical 
Lower Estuarine plant-markings • - - 9 

Series and J Building-stone (poor) passes laterally 
Northampton ] into Ironstone - - - 5 

Sand. I Ironstone-beds ; ferruginous and con- 

L oretionary sandy beds - - 20 

Upper Lias Clay (Not esposed). 

These beds are faulted against the Great Oolite. The strata 
have been described very fully by Mr. Beeby Thompson,t undei 
whose guidance I examined the sections. 

A large brickyard, east of Towcester, belonging to the " Easton 
Estate and ISIining Co.," showed the following section : — 

Ft. In. 

Northampton / Ferruginous beds, with nodules of pale 

Beds. 1 argillaceous ironstone near base 6 

fGrey clay, with two or three imper- 

TT T ■ J sistent bands of ironstone, to depth of 

Upper Lias -<( ^^^^^ . . . - "^ - 10 

[_Bluish-grey clay - - - 30 

(Well sunk 14 feet deeper in clay.) 
Red Drain-pipes, Bricks, Slabs, Ridge-tiles, Paving-tiles, and Chimney- 
pots are here manufactured. 

The above section is of interest as affording some evidence of 
conformity between the Northampton Sand and the Upper Lias 
Clay. Even if the iron-ore itself is due to infiltration or replace- 
ment after the accumulation and consolidation of the strata, the 
material replaces bands that tend to show conformity. 

* Aveline, Geol. part of Northamptonshire, p. 11. 

f Journ. Northamptonshire Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. vi. p. 294 ; see »lso Phillips, 
Geol. Oxford, &c., p. 146. 


By the wood, to the north of the brickyard, a sand-pit has 
been opened to obtain material for moulding bricks. This pit 
exposed 10 feet o£ white, grey, and brown, carbonaceous and 
ferruginous sand, with loamy and clayey beds here and there ; and 
towards the top ochreous veins, while the beds are tinged purple 
in places. 

Mr. R. Trench observed that in the railway-cutting south-east 
of Blisworth, the Northampton Sand is exceedingly thin, so that 
eastward, but a single layer of stone represents the rock. 

At the south end of Blisvrorth Oanal Tunnel the sand is only 
5 feet thick, resting on Upper Lias Clay, and overlaid by blue 
clay of the Great Oolite ( = Upper Estuarine). This was also 
the case at Gullet Coppice brick-kiln, south-east of Towcester. 

Underlying the Great Oolite at Deanshanger, west of Stony 
Stratford, there is a stiff' bluish-black and greenish-coloured clay 
with lignite and (according to the workmen) also bones. This 
division belongs to the Upper Estuarine Series ; it was exposed 
to a depth of 3 ft. 6 ins. at the brickyard at Deanshanger, and was 
said to have been proved in an adjoining well to a depth of 18 feet. 
White Sand (Lower Estuarine Series), yielding watei", was met 
with below ; but the overlying clay was said to get white and 
sandy towards the base, so that the Upper Estuarine division was 
probably rather less than 18 feet in thickness.* 

These attenuated representatives of the Northampton Beds do 
not appear to be fossiliferous, and they suggest that the formation 
does not extend much farther to the south-east. As remarked by 
Prof. Judd, " It is probable that at some points the extremely 
variable beds, constituting the Northampton Sand, thin out alto- 
gether, and that the higher beds of the Great Oolite series lie 
directly upon the Lias."t This is the case probably at Olney, 
where the Upper Estuarine clays may rest directly on Upper Lias 

Duston and Northampton to Maidwell. 

Iron-ore is largely worked in the Northampton Sand of 
Northamptonshire, pits being opened to a depth of 1 or 20 feet, 
or even more, at Gayton and Blisworth, Hunsbury Hill, Duston, 
Spratton and Brixworth, Wellingborough, Finedon, Kettering, 
between Barton Latimer and the Craniords, Twywell, Slipton, 
Gretton, and Easton near Stamford. 

The frequent changes undergone by the Northampton Sand 
render the actual extent of the profitable ironstone in each locality 
a matter of considerable uncertainty, and one that needs to be 
proved by trial-holes. Throughout the whole of the district from 

* H. B. W., Explanation of Horizontal Section, she«t 140, p. 5. 
t Geol. Butland, p. 31. 

M 2 


Blisworth to Thrapston, Stamford, and Market Overton, beds of 
ironstone of variable character and thickness occur ; but in many 
cases the ore is too thin or too poor to work, while the beds in 
some places are represented only by sands or by ferruginous and 
calcareous sandstone. 

In the case of the Middle Lias ironstone, the ore, in Leicester- 
shire and other parts of the midland area, is not worked beneath a 
covering of Upper Lias clay ; but the Northampton ironstone is 
obtained often beneath thick coverings of Lower and Upper 
Estuarine Beds and Great Oolite, for in these cases, through the 
overlying beds being largely of a porous nature, the rock has been 
weathered to a considerable distance underground. The fact is 
that the brown iron-ore can be worked more profitably than the 
unweathered rock (carbonate of iron). 

Ironstone has been worked also in the outliers of Neville Holt 
and Uppingham, Kidlington and Preston, between Gretton and 
Bulwick, west of Oundle, at Southwick, &c. Traces of ironstone 
are also met with in the outliers of Whadborough, Robin-a-Tiptoes, 
and Barrow Hill. Near Normanton the ironstone is 8 feet thick, 
but at UflFord, south-east of Stamford, it is reduced to 1 foot. 

According to Sharp's estimates, the ferruginous rock and asso- 
ciated sandstones nmst be nearly 50 feet thick in places, but the 
sections vary much in detail, and the thickness of the unprofitable 
green beds at the base, is also subject to variation in different 
localities. The beds containing ironstone do not attain a thick- 
ness of more than 30 feet, and these as a rule do not yield more 
than about 10 or 12 feet of profitable ore. These ironstone-beds 
pass laterally to some extent into the "Variable beds" of Sharp, 
and these again into the White Sands, &c. of the Lower Estuarine 
Series. He noted the following local subdivisions *: — 

White Sands ■ - - - - - - 12 

Variable Beds, with " Slate " at the base - - 34 

Ironstone .... . . 35 

These estimates of thickness are no doubt excessive if we add 
tojfether the maximum thickness of each division. 

On Dane's Hill, near Northampton, the beds exposed were as 
follows : — 

Ft. In. 
'Rubble with bright red and pink 

staining in places - - 5 to 6 

White sand . . . .~| 

Bubbly iron-sandstone with "boies"! 

of iron ore : the beds bscoming )-12 
thicker deeper down - - - j 

Yellow ochreous iron-ore - -J 

The following section wag noted at one of the Duston iron- 
stone-pits : — 

* See Sharp, Quart, Tourn. Gp.oI. Soc, vol. xxvi. pp. 358, 380 ; vol. xxix. p. 228. 



Upper Lias 


Ft. In. 
Ironstone ...."] 

Sandy Bed - - - - | 

Bedded ironstone, oolitic in places ; )> 
■with Asiarte, Lima, Nautilus, Ga,Btero- \ 
pods- - - - - J 10 

&reen and brown ironstone - 1 
Concretionary ironstone, with [• 1 to 2 

occasional small nodules - J 
Earthy and sandy ironstone - - 1 

fOlay - - - - - 1 

Grey and brown clay with thin bands 

of ironstone. 
_Blne clay. 

The pits at this locality show from 10 to 12 feet of ironstone 
and sandy beds, some of them oolitic, and all fairly well bedded. 
Not more than 10 feet of brown ironstone is worked, the lower 
beds for about 2 feet are usually rejected, although here and 
there good ironstone occurs down to the bottom of the beds. 
These include certain green beds, which are tinted by silicate of 
iron and are more or less phosphatic. The oxidation of the beds 
has been irregular, and green-tinted ironstone is found in 
patches at higher levels. The ironstone rests on the blue clay of 
the Upper Lias, consequently the pits are usually wet at the 

Many fossils may be obtained, and these occur sometimes in 
particular layers, so that there is locally an Astaj-te-hed with A. 
elegam. Among other fossils are Ammonites insignis, Nautilus 
multiseptatus, Cardium, Ceromya bqjociana, Cucullcea, Lima, 
Pecten, Trigonia, Terebratula maxillata, T. trilineata, &c. 

When the ironstone has been worked out the ground is partially 
filled up and levelled with the waste material. This was the case 
with the Danes Camp at Hunsbury Hill, the centre of which has 
been excavated for iron-ore and levelled. Near Duston there are 
several picturesque old quarries both in the ironstone and 
building-stone : the excavations varying in depth from 25 to 35 

Northwards of the Duston ironstone-pits, the beds undergo a 
considerable change, similar indeed to that of the Middle Lias 
between Kings Sutton and Hornton. Thus the Northampton iron- 
ore of Duston (in a much shorter distance) passes into a useful 

The section at the New Duston Stone-pit, which 1 visited in 
company with Mr. B. Thompson, was as follows : — 

White sands, &c. - - 1 

Sandy clay - - - J 

Dark grey carbonaceous clay - 

Yellow clayey sand with root- 
lets - - - - 

Ochreous yellow sandstone 
(Eoylands, &o. 


Iv. Ft. 



to 4 


6 to 2 

6 to 1 



to 12 



Northampton Beds< 

Fiesile and somewliat oolitic 
slaty beds (White Pendle or 
Duston " Slate ") with Be- 
lemnites [Lima, Hinnites 
ahjectus] : more or less cur- 
rent-bedded - - - 

Eren layers of brown cal- 
careous sandy rook (Tellow 
and Best Brown Hard 
building- stone). Ga/rdvum, 

Blue-hearted calcareous sand- 
stone (Rough Eag and Hard 
Blue Rag), the blue portion 
more distinctly oolitic than 
the outer brown portions ; 
Astarte elegans (with shell 
preserved), Lima, lignite, 
Trigonia, [Geromya hajo- 
ciana, Gervillia, Pholadomya 
fidieula, Gardium cognaUi/m], 
Ainmonites opalinus,Kamtilus 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 

4 to 6 

about 12 


All the beds are more or less calcareous and sandy, with fer- 
ruginous Teins. Where protected the top-beds are massive. Occa- 
sionally broken-beds may be observed, and they appear to be due 
to the dissolution and removal of calcareous matter. Sharp has 
given a detailed account of this section, and the local names and 
other remarks in square brackets, as well as eome of the thick- 
nesses, are given on his authority. 

He mentions that at the " Old Slate-quarry-.«CikLse," a stone- 

pit was opened some years ago, and there were then ^jfised 
several of the old workings that had been carried on, at some 
unknown and distant time, for the obtaining of slate alone. The 
old process was that called " foxing," still sometimes adopted at 
Collyweston; shafts were sunk, and the "slate" was extracted 
from beneath the overlying beds by means of adits.* 

At Harleston there is a quarry showing the stone-beds, which 
are worked to a limited extent and are rather more sandy than at 
Duston. The upper strata present a broken appearance in a sort 
of " Gully," features evidently produced by dissolution of the car- 
bonate of limcf Beneath come " slaty " beds of sandy rock, locally 
termed the " White bed." Below come the main stone-beds 
(Harleston Stone), which are used for bmlding-purposes. Astarte 
elegans and other fossils are to be found. 

West of Duston and near Harpole, white sands are met with, 
attaining a thickness of 30 feet ;% and these beds with the fer- 
ruginous rock and building-stone of Duston, may be compared 
with those seen at Newbottle Spinney (see p. 176). 

* Quart. Joiirn. Geol. See, vol. xxvi. p. 370. 

t Similar features have been noticed by Sharp, Qiiart. Journ. Geol. Sec, vol. xiyi. 
p. 363. 

% Avflline, Gaol, part of Northamptonehire, p. 11, 



The following sections on the northern side of Northampton, 
well show the local character of the beds : — * 

1. Bass's Pit, on the Common, was as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
Boulder Clay, Yfith. piped soil. 
'Ferruginons sandy stone 3 to 4 

Yellow sands - - - - 3 

False-bedded oolitic and crinoidal stone, 
Northampton , massive in places - - - 6 

Beds. ] Bhynehonella • bed (JS. oynoeejphala) 

a few inches to 1 6 
Ferruginous sandy beds, yielding poor 
ironstone - - - 8 to 10 

Upper Lias - ^Blue Clay. 

2. The Shittlewell or Nursery quarry ; — 

Ft. Im. 

Fissile sandy ironstone - - -.6 

Sandy bed - - - 2 or 3 

Thin and false-bedded oolitic stone ; 

forms a hard building-stone. The 

Northampton J upper layers have irregular cal- 

-a^A„ "S careous nodular bands, giving a 

banded appearance to the rock - 9 

Calcareous sandy stone, yielding better 
building-stone - - about 6 

LEotten ironstone (with water) 4 or 5 
Upper Lias - Blue Clay. 
The lower beds were not exposed at the time of my visit, the informa- 
tion respecting them being given by the workmen. 

The irregular concretions are somewhat similar to those seen at Oolly- 
weston and are probably of secondary origin. (See p. 198). 

At Boughton Green the Northampton Beds are worked as 
buUding-stone for local purposes. The beds exposed to the depth 
of about 20 feet, are much like those at Duston-: fissile layers at 
the top (and when the stone has been weathered at the outcrop), 
then a sandy layer and massive false-bedded stone beneath. 

At Wooton Brickyard, south of Northampton, the following 
section showed the junction with -the Upper Lias clay : — 

Ft. Ik. 
Sandy soil. 
Northampton / Rubbly ferruginous sandstone. 
Sand. \ Xronstone, with a few nodules. 

[■ Brown and blue ferruginous «lay. 
Upper Lias - i Sandy ferruginous band - 3 or 4 

L Blue clay. 

Here and at Duston (p. 181), as well as at a few other localities, 
there may be noticed the occurrence of ferruginous bands that 
tend to link the Upper Lias Clay with the Northampton Sand. 

At the Kingsthorpe Sand-pit (Stephen Cox's), known also as the 
" White Stone pit," the following beds were exposed, and at one 
time (according to Sharp) the Upper Estuarine clays were shown 
on top : — 

* These sections hare been described by Sharp, Quart. Journ. Geol. See., 
vol. xxvi. pp. 362, 366. 


Fi. In. 
r Soft white and ferruginous Bands, Bhaly 
Lower EstuarineJ in places ... about 10 

Beds. I Pale and yellow (ferruginous) sand- 

L rock - _ - . - 9 

The sand-rock hardens on exposure in dry weather and with heat, but 
crumbles with moisture. It has been used as a building-stone in Kings- 
thorpe, and also in Northampton in some of the old buildings (Union 
Infirmary, Barrack wall, &o.). About 16 cubic feet weigh 1 ton. It is 
not however a very durable stone, and is seldom used now for building- 

It was formerly sent away for building furnaces. The sand is now 
employed for making mortar, while the white sand is sold for scouring 
purposes, for kitchen floors, farm utensils, and stables. 

The section was evidently somewhat different when described 
by Sharp. The main mass of the white stone was then obtained 
from the upper portion of the series, and he observed a plant-bed 
with vertical rootlets near its base, and above the yellow (or brown) 
sandstone. He noted also a similar section near the Stand on the 
Eace-course at Northampton.* (See Fig. 48, p. 169.) 

The junction of the Northampton Beds with the Upper Lias 
clay was well shown in the railway (Towcester line) near Blis- 
worth. At the base of the Ironstone-beds, nodules or pebbles of 
argillaceous ironstone occur ; and lower down there is another 
band (3 or 4 inches thick) with similar rolled nodules, some of 
them bored. The section is as follows : — 

Fi. In. 
rironstone-beds, frith nodules at base 

10 Oor 12 
Northampton J Greenish clayey sand, with veins of 



iron-ore - - - - 2 

Band of clay, with nodules ; some 

[_ bored - ■ - 3 to 4 
Upper Lias - Grey clay. 

Lithologically we seem here to have a kind o£ passage upwards 
from the Upper Lias clays to the Ironstone of the Northampton 
Beds : but on the whole the evidence favours the view that there 
has been some destruction of the Upper Lias clay, materials from 
which are incorporated in the basement-beds of the Northampton 
Sand (see also p. 168). The overlying Lower Estuarine Beds, 
&c. were shown at the Blisworth Ironstone-pit. f 

In the Kingsthorpe brick-pit the junction of the beds was also 
shown, and there above the Upper Lias we have 6 to 8 feet of 
rubbly brown sandstone and ironstone, with pebbles nnd rolled 
nodules, t , 

Along the Nene valley, between Northampton and Thrapston, 
as pointed out by Prof Judd, the Lower Oolites are cut through, 
and the streams flow over the Upper Lias clay. The Northampton 
Sand, which is thin along the outcrop, forms the only representa- 
tive of the Inferior Oolite in this tract as far as Oundle, for the 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soo.,voI. xxvi. pp. 362, J65. 
t Sharp, Quart. Journ. Geol. See, vol. xxvi. p. 379, 
j Sharp, Ibid., p. 361. 


Lincolnshire Limestone has disappeared. Hence the structure 
corresponds with that to the south and south-west of Kettering. 
Ironstone has been observed near Irchester and Raunds, but it is 
evidently liable to much local diminution in thickness, for the 
Northampton Sand is not everywhere present along the outcrop. 
This absence may be due to irregular overlap of the Great Oolite 
Series. Northwards along the valley of the Nene and of its 
tributary the Willow Brook, the Lincolnshire Limestone re- 
appears near Southwick and Wood Newton, as a wedge between 
the two Estuarine series, the beds of which, westward and north- 
ward, gradually assume great thickness and importance. 

Prof. Judd further states that "at Wadenhoe, just above the 
level of the river, we have sections illustrating the extremely 
attenuated condition of the Lower Oolites. It is only in very 
good sections that the exact limits between the Upper and Lower 
Estuarine series can be traced, both being often greatly reduced 
in thickness; wherever a clear section, however, can be traced, 
the ironstone junction-band is mor« or less distinctly exposed, and 
the Upper or Great Oolite beds are found to repose on an eroded 
surface of the Lower or Inferior Oolite beds." He notes the 
succession of strata seen at Wadenhoe, as follows :— 

Fi, In. 
Cornbrash - -"] Traceable in 

Great Oolite Clay - >• slopes above 
Great Oolite Limestone J the pit. 
fWhite clays - - - - 1 

CTpper Estuarine J ^^"°^' ^'^P'^y 5^^y , ', " ' } 1 

tui ojou a o J Dark, laminated, sandy clay - - 1 6 

eries. | White clays, with vertical plant-mark- 

L ings - - - - - 9 

Lower Estuarine [ ^^^' carbonaceous clays - - 6 

o . i White clays, with vertical carbonaceous 

^^ ' L markings and ferruginons stains - 2 

Northampton Sand. — Ironstone beds, to bottom of pit - 8 

Here it is evidently diflScult to fix the junction between the 
Upper and Lower Estuarine Series, for the ironstone-band at the 
base of the former has not been noticed. 

Fine sections of the Northampton Sands were exposed at the 
Spratton Ironstone- workings south of Brixworth. 

The following species occur at this locality : — 

fAmmonites insignis. 


fX jmrensis. 

fTancredia axiniformis ? 

t MiirchisonsB. 

• Trigonia compta. 

t opalinus. 

' • V. scripta. 


: Terebratula trilineata. 

: : maxillata. 

; ; (near to) globata. 



JCeromya bajociana. 

* Jadd, Geol. Rutland, pp. 98, 99, 143, 169. 

t Obtained by Mr. T. .Tesson, and identified by Mr. E. T. NeTfton, Geol. Mag. 
1891, p. 493 ; see also S. S. Buckman, Ibid., 1892, p. 258. Mr. Buckman regards 
one form here named A.Jurensis, as the mutation " Lytoceras Wrighti," »nd one 
rariety or mutation of A. insignis he would name " Hammatoceras Newtoni.'" 

J Obtained by H. B. W., and named by Messrs. Sharman and Newton. 


Fia. 50. 

Section at the Spratton Ironstone-workings, near 
Brixworth, Northamptonshire. 

Ft. In.'' Fi. In. 
3. Boulder Clay - . 3 to 4 

("2. White sand, passing into 
I 2a. Brown sandstone and 
T-T , , , o J J sandy ironstone : with 

Northampton band<^. impersistent seam of 

I clay at base - - 12 to 14 

LI. Ironstone (6 to 8 ft. worked) 10 to 12 

Mr. Aveline has remarked that the beds in the area north-west 
of Northampton, (near E. and W. Haddon, Guilsborough, Naseby, 
&c.), " do not lie flat on the tops of the hills, but cover them like 
a saddle, every ridge being an anticlinal axis, and every brook 
running on a synclinal axis."* He noticed the same feature at 
Hunsbury Hill. He however observes that the sands generally 
rest on an uneven surface of the Upper Lias clay, a section 
illustrating this, being exposed in a cutting of the railway near 
Brampton station. It is possible that the features may to some 
extent be due to the subterranean wearing away of the Lias clays 
by springs. 

Over the area to the north-west, there are sections, here and 
there, of yellow ferruginous sands and sandstone, and east of Long 
Buckby, a brickyard showed " sand with layers of good ironstone." 
About a mile north of Naseby, by the road leading to Clipston, a 
ferruginous rock with fossils was noticed by Mr. Aveline. Much 
of the ground Is however covered with Drift. 

Mr Aveline states that east of Hazlebeech, thin flaggy oolitic 
strata, similar to beds at Duston, have been opened up ; they were 
overlaid by ferruginous sands, and evidently formed part of the 
Northampton Beds. 

Nearer to Maidwel), however, we have the first indications (in 
passing north-eastwards from Towcester) of beds grouped with 
the Lincolnshire Limestone. Mr. Aveline describes the rock as 
hard, fine and compact, white, flaggy limestone, which is said to 
burn into " tolerable white lime,"t though it evidently contains a 
large proportion of silica. The only fossil found in it, so far as 

* Geol. parts of Northamptonshire aud Warwickshire, pp. 8-10. 
t Geol. part of Northamptonshire, p. 10. 



I know, is a Trigonia. 
Lime-kiln at Maidwell ; 

The following section was shown at the 

Glacial Drift 










2 6 


("Brown stony soil 

Chalky Boulder Clay - - 3 to 

J Brown ferrnginons sandy layer 1 to 

" 1 White and brown sand - - 1 to 

Biubble of limestone, oolite, ironstone, 

&o. - ... 

"Brown limestone 

Pale earthy, and obscurely oolitic, lime- 
< stone - - . - 

I Brown sandy limestone (like Chipping 
(_ Norton Limestone) - 

The term Maidwell Limestone was used by Farey, and 
Parkinson in 1811, as one of the divisions of our strata.* 

There are few sections in the country to the east, but areas of 
limestone have been traced between Draughton and Harrington, 
and to the south-east, near Old or Wold. Calcareous beds also 
Oficur in the Northampton Sand ; and near Draughton, these beds 
have been burnt for lime.f 

Wellingborough, Kettering, and Rockingham, 

North-west of the Midland Station, at Wellingborough, ironstone 
has been worked over the ground south of the Finedon road ; it 
is now nearly exhausted. About 4 feet of ironstone was worked 
(1889), there being about 4 feet of useless stone below, and then 
blue clay (Upper Lias). The stone worked is at the surface, and 
is itself poor in places, and joggled with gullies, &c. The best 
stone, 10 to 11 feet thick, was formerly Avorked about a mile 
N.N.W. of the railway-station. This had no " cover," and indeed 
the covering of Estuarine beds seems to make little or no difference 
to the quality of the ironstone. 

At the Kettering Ironstone quarries the following section was 
exposed : — 


Lower Estuarine 
Series and 

Upper Lias 

Brown clay and rubble - . . 

Yellow and white sand - 

Grey bedded sand and sand-rock, car- 
bonaceous and ferruginous - 

Grey carbonaceous sand 

Dark grey clay and sand 

Grey sand passing down into laminated 
carbonaceous sand and clay, and 
thence into dark grey clay (1 foot) - 

Grey clay and sand - . . 

Yellow and white sand with plant- 
remains . - . . 

Sand-rock - - - 3 to 

Ironstone, about 6 feet 
worked ; the green beds con- 
sidered useless - - i -,g 

Ironstone-beds, not used, 3 or '^ 
4 feet ; with nodular bod at 
base - - - -' 

Blue Clay. 








Oto 12 

* Farey, Agric. Derbyshire, p. 114; Parkinson, Organic Remains, vol. iii. p. 445. 
t Judd, Geol. Rutland, p. 30. 












S •" 

T3 4i " 

2 Si a 
•S IN ?! 






'i -S a 

is -"^ 
•S 0.2 

13 S w ui K " +j 
tf jL k5 " W ii ■•-• 

o;S " S £ 


g « S -a o 2 
a a g ^ 

00 ""' O 5 o 

§ ^-e-^.a 

oj .S e3 CO bo 
o " o 3 s 

§ l-a §S 

i3 ^- 'tf S ^1 S 



The beds are faulted at one point, and the Lower Estuarine beds are 
brought against the Upper Lias Clay, the downthrow being from 12 to 
15 feet. The fault ranges from N.W. to S.E. 

The identification of the beds at the Kettering quarries with the 
Lower Estuarine Series, is proved by the important sections at 
the Lime-kiln quarry and Ironstone-workings at Glendon, west of 
Weekley Hall Wood. The beds shown were as follows (see 
Fig. 52.):- 

Drift Soil -i 




Lower Estuarine 


12. Bubble and brown clay with peb 
bles; and Belemnites, Ortjphcea, 
arcuata,, specimens of which are 
occasionally washed into fissures 
of the underlying rock 
Pale earthy and oolitic limestone ; 
net- work of Serpulas (Galeolaria 
socialis), and some Mollusca 
Brown oolitic limestone, with 
Nerincea and Lamellibranohs 
9. White, yellow, and brown sand and 

sand-rock - 
8. Brown sand-rock 

Grey carbonaceous sand 
Ferruginous sand - 
7. Stiff blue carbonaceous clay 
6. Grey and brown sand 
5. Blue clay 
4. Grey and greenish-yellow 

bonaceoiis sand 

3. Blue clay - - - 1 

2. Brown and grey clayey sand, with 

vertical plant-markings ; passing 

down into white sand (2 feet) 

1. Ironstone : brown-bedded .land- 

stones, more or less raddled with 

iron-ore ; fissile and false-bedded 

in places ; with green cores 

towards the base — worked to 

depth of - 

Ft. In. 







The quarry in the Lincolnshire Limestone at Glendon Wood, 
was visited on a celebrated occasion in the summer of 1869, by 
Sir A. C. Ramsay, Mr. Etheridge, Mr. Howell, Prof. Judd, and 
the late Samuel Sharp.* They then obtained a number of fossils, 
which proved the strata to belong to the Inferior Oolite. The 
following are among the species that occur : — 

Natica cincta. 

Nerinaea cingenda (Fig. 22). 

Cardium Buokmani. 


Ceromya bajociana (Fig. 21). 
Gervillia acata. 
Lima peotiniformis. 
Lucina bellona. 


Myacites scarburgeusis. 

Pecten personatus. 
Pholadomya fidicula (Fig. 11). 
Pinna cuneata. 
Tancredia axiniformis. 
Trigonia hemisphaerica. 
Galeolaria (Serpula) socialis. 
Aorosalenia Lycetti. 
Pygaster semisulcatus (Fig. 25). 

* Sharp, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxvi. p. 381 ; toI. xxix. p. 231 ; and Judd, 
Geol. Rutland, p. 145. 




The limestone in the quarry is burnt for lime. One of the workmen 
dug down to the sandy beds at my request. In the sam.e field, however, 
about 4 feet of yellow brown and white sand was exposed ; while at the 

adjacent ironworks, the section showed (on 
Fl G. 52. top) 3 feet of limestone-rubble, resting on 

Section at Glendon, northl^''^^ °^ ^f^\l''^J^^^°7^^^^r■'i^lf^ %Z 
. -^ . ' brown sand-rock, fflc. as recorded, ine 

qj Kettering. thickness of the Lower Estuarine Beds is 

greater than that noted by Mr. Etheridge. 

Borings at Weekley and Weekley Hall 
"Wood, proved from 15 to 18 feet of " sand," 
resting on from 14 to 22 feet of "rock," 
before clay was reached. This evidence 
tends to show that the "rock" (North- 
ampton Sand) is rather thick in this neigh- 
bourhood. (See Figs. 51 and 53, and p. 178.) 

At Geddington the thickness of the 
Lincolnshire Limestone is from 15 to 
20 feet. Many fossils have been ob- 
tained at Rushton, where at the base 
of the limestone there is a thin layer 
of sandy limestone (1 foot) that repre- 
sents the OoUyweston Slate. 

Prof. Judd states that at Desborough 
the ironstones and overlying sands and 
clays were well exposed in a deep cut- 
ting near the railway-station, where 
they are covered by Boulder Clay; 
and also in the numerous large pits at 
which the iron-ore is very extensively 
dug for the purpose of being sent away by rail into Stafford- 
shire, Derbyshire, and Yorkshire. Near this place we have an 
interesting example of the development of calcareous beds in 
the midst of the Northampton Sand. These calcareous beds 
form a band of hard, blue, ferruginous and very shelly lime- 
stone in the midst of the ironstone beds.; this ferrugino- 
calcareous rock is dug for road-metal. lu the country to the 
southwards, however, the Northampton Sand often locally assumes 
calcareous characters, and passes, sometimes throughout the 
greater part of its thickness, into an impure limestone of oolitic 

Prof. Judd gives the following section of the strata exposed 
in a pit below Oottingham Church -.-^ 


12. Drift Soil. 

10, 11. Lincolnshire Limestone. 
2-9. Lower Estuarine Series. 
1. Northampton Sand. 

r, ■^^ j. 01 j- f Light brown, sandv beds at the bottom 

CollywestonSlate| °f the Lincolnshire OcJite - 2 to 

"Dark bluish-black marl, full of plant- 

Et. In. 

Lower Estuarine 

remains .... 

Marl of lighter bluish-black eolour, 

with plant-remains running through 

it (" plant-bed ") - 

Whitish and drab laminated sands 
Dark-blue clay - . - . 

White sand .... 






* Geol. Eutland, pp. 94, 9.5. 




r Ironstone -■, - - 6 to 

i Hard red rock, with greenish centres 
I (rook used for building-purposes) 

Fig. 53. 



20 seen 

Section at Old Head Wood, north-east of Kettering, Northampton- 
shire (Prof. J. W. Judd). 


a. Soil. 

b. Gravelly Drift. 

c. Light-Wue estuarine clays. " 

d. White marly clays. 

e. Ironstone junetion-band. J 

i ^^t^^^:^ -'=^- }Lineoh.shire Limestone. 

> Upper Estuarine Series. 

The Lower Estuarine Beds in the neighbourhood of Rockingham 
and Gretton, are from 10 to 15 feet thick, arid the ironstone 
beneath them is largely worked at Gretton. 

At Great Weldon the Lincolnshire Limestone has long been 
quarried, and many " hills and holes " remain to show the 
extent of the old excavations. I visited this locality in company 
with Mr. Beeby Thompson. The stone is now worked at quarries 
belonging to the Earl of Winchilsea and JSTottingham, 

The following section down to the base of the freestones was 
exhibited : — 

Ft. Ik. 
■ Clay, with fragments of limestone, &c., 
Soil - -•^ resting on irregular and "piped" 

surface of beds below - - - 1 6 

'Eubbly and decomposed rock - 2 

Fissile limestone - - - 1 

False-bedded oolitic limestones with 
rolled fragments : cavernous in 
places. (These and overlying beds 
are not utilized) - - - 7 



Hard shelly limestone, blue-hearted ; 
known as the Rag or Weldon Marble 
(used for walling, road-stone, land- 
Lincolnshire , ■''f V ^ifP^' <^°- »'^d occasionally 
Limestone i ^ P?lished) - - - 2 to 

Oolitic freestone, current-bedded in 

places (known as the A. bed) 
Oolite : bottom-freestone (known as 
the A. 1 bed) - 3 9 to 

Fine oolite (easily worked, but local, 

known as the B. bed) 
Eough shelly limestone, with moulds 

and casts of shells 
Fine pink-coloured oolitic freestone 
Fossil-bed (known also as the Marble 

Bed — takes a good polish) 
Ironstone - - 

Sandy clay - . . . 

J Greenish sand, passing down into 
j bluish-grey sand - . . 

"Fossil-bed" passing down into ))ed 
L below - - . - 2 to 

Blue clay (known as " Grault "). 

Ft. In. 


Upper Lias 

4 6 








The freestones vary in places, becoming sometimes more shelly. 
Annelide-borings occur in some of the layers; and they are faulted and 
joggled in places, with open gullies generally running east and west. 

The thickness from the bottom-freestone to the " Gault " (Upper Lias 
Clay) was 24 ft. 9 in. The information respecting the lower beds is based 
on statements made by the foreman, partly from the evidence of a well- 
sinking, water being obtained from the greenish sandy beds.* 

North-east o£ Great Weldon, a small opening by the road- side, 
showed false-bedded oolitic and shelly beds with many Gastero- 
pods. These are decomposed limestone-beds, and many specimens 
were obtained by E. Gibbs, formerly the fossil-collector on the 
Geological Surey. The following species have been recordedf : — 

Actseonina glabra. 

Ataphrus (Monodonta) teviga- 

Bourguetia elegans. 

(Phasianella) latiuscula. 

Braohytrema subvaricosum. 
Ceritella lindonensis. 
Oerithium attritum. 

Beani Tar. weldonis. 



Exelissa strangulata var. ovalis. 


Fibula angustivoluta. 
Natioa cincta. 
NerinEea altivoluta. 


Eiidesi, Tar. 


NerinEea pseudocylindrica. 

(cf ) Stricklandi. 



Rissoina obliquata. 

Corbicella bathonica. 
Myoconcha crassa. 


Mytilus lunularis. 
Ostrea flabelloides. 
Pecten articulatus. 
Trigonia pnllus. 
Rhynchonella Crossi. 
Terebratula maxillata. 

Pseudodiadema depressum. 

* A section is given by Sharp, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxix. p. 235 ; see 
also Judd, Geot. of Rutland, &c., p. 15L 

f Judd, Geol. Rutland, p. 151; Hudleston, Inf. Ool. Gasteropoda, pp. 72,215; 
Hudlestou and Wilson, Catalogue of JurasGic Gasteropoda, 1892. 



Prof. Judd remarks that " A long narrow inlier of the North- 
ampton Sand is seen in the upper part of the valley of the Willow 
Brook, near Dene, Bulwick, and Blatlierwycke, but there are 
seldom good exposures of the strata. At Dene brickyard we have 
the following section : " — 


Lower Estnarine 

Series and 

Upper Lias Clay. 

Marly limestone - - 1 to 

Whitish caolareons sands 

Hard, blue-hearted, sub-crystalline 
limestone .... 

Brownish, calcareous sand, becoming 
indurated into stone at its base 

Hard and compact, coralline limestone, 
full of Nerinasa, with partings of 
clay - . . - - 

Irregular bed of siliceous concretions 
with mammillated surfaces below. 
This bed is intensely hard ; between 
its laminae are contained numerous 
plant-remains ; it appears to be the 
representative of the CoUyweston 
Slate - - - - 

"Irregularly stratified and false-hedded, 
variegated sand - - 6 to 

Black, carbonaceous, sandy clays, with 
nodules of pyrites, and m.any frag- 
ments of wood converted into the 
same mineral - - - . 

Bed of hard sandstone of a dark-grey 
colour (" kale " of the workmen) 

Clay, similar to bed above, but lighter 
coloured and more sandy 

Sandy ironstone (dug in a well) 3 to 







" This section is of great interest as presenting another type 
of the Northampton Sand, namely that in which a great part of 
the formation is represented by beds of dark-coloured clay. 
These beds have in some instances been mistaken for the Upper 
Lias, and have, indeed, been sometimes mapped as such. A close 
inspection, however, soon convinces the observer that the resem- 
blance is a very superficial one, and is confined almost entirely to 
colour. The clays in question are totally wanting in the tenacious 
character of the Upper Lias, and indeed they are composed quite 
as largely of arenaceous as of argillaceous materials ; their dark 
colour appears to be due to the large quantity of organic (vege- 
table) matter which they contain."* 

Slates are occasionally worked to the south of Dene Wood, 
and they were formerly worked west of Kirby Lodge to the 
north. A section which I saw in 1889, by Dene Wood, was as 
follows: — 

Ft. Ik. 
Boulder Clay - - - 2 to 4 

Lincolnshire / Compact brown gritty limestone used 

Limestone. \ for road-metal - - - 3 

* Judd, Geol. Eutland, pp. 101, 102, 152 ; Sharp, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. 
xxix. p. 236. 

E 7S928. K 


Ft. In. 

„ ,, , r Sand .... about 1 

OoUyjestoa J-giate" - - - about 2 

^1**«- I Sand. 

The pit was partially filled with water, but I was informed that 
"slates " were worked during the previous winter. . 

At Wakerley the Lincolnshire Limestone attains a thickness of 
about 30 feet, and has been quarried in numerous places. A bed 
6 to 8 feet thick of shelly rag, like the Weldon Eag, occurs near 
the base of the formation. Prof. Judd observes that some of the 
beds are entirely made up of drifted shells, usually of small sizp, 
the valves of the Brachiopods and Conchifera being almost always 
disunited, and the Gasteropods exhibiting equal signs of drifting 
in their broken spires and other marks of attrition. Many of 
the shells are coated with a deposit of caibonate of lime, and the 
beds exhibit much false-bedding.* Hayd mammillatf^fl and sandy 
beds representing the Collyweston Slate occur in thi.i neighbour- 

Prof. Judd states that near Morcott there are a number of 
quarries in the Lincolnshire Oolite, one of which showed the 
following succession of beds : — 

'White, oolitic limestone with some shells and 
Echinoderms, and a few plant-remains (stone burnt 
for lime). 
Calcareous sands. 

Hard, blue, siliceous limestone, with- few shells but 
Lowpr "Xtuarine "A ^'^^^^ plant-remains, the latter sometimes well 
Series ' preserved (ferns, &c.) (stone used for road-metal). 

LFine, white sands (used for mortar). 

Much of the limestone at Morcott is compact and .marly, and 
devoid of oolitic grains. From this locality Prof. Judd obtained 
a very fine example of Ceromya bajociana, 6^ inches in length 
and 4^ inches in breadth ; also the following characteristic 
forms : — 

Lincolnshire Lime- 

Collyweston Slate 

Natica cinota. 


Modiola sowerbyana. 

Pinna cuneata. 
Graleropygus agariciformis. 
Pygaster semisulcatus. 

Uppingham to Stamford. 

The following notes are from Prof. Judd's Memoir : — 
At Bisbrook the line of junction of the Northampton Sand 
and the Upper Lias is indicated by numerous springs.. The 
lowest beds of the former series were at one time dug at this 
place for lining ovens, a purpose for which they are said to be 
admirably adapted. 

At Glaston there occurs, at the base of the Northampton Sand, 
a very hard, somewhat calcareous band, which is crowded with a 
shell which closely resembles, if it is not actually identical with, 
Rhynclionella cynocephala. 

* Judd, Geol. Rutland, pp. 153, 154, 178 i Sharp, Quart. Joura. Geol.. Soc, vol. 
xxix. pp. 237, 238 ; Morris, Gcol. Ma;;., 1869, p. 103. 


South of Uppingham, near LJ'ddington and at Glaston, hard 
beds of a calcareous nature, approaching in character those' which 
are seen at Desborough and \vhieh make so conspictious a feature 
in the. country to the southwards, are seen at the base of the 
Northampton Sand. At Uppingham these calcareoue beds are 
about 2 feet thick,. 

The lowest beds at Uppingham, as at many other poiate in the- 
area, appear to be considerably less ferruginous than those above 
them, and are extensively quarried for building-purposes. - A* 
large ^arry near the town gave the following section :^r- 

Ft. Is'. 
f" Bearing" (ironstone Took> withi 4he»<- 
■Nrr,^i,o™.^j-«^ J ' iisxial characters) - .-.80 

s3 i ^"^^ bnildirife-stone, of a blud cotour . 8 
1 Mass of concretions or pebbles em. 
[_ bedded' in a blue ironstone imatris - 6 
Upper Lias' Clay. 

The following section -was obtained in a well at the town of* 
Uppingham : — 

>%^J^'i"^} Sand and Clay - 

Northampton f Good ironstone rock 
Sand. \ " Eock," building-stone 

Upper Lias Clay 

A stone-pit just outside Uppingham, on the road to Stockerston, 
illustrates very admirably the gradual passage from the un- 
weath^ed blue rock at the base, up to thfr perfectly weathered, 
deep brown, "cellular" ironstone above, and the transition 
upwards of this ironstone into loose- sands (Fig. 54). The thick- 
nesa of the bfeds'is about 20 feet.* 

The following section was noted by myself in the road-cutting, 
on Black Swan Hill, near Thornhaugh : — 

Ft. In. 
"False-beddedi shelly rag (like Barnack "| 



- 12 


Oto 6 

. 3 

gto 4 



Bag) - . . - . . .1 

Fermgindus brown oolit* weathering | 

mbbly - - - ■- )■ 

Fine brown oolitic stone, with large 

and coarse particles and crinoidal 

fragments .... 

At Whittering (or Wittering), east and west of the high-roadj" . 
flaggy beds of oolite and of tough flaggy calcareous .sandstone 
(yielding the slabs known as " Whittering Pendle ") were formerly 
worked. The- beds came out in thick slabs adapted for piggeries, 
paving, &c. The shallow quarries have since been closed and-- 

S. Sharp, recorded from the Whittering Pendle, Belemriles , 
bessinus, Gervillia, Hinnites, Lima, Lucina, Perna, Peetrnif-^c^, 

* JuddjfGeol. Kutland, pp. 108, 109. 

t Quart. Joum. Geol. See, vol. xxix. p. 274. The orgaiusm named Aroidts 
Sfutterdii at one time regarded as a Coral, then as a-Plantj has sinee been considered-- 
to>b»aportion of an Echinoderm, J. 8. Gardner, Geol. Mag., 1886, p. 200. 

N 2 i 




Fig. 54. 

htone-pit near Uppingham, on tJie road to Stockerston, 
Rutlandshire (Prof. J. W. Judd). 


Fine -vrhite sand 

(•with thin bands of clay) 

^^ gradually passing into 

^i&S^i^^^'i^feS;|teX": brown sand, 

sand rock, 

cellulai ironstone, 

and finally into 

hard, fermginous rock. 

Upper Lias Clay. 



A section east of Thomhaugh, showed sands and calcareous 
sandstones on the horizon o£ the Colly weston Slate: it was as 
follows : — 

Ft. In. 
\ Bubbly and fissile oolite - - 3 

rSands and irregular beds of calcareous 
I sandstone, more or less concre- 


CoUy -weston 
- Slate, 

^ tionary, -vritli pot-lid structure: a 
I thick bed (18 in.) occurs near the 
L base - . - . about 10 

The concretionary beds much resemble those in the Colly weston 

The lithological characters of the beds at Collyweston are ex- 
ceedingly variable, but the following section affords a good notion 
of the general sequence : — 


Fig. 55. 
Section at " Slate-mine" CoUyweston, Stamford. 




CoUyweston Slate 

Lower Estnarine 


Fi. In. 

Marly and oolitic limestones with 
occasional sandy beds - 10 or 12 

Sand with curions concretionary 
nodules and thin irregular slabs, 
that occur in undulating layers (in 
one place to the number of 37) 
and coalesce with oolitic and sandy 
stone at base [Top Sand] - - 3 

Hard brown oolite ; passing down 
into pale gritty limestone and 
calcareous sandy stone (forming 
roof-bed of mine) - - - 6 [0 

" Slate " ; fine-grained calcareous 
sandstone - - -30 to 33 

Soft yellow calcareous sand and 

The " Slate " is here mined, and the galleries are supported by piled 
slabs of stone. A more particular account of the " slates " will be given 
in the chapter on Economic Products, p. 483. 

The strata above the slaty beds comprise oolitic freestones, and hard 
beds with scattered oolitic grains, that recall to mind the lower beds of the 
Great Oolite that are worked at Througham Field, near Bisley. The 
pot-lid structure so familiar at Stonesfield, is repeated at CoUyweston. 
Altogether the beds are exceedingly variable in character. 

iFuU pafticnlars of the strata have been published by Sharp, who has 
noted the quarrymen's names of the beds, and the fossils obtained from 

The bed No. 3 has yielded Natica cincta, Gervillia acuta, Hiri' 
nites tumidus, Ceromya concentrica, Pecten aratus, Ferns, &c. 
Some of the layers are used as building-stone: they are kno\vn 
in ascending order as the Bitch, Hard Limestone, Hard Sand, 
and Brood. The upper beds. No. 5, also yield Natica cincta 


Hinnites turttidus, Pecten aratus, P. lens, &c. These beds include 
. the Ringstonej White and Ked Oale.* 

The curious nodules of sandstone that occur in this district and 
elsewhere (see p. 153), have been noticed by Oapt. Ibbetson and 
Prof. Morris : they speak of " a concretionary bed of sand with 
irregular cylindrical ramoBe bodies of sandstone, resembling 
fucoid stems, assuming sometimes a very singular arrangement, 
_as at Wittering [Whittering]."t It seems to me that these 
nodules, like the " pot-lids," indicate a stage in the formation 
of sandstone — a process that ma^ in some cases be going on now. 
The undulating layers at Collyweston have most probably been 
disturbed siace the formation of the nodules, perhaps by dissolu- 
tion of calcareous matter from the subjacent stratum (which 
presents here and there a hummocky surface), and by mechanical 
movements in the sandy mass. (See Fig. 55.) 

Prof. Judd states that at Duddington there are a number of 
old pits near the river which still bear the name of " the Slate- 
pits " ; according to tradition, slates similar to those of Colly- 
weston were once dug there, and their abandonment was due to 
±heir being " drowned " by the waters of the Welland. J At 
:Eafiton also, I was informed that at times the water rises in the pit 
so that the men are " drowned out." 

The section on the north side of the road at Easton, near 
Stamford, was as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
'EubHy fine-grained oolite - - 6 

Even layers of oolitic freestone, with 

closely packed oolite grains - - 7 

Hard grey and pinkish shelly lime- 
stone, with scattered oolite grains 

1 8 to 2 
Yellow sands, with irregular nodules 

of calcareous sandstone - - 4 

Tough brown sandy limestone, packed 
with oolite grains in the upper and 
lower portions, and with scattered 
grains in the middle - - -16 

Sand with nodules (as above) - - 1 

Irregular calcareous sandstone, with 
scattered oolite grains, and plant- 
remains. (Water rises to this bed) - 2 
" Slate-beds." Banded calcareous and 
micaceous sandstone, showing Pot' 
lid structure • 2 to 2 6 

^Northampton /Sands, about 6 feet | - - -'\/ + „„„„\ 

• Beds. t Ironstone beds- - - - .| (not seen). 

,'The Slates here yield Malaptera {PterOcera) Bentleyi (known 
to th^' quarry men as " Bird's Claws "), Gervillia, Lucina Wrighti, 
Pecten, &c. The Limestone is used for wailing, and is burnt for 
lime. The- sand is employed in making mortar, and fm* foundry- 
______ J — , , . — . — .. — - — , 

* Sharp, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxix. pp. 243-245. 

t I'ep. Brit. Assoc, for 1847, sections, p. 129. 

J Creology of Kutland, p. 154. 

I See also Judd, Geol. Eutlanfl, p. 156. 


Limestonie and 

■Collyweston Slate. 



Prof. Judd remarks that " Between Easton and Stamford the 
hard, siliceous rock forming the base of the Lincohishire Oolite 
and representing the Collyweston slate, is exposed. At several 
points near the bed of the River Welland at Stamford, it has 
been observed ; and here Sharp procured his interesting specimen 
of Astropecten cottesiooldia, var. stamfordensis. A fragment of the 
same beautiful starfish has recently been found at Collyweston." 

At Easton Woodside, north-west of Easton near Stamford, the 
Northampton Beds have been worked for ironstone. This com- 
prises bedded sandy ironstone, showing here and there " cellular ". 
or " box-structure " like the Northampton ironstone at Duston. 
It is worked in places to a depth of 9 feet. The junction vrith 
the Upper Lias was not shown : but the full thickness of the iron- 
stone is estimated to be about 15 or 20 feet* 

Turning now to the celebrated district of Barnack, south-east 
of Stamford, it will be interesting to quote the following passage 
from Prof. Sudd's Memoir: — - 

" In the neighbourhood of Barnack the very extensive ' hills 
and holes ' show what enormous quantities of the celebrated 
' Barnack-rag ' were quarried in former times. Indeed almost 
all the beautiful ecclesiastical edifices of the Norman, Transition, 
Early English, and Decorated periods in North Northamptonshire 
and South Lincolnshire, and especially those of the adjoining 
Fenland, appear to have been constructed of stone derived from 
these extensive quarries, around which a very considerable popula- 
tion of quarrymen appears in early times to have been established. 
Far earlier, even in Roman times, the valu& of this building 
material seems to have been recognised ; but before the perpen- 
dicular period (15th century) the use of the stone appears to 
have been abandoned, probably from the exhaustion of the quarries. 
The excavations of the ' hills and holes ' of Barnack, now filled 
up and grass -grown, are continued in Walcol Park, where some 
of the pits still remain open. Several pits in the Lincolnshire 
Oolite are still worked near Barnack, but in none of them is a 
rock of exceptionally fine quality found ; and the general opinion 
that the Bamaok-rag (a freestone of excellent quality almost made 
up of small shells and other drifted organisms, and containing a 
few scattered oolitic grains) is now wholly exhausted, is probably 
the correct one." 

Prof. Judd also notes the following section in a pit near 
Barnack :— 


'Rubbly oolite. 

Rock, made up of small shells and frag- 
ments of shells, Eohinoderms, Corals, 
&c. ; plates and spines of Gidaris, with 
joints of Femtohcrinus, and many speci- 
mens of the minute variety of RJiyn- 
ehonella smnoaa (2Z. Grossi),. abound - 4 feet seen. 
Ordinary white, oolitic limestone, not 
shelly - - - - - 

'Collyweston Slate TBeds of yellow and white sand, contain- 1 
Seds. . 1 ing hard siliceous concretions - J 


8 feet. . 
Base not 

* .Tadd, Geol. Rutland, p. 103. 



The shelly rook is regarded as part of the celebrated '' Barnacit- 
rag." It is interesting to notice that the shelly facies of the 
Lincolnshire Oolite occurs at Barnack near the base of the 
series.* The Gasteropoda include the following speciesf :— 

Bourguetia (Phasianella) elegans. 
Oeritella So-werbyi. 
Oerithium Greorgei. 

Littorina Phillipsi. 
Nerinsea pseudojJTinctata. 
Onustus omatissimus. 

There is a specimen of Natica cincta from Barnack, in the 
Northampton Museum. 

The above section shows the character of the strata now visible 
near Barnack ; old quarries, more or less obscure, are to be seen 
by the road south-west of the village, and west of the southern 

Fig. 56. 

Pit in the Northampton Beds, between Ufford and Mnrholm, 
Northamptonshire. (Prof. J. W. Judd.) 

(o.) Siliceous limestone (" pendle ") with mammillated surfaces"! 

telow ^ - , T J : rx ' Collyweston Slate, 

(6.) Obliqiiely-lammated, fawn-coloured sand, 1 It. - J ^^^ Lower 

(c.) Purplish anely laminated clay, 3 in. - - | Estuarine Series. 

(d.) Finely-laminated, fawn-coloured sands, with much obhque . 

lamination, 5 ft. exposed - - "J 

It may be questioned if the Barnack Rag is entirely exhausted ; 
the stone has been opened up, for local use, immediately to the 
north-west of the village, and there blocks weighing 3 tons were 
obtained by means of cranes. I was informed that the stone, 
when first raised, can be readily sawn, but on exposure it becomes 

* Judd, Geol. Rutland, pp. 172, 173; see also Sharp, Quart. Journ. Ge61. So<V, 

TOl. Kxix. p. 269. - ,<- „ 

t Hudleston and Wilson, Catalogue of Jurassic Gasteropooa, 1692. 



" aa hard as iron," turning the edges of tools. On this account 
masons do not like it, and the stone is not sought for by them. 
The oolite beneath the rag, furnishes a good workable freestone ;* 
but beds of variable quality are associated with it. South-west of 
Barnack, where the rag-beds occur- in a decomposed form at the 
surface, they are 6 ftet thick, and underlaid directly by a thin 
band of compact limestone with scattered oolitic grains : free- 
stone occurs below. 

A well sunk to a depth of 26 feet, through these rocks into the 
sanidy beds below, obtained a good supply of water. 

Prof, Judd remarks that at Ufford, south-east of Barnack, the 
white sands of the Lower Estuarine Series are highly micaceous, 
and contain many thin layers of lignite and fragments of wood. 
One of the pits afforded the following section (Fig. 57) : — 

Fig. 57. 

Section of Northampton Beds in a pit east of Ufford, 
Northamptonshire. (Prof. J. W. Judd.) 


(a.) Oolitic limestone."] Lincoln- 
(&.■) Yellow, sandy i shire 
limestone, with f Lime- 
marine shells. J gtone. 
(c.) Bed of lignite,^ 

3 inches thick. 
* Fragment of foBsU 

(d.) Pale-purplish, 
micaceous clays, 
with Tertical oar- 
honaceous remains 
of plants, 3 ft. % 



(e) White and fawn- _2 
coloured sands, % 
with vertical plant- 
remains, 3 ft. 

(/.) Thin seams of 

lignite, together 4 

inches thick, 
(jf.) Bed of very fine 

white sand, 1 ft. 

6 in. 

(A.) Yellow sands, 
becoming more 
and more ferrugi- 
nous downwards, 
dug to 4 ft. 



{])) is similar to and corresponds with (a) of the. section, Figure 56, on page 200. 

* See note on microscopic characters, by Mr. Teall, p. 11. 


Prof. Judd states that the plant-markings which occur in the beds 
{d) and (e), appear to indicate that plants actually grew upon the spot, and 
were embedded as they stood, by the quiet deposition of fine sediment 
around them. The beds called " root-beds " by Prof. Morris, which occur 
in the Upper Estuarine Series, greatly resemble (d). The clay of (d) is 
yery fine-grained, and the surfaces of its laminae ares^overed with scales of 
mica : in it the carbonaceous matter is always preserved, while in the sands 
below (e) it is more frequently removed, and the sides of the empty tubes 
are stained with oxide of iron. In descending through the lower beds of 
sand (h) we find them more and more impregnated with oxide of iron, 
which exists as a coating around the individual grains ; when this coating 
is removed by the ftction of acid, a white sand remains similar in every 
respect to that forming the bed (g). From the statements of workmen it 
appears that this ferruginous character still increases in going deeper, and 
that the bed which rests directly on the Lias Clay is a thin band of the 
ordinary ferruginous rock of the Northampton Sand. 

Another section, between Ufford and Marholm, is shown in 
Fig. 56. 

Near Helpstone Heath Farm the sands have been well exposed. 
They are much false-bedded, and contain (according to Prof. 
Judd) in some layers, Pinno cuneata, Ostrea acuminata, Trv- 
gonia pullus ; and in others, numerous Cyrena. The base of the 
sands is not seen in this pit, but in another in the vicinity, the 
white sands are found resting directly on the Upper Lias clay, 
without the intervention of any ferruginous rock. The total 
thickness of the Northampton Beds at this place is rather more 
tlian twenty feet. Towards the west and south of Helpstone, thie 
thickness of the ferruginous rock Increases.* 

At Water Newton brickyard the following . beds have been 
provedt : — 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Upper Estuarine f Sands and clays, with nodular 

Series. L ironstone at base - 3 to 9 

^mestone^ | Pine grained oolitic limestone 1 .S to 4 
' Northampton f Clays and sands with ironstone 

Beds. I beds at base - - 16 to 18 

Upper Lias Clay. 

Both Lower and Upper Estuarine clays have been worked here 
for brick-making, and the Roman potteries of Durobrivae or 
Castor were situated hereabouts. Eastwards as before- mentioned 
the Lincolnshire Limestone disappears ; and at New England, 
Peterborough, a boring was made to a depth of 428 feet, the 
strata after a depth of 78 feet being blue clay and stone. No 
supply of water was obtained. It is probable that the boring 
was commenced after the Oornbrash had been excavated. The 
details may be grouped as follows : — f 

* Judd, Gkiol. Rutland, pp. 104-106 ; Sharp, Quart. Journ, GeoJ. Soc, vol. xxix. 
p. 272. 

ijudd, Geol. Rutland, pp. 99, 100, 171, 189. 
"See also Porter, Geol. Peterborough, p. 98. 



Thickness. Depth. 

Gi-eat Oolite f Sandstone and clay 

Clay. \ Blue clay and shells 

Great Oolite 1 rr j ui i 

Limestone. | H^rd W^ie rock 

Upper Estuarine / Hard brown clay 



Upper Lias 

Middle and 
LoTver Lias. 

l Rock, hard clay and shells 
r Sand and shells 
i Hard clay shells and sand 
L Book - 

Blue Clay - 
r Rock - 
< Clay with occasional layers 































and bands of stone 

- 262 


In Bui^hley Park the following beds were opened up during 
workings for ironstone : — * 

Ft. In. 
Remnants of CoUyweston Slate. 

LowerEstnarine J^f^y^l^"^^*^^ ,. -, , - 5 

Series. I ^® ° y* '''' vertical plant-mark- 

L ings - - - - » ] 6 

Northampton f Ferruginous beds. Ironstone with 

Sand. \ nodtdar band at base - - -89 

Upper Lias Clay. 

Prof. Judd states that to the west of the Park, the Lower Estuarine clay 
overlying the Ironstone, has been dug for the manufacture of Terra- cotta. 
Here the clay (from one to four feet thick) is of a pale-blue colour and 
somewhat sandy, and according to Mr. Lumby, the proprietor, it is com*, 
posed of almost pure silicate of alumina with a little free sand in very fine 
grains. Sandy lumps also occur in the mass, and are ground up with 
the clay in the mill. This admixture of the clay with fine sand is said to 
greatly improve its quality. Mixed wit^ a very small quantity of the 
white clay from Poole, Dorsetshire, thesd clays of the Lower Estuarine 
Series m^e an excellent cream-coloured terra-cotta. Similar clay is found 
at other places in the same bed, and is largely used in the well-known 
terra-cotta works of Mr. Blashfield of Stamford.f 

* Sharp, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xxix. p. 273. 
t Judd, Geol. Rutland, pp. 103, 16.5. 



INFERIOR OOLITE SERIES— (Local Details continued). 
Ketton and Stamford to Cottesmore. 

The Ketton Stone is one of the moHt famous of the building- 
stones of the Inferior Oolite, and this occurs in the highest 
portion of the Lincolnshire Limestone that is exposed in the 

The rocks have been opened up alongside the railway-cutting 
by Ketton Station (Geeston), for the Ketton Lime-works ; but 
the principal quarries were situated to the north of the village, on 
a part of Ketton Heath known as " Ketton Stones." Here, as in 
other localities, the stone dug by the old quarrymen was obtained 
near the surface and not beneath coverings of clay. Hence the 
stone was to a large extent naturally seasoned. 

Pits have of late years been re-opened in the old quarry-ground 
of the Ketton Stones, and freestone has been dug in places 
beneath a considerable covering of the refuse from old workings. 
The freestone is a good deal shattered. The best section that I 
saw in this district was situated on the western side of the outlier 
of Upper Estuarine Series, &c., west of Ketton Stones : it was as 
follows : — 

Upper Estuarine 


Q-rey and brown clay 

Gtrey banded clay with " race," ferru- 
ginous gritty nodules, and calciferous 
< gritty layers ; Ostrea Soweriyi 

Blue carbonaceous clay ... 

White sand and grey clay with rootlets ; 

ironstone nodules at the base 
'Oolitic freestone — the upper portion 
stained red to a depth sometimes of 
2 ft. 6 in., this portion is known as 
the " Crash bed " ; the lower portion 
yields a good freestone, and forms a 
part of the Ketton Stone 
■{ Irregular bed of tough sparry blue- 
hearted oolite showing " lustre- 
mottling " ; this bed is known as 
" Rag," and does not furnish good 
freestone. It passes down into yellow 
freestone, that is quarried as a lower 
bed of Ketton Stone - 






No lower beds were exposed, but they were formerly shown in the 
railway-cutting at G-eeston, near Ketton.* 

With regard to the stone-beds. Prof. Judd makes the following 
remarkst : — 

* Morris and Ibbetson, Bep. Brit. Assoc, for 1847, sections, p. 128 ; Sharp, Quart. 
Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xxix. p. 248. 

t Geol. Rutland, p. 1 55 ; see also Sharp, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxix. 
p. 240. 

INFERIOR oolite: kettqn. 206 

" The ' Crash-bed' is a coarse oolite full of fragments of shells, which 
lie on its planes of bedding. When first dug this rock is very soft, but by 
exrosure it acquires extreme hardness. It ia>of a purplish red colour, but 
varies greatly in the depth of the tints which it exhibits. It is only used 
locally for rough purposes, such as field-walls, &c. A very interesting 
circumstance in connexion with the ' Crash-bed ' is that its upper surface 
often exhibits the vertical burrows of Lithodomi, indicating the long pause 
which ensued between the deposition, and probably partial denudation of 
the Lincolnshire Oolite, and the formation of the Estuarine strata which 
lie immediately above it." 

" The celebrated Ketton freestone is a beautiful, oolitic limestone of good 
colour, combining great freedom of working with remarkable powers of 
resisting crushing force and wonderful durability. It is almost wholly 
made up of very uniform oolitic grains, exhibits scarcely any trace of 
bedding-planes, and can be placed indifferently in any position in build- 
ings without exhibiting any [special] tendency to weathering." 

The following species of fossils have been recorded from the 
Ketton quarries : — 

Nerinsea pseudocylindrica. Pholadomya fidicula. 

Cypricardia bathonica. Trigonia puUus. 

Oyprina nuciformis. Unieardium. 

Lima pectiniformis. Terebratula maxillata. 

Lucina Wrighti. Isastrsea Eichardsoni. 
Pema rugosa, var. qnadrata. 

The Upper Estuarine Series, and underlying Ketton Stone, 
were again shown in excavations at " the Deeps " on the southern 
side of the Ketton Stones ; but the junction was much obscured 
by a downwash of the clays. 

A good section of the junction was shown in a quarry near 
the Stamford brickyard, north-west of Stamford. The top beds 
of the Lincolnshire Limestone (or Stamford freestone), were in a 
crumbly state where exposed, sometimes even to a depth of 7 or 
8 feet, but solid blocks were obtained 2 or 3 feet down in most 
places. The rock is a closely packed oolito, stained red irregulai-ly, 
like the Rag of Ancaster. GaUs and pockets of the Upper 
Estuarine clays occur in the upper layers of stone. (See Fig. 
115, p. 418.) 

The general section in this neighbourhood may be stated as 
follows : — 

Ft. In. 
Upper Estuarine Beds. 
^OoUtio freestone, occasionally pisolitic 

10 or 12 
Softer beds of rubbly oolite and marl, 

with Corals - - - -80' 

Grey oolite - - - - 2 

Fissile marly and shelly limestone and 
(locally) layers of calcareous sand- 
stone - - - - 2 to 3 
Hard, compact blue-hearted limestone, 
with scattered oolite grains (Stam- 
ford Marble) ; passing down into bufi" 
limestone, with brown oolite grains 
^ (including "Stamford Stone") about 12 
A well-section, noted by S. Sharp, showed a further thickness of about 
20 feet of coarse oolitic limestones, &c., down to the representative of 
the Oollyweston Slate. He estimated the total thickness of the beds at 



about 65 feet. He has also recorded a number of fossils from a well sunk 
into the Northampton Sand at Little Oasterton.* From a fissure in the 
rock at Tinkler's Quarry, Stamford, some Pleistocene 'Mammalian remains 
were obtained.f 

The Stamford Marble is a hard white or pale-buff blue-hearted lime- 
stone, with scattered oolitic grains. It was formerly used for mantel-pieee&, 
being smoothed but not polished, and sometimes blackened. Specimens 
of this *ock (one containing Nerinoea), which I obtained at Stamford, are 
placed in the Museum at Jermyn Street. Sharp also mentions a fine 
cream-coloured stone under the name of Stamford Stone, whieh for- 
merly was much used for chimney-pieces, and for the interior carved work 
of churches. This seems to belong to the same set of beds as the Marble : 
it contains Natica, Nerincea, Lima, and some plant-remains. 

The freestones in the upper part of the Lincolnshire Limestone 
have been quarried by the high road to Great Casterton, near the 
turning to Little Casterton. The Casterton Sfcone, like that of 
Stamford and Ketton, is of good repute. The marly beds below 
the freestone have yielded a number of fossih, recorded by S. 

Referring again to Prof. Judd's Memoir, we learn that " At Clipsham 
Quarries the beds of the Lincolnshire Oolite are extensively wrought for 
building-purposes. The stone is quarried from beneath a considerable 
thickness of the Bstuarine Clays forming the base of the Great Oolite 
Series. The sections are similar to those of Ketton and Stamford brick- 
yard (Torkington's pit), but not so complete. The ironstone junction-bed 
IS present, but does not seem to he so persistent as is usually the case. The 
Olipsham sections are, however, somewhat obscure. The Clipsham free- 
stone which, like that of Ketton and Weldon, is associated with other beds 
of more or less coarse shelly rag, is an oolitic limestone similar to that of 
Ketton, but less even in grain, and with a few shells scattered through its 
mass. Its characters more closely resemble those of the extensively 
worked stone of the same age about Ancaster." 

" At the cross-roads between Grreetham and Thistleton, there are exten- 
sive quarries, exhibiting the Lincolnshire Oolite as a compact, sub- 
crystalline limestone, presenting many [of the shells, &c. characteristic of 
the coralline facies of the formation." § Sock of this character does not 
furnish durable building-stone. 

South of LuiFenham brickyard there is a fault which lets down 
the CoUyweston Slate and Ironstone about 13 feet, on the souths 
where the beds appear much disturbed. The section was as 
follows : — 

CoUyweston Slate, 

liower Estnarine ^ Grey and purplish clay and yellow 

Series. 1 sand - - - - - 6 feet. 

Northampton f Ironstone (top exposed at one part, and 

Sand. 1 base in another) - - - 6 feet seen. 

T-r T ■ r Blue clay with septaria and ferruginous 

Upper Lias. [ modules. 

The junction of the Ironstone with the Upper Lias was 
tolerably well marked, but there was no evidence of unconforuiity 
in -the relations of the strata, 

• Quart. Journ. GeoL Soc, vol. xxix. pp. 2.51, 255. 

t Ibid., p. 254. 

t Ibid., p. 252. 

§ Geology of Rutland, p. 1&7. 


The general section o£ the beds, as noted by Prof. Judd, near 
Edith Weston, WhitAvell, and Exton is as follows : — 


■ Oolitic limestone. 

■ White siliceous limestone 'with mammillated siii- 
L faces (equivalent of Oollyweston Slate). 
Lower Estuarine f White and fawn coloured sands. 
Series. t Light blue clays. 

Sand 1 Ironstone beds - - - 10 to 12 feet. 

Upper Lias Olay. 

Prof. Judd states that from Burley, for some distance north- 
wards, the Lincolnshire Limestone does not reach the edge of the 
escarpment, the Northampton Sand forming a tract, about a 
mile wide, at the top of the ridge on which stand the villages of 
Cottesmore and Market Overton. The junction of the Limestone 
and Sand in this part of the district is often greatly obscured by 
Drift ; the boundary between the latter and the subjacent Tipper 
Lias Olay is, however, very distinct and easily traceable until we 
get to Wymondham, where the great Boulder Olay sheet over- 
laps the edge of the escarpment on to the Lias plateau below. In 
the neighbourhood of Cottesmore, Barrow, and Market Overton,, 
numerous small sections of the ironstone-rock and of the over- 
lying Estuarine sands and clays can be seen, but they afford 
only a repetition of the characters noted, at many points to the 
south. The greatest thickness of ironstone is 9 feet, and much 
of it is oohtic. The escarpment along this line, from Burley-on- 
the-hill to Market Overton, is nearly as bold and striking ia 
appearance as that between Rockingham and HarringAvorth.* 

Waltham-on-the-Wolds, Great Ponton, Ancaster, and Sleaford. 

At Waltham-on-the-Wolds the general succession of the bedk 
has been summarized by Mr. A. J. Jukes-Browne, as follows : — 

Ft. Ijf. 

Lincolnshire iQolitic limestones, &c. - 
Limestone. J 

'"^Sllte'r*'"' }Shaly sandstone 
Lower Estuarine f Soft yellow sand 

Series. 1 Bluish-grey laminated clays 

["Ironstone (best red stone) 
Northampton J Ironstone ("curly") a mass 
Sand. ] casts - - - 

LFerruginous " sandstone" 

Here the Ironstone beds were at one time extensively worked ; but the 
ore is not of good quality, analyses showing an average amount of 20 per 
cent, of iron, with 60 per cent, ©f silica. The workings^ were discontinued 
in 1885.t 

The shaly sandstone on top of the Lower Estuarine Series may 
be taken as a representative of Ihe Oollyweston Slate. The large- 

* Geology of Rutland, p. ST"; and. Kendiallrlron Ores- of Great Britain, 1893„ 
p. 339. 

t Geol. S.W. Lincolnshire, p. 47. 

20 0to30 


- 1 

- 3 
about 13 

- 3 

- 3 

- 6 



quarries east of Waltham, show about 25 feet of compact earthy 
limestone, coarse-grained oolite, shelly and oolitic limestone. 
These contain a band of yellow micaceous sand or sandstone (1 ft. 
thick) and an occasional band of grey shaly clay.* 

The full thickness of the Lower Estuarine Beds in this locality 
is about 20 feet ; but, at Croxton Kerrial, the thickness proved in 
a weU was 12 feet. 

The cuttings on the new railway between Saxby and Bourn, 
showed sections of the Lincolnshire Limestone, which I examined 
in 1892. South-west of South Witham, there were shallow cuttings 
in compact limestones with scattered oolitic grains and bands of 
coarse-grained and somewhat argillaceous oolite. Here I obtained 
a large specimen of Ammonites " Sowerbyi," Gresslya, &c. The 
beds are much shattered, and occur at a lower horizon than the 
freestone division, which was not exposed along the railway in 
this neighbourhood ; indeed for a mile or more further east the 
cutting traverses only Boulder Clay. Beds of oolite with Corals 
have been worked by the windmill, west of South Witham, and 
freestone was formerly quarried on the eastern side of the village. 
Other quarries may be seen adjoining the railway about 2 miles 
east of South Witham. It is not however until we approach 
Castle Bytham that sections of freestone were exposed in the 

At Potter's Hill, west of Castle Bytham, the eastern end of the 
cutting showed false-bedded oolitic freestone, overlaid by the 
Upper Estuarine Series, with itd layer of ironstone-nodules at the 
base ; and these beds were covered by Boulder Clay. 

Proceeding eastwards to Castle Bytham and thence to near 
Little Bytham, there were fine sections showing, beneath the 
Upper Estuarine clays, the following beds : — 

Ft. In. 


'False-bedded oolite, in part very fine- 
grained with coarser and almost piso- 
litic bands below : the stone stained 
•{ pink in places - - . - 16 

I Compact limestone, with scattered oolite 
I grains, some layers resembling Stam- 
l_ ford Marble ; seen to depth of - 3 

Near the surface the freestone was much broken up, and in 
places there were wide fissures or joints that had been enlarged 
by water-action. At Castle Bytham, where the Upper Estuarine 
Clays had been cleared off the surface of the freestone, it exhibited 
a hummocky appearance, and although the inclined layers of 
false-bedded oolite terminated abruptly beneath the e-lay covering, 
there was no positive evidence of unconformity, and no traces of 
lithodomous borings were visible. 

The general section at Great and Little Ponton, as described 
by John Morris.f is as follows : — 

* Geol. S.W. Lincolnshire, p. 54. 

t Quart. .Journ. Gcol. Soc, vol. ix. pp. 324, &c. ; Sharp, Ibid., vol. xxix. p. 265 ; 
Jukes-Browne, Geol. S.W. Lincolnshire, p. 54. ; Bridie, Hep. Brit. Assoc, for 1850, 
sections, p. 76. 



Ft. In. 

(upper beds). 

(lower beds). 

Chreat Ponton Gutting. 

'Enbbly and shelly oolites, with nu- 
merous fossils ; Terebraiula maxillaia, 
Lima, &c. - - - - 20 

■< Soft marl, with Ostrea - - 4 to 1 

Marly limestone, with Corals, NerincBa, 

and Twrlo : irregular - - 2 

Coarse shelly oolites and freestones - 15 

Little Ponton Cutting. 

Rubbly oolite, rag, and compact shelly 
beds, thick-bedded, some pisolitic 

about 25 
Clay - - - - 2 to 3 

Compact marly and shelly rock, with 
Luoina, Pinna, Ostrea, Avicula, 
Trichites, Corals - , - - 6 

Marly and oolitic limestones ; Oervillia 

acuta - - - - - 12 6 

Grey sandy clay - - - -16 

Marly oolite, with Pecten - - 6 

Compact marly and sandy rock, with 

Gervillia acuta, axtdTrigonia Fhillipsi 3 6 
Ferruginous sandy oolite, with frag- 
ments of shells ; resting on sandy 
beds - . - - about 30 

It is difficult to decide how far the above may represent a 
continuous section, whether there be a breaii in the series or a 
duplication. I am disposed to take the latter view. The railway- 
cuttings are isolated and the beds are variable ; and between the 
two main cuttings there are two shallow sections consisting of 
shelly pisolite with- Cerithium, Nerinaa, and other univalves. At 
one point, as mentioned by Morris, the oolite rocks were pierced 
to a depth of about 60 feet in a well sunk close to the line of 

East of the Witham river, between Great and Little Po*iton, 
the Northampton Sand (brown ferruginous sandstone) was 
exposed in ditch-sections. Ironstone Tsas shown for some distance 
along a narrow valley north of Ponton Park Woods, although 
not so represented on the Geological Survey Map. 

In the railway-cuttings there is little to be seen that was not 
recorded by Morris. The uppermost beds of Great Ponton show 
irregular dark and pale bands, the former being mainly oolite and 
the latter shelly limestone : the beds are more or less false-bedded. 
They rest on massive and rather marly oolitic freestone that is 
quarried to a depth of 10 feet by the railway. The more shelly 
beds are quarried by the lime-kiln south of Great Ponton raiKvay- 
station ; and the freestones have again been e.Ktensivoly quarried 
at Houghton for building-stone and lime-burning. 

Most of the fossils obtained by Morris, were taken from the 
" Upper Shelly Beds at Ponton," and the rock " whence the majority 
of specimens were obtained was a soft pisolite, the shells being 
generally well preserved and rarely broken. Associated with 
them were rolled fragments of marly rock and casts of shells in a 
similar matrix (chiefly Nerincea and Cerithium), much rolled and 
E 75928. O 



eroded, some of them being slightly encrusted witli calcareous 
matter." His lists evidently include species not only from Great 
Ponton cutting but also from the shallow cuttings, between the 
two larger ones. Among the species of Gasteropoda the following 
have been recorded* : — 

Acteeonina glabra. 
Alaria hamoides. 


Amberleya gemmata. 
Ataphrus Belus. 


Bottrguetia (Phasianella) ele- 


Braohytrema binodosum. 


Oeritella lindonensis. 


Cerithium G-eorgei. 

limseforme, var. pontonis. 

Oylindrifces turriculatus. 

Exelissa pulchra. 
Littorina Phillipsi. 
Monodonta Lyelli. 
Nerinsea bacillns. 



(of.) Strickland!. 


Onustus ornatissimtis. 


Eissbina obliquata, and 

Trocbotoma extensa. 
Trocbus Acis. 



The Lincolnshire Limestone has been well exposed at Denton, 
and from the lower beds Malaptera Bentleyi has been recorded. 

From the neighbourhood of Grantham to Ancaster, the thick- 
ness of the Lincolnshire Limestone appears to increase to a total 
of about 100 feet, while the underlying Lower Estuariue Beds 
and Northampton Sand, have been estimated to have a thickness 
of 40 feet at some localities, but usually this does not exceed 20 
or 30 feett 

A good section of the lower beds was noted as follows, by 
W. H. Holloway, in Syston Park, N.E. of GranthamJ : — 



Lincolnshire f Soil and rubbly oolite - 

Limestone. 1 Sandy limestone 

T Ti J. • r Sandy marls : red, white, and greenish 

Lower Estuarme I ^^l^^. white, purplish, black and 

L grey clays - - - 12 


The sandy limestone, no doubt, represents the OoUyweston 
Slate : a similar bed was shown in the railway-cutting west of 
Ancaster railway-station. There also the details were measured 
by Holloway. The Lower Estuarine Beds consist of alternations 
of white sands and laminated clays, as in the above section, and 
attain a thickness of 7 or 8 feet; they rest on a ferruginous and 
sandy rock, with thin calcareous bands, exposed to a depth of 
4 feet. This last-named bed represents the Ironstone of the 
Northampton Sand, and rests on the Upper Lias Clay. The 
thickness of the Northampton Sand at Belton Ashes was proved 
to be 15 feet. 

* Morris, op. cit., p. 327 ; see also Hudleston, Gasteropoda of the Inferior Oolite, 
pp. 72, &o ; Hudleston and 'Wilson, Catalogue of Jurassic Gasteropoda, 1832. 

t Sharp, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxix. p. 966 ; Morris, Gool. Mag,, 1869, 
p. 103 ; Jukes-BroTvu*, Geol. S.W. Lincolnshire, p. 45. 

J Geol. S W. Lincolnshire, pp. 60, 51. 


























Passing on to Ancaster we 
again come to one of the more 
celebrated localities for free- 
stone, belonging to the Lin- 
colnshire Limestone. 

The general section of the 
stone-beds at Ancaster is as 
follows* : — 




Blue clay, &p. 


- 10 







Pale limestones 
with scattered 
oolitic grains : 
false - bedded 
in lower part • 

Grey earthy 

with scattered 
oolitic grains 

Shelly oolite 
with ochreous | 
galls - -J 

Calcareous sand- 
stone and ir- 
regular clay 
band - 




^ Sands and lami- 
nated clays - 6 

Ironstone, ferru- 
' ginous and 
sandy rock - 14 
Upper Lias - Blue clay. 

A well at Pits Hills Farm proved 
99 feet of stone, the bottom-bed 
being oolitic. In order to examine 
the strata I was let down the -well, 
but could not make many obser- 
vations, and was plunged into a 
foot or two of water at the bottom. 
About half-way down the stone 
contained scattered oolitic grains. 
At Haydor Lane 96 feet of rock 
was penetrated ; and at Silk Wil- 
loughby 104 feet of the Lincoln- 
shire Limestone was proved in a 

The beds beneath the freestone 
have been exposed in the railway- 
cutting and adjoining quarry 
west of Ancaster station. The 
beds yield some material employed 

♦ See also Brodie, Proc. Cottesw. Club, vol. i. p. 54; Jukes-Browne, Geol. S.W. 
Iiincolnshira, pp. 51, 58, &c. 




for road-metal and rough building-purposes, but the gi'eater portion of 
the stone is more appropriately used for lime-burning : the lime being 
found suitable for mortar and agricultural purposes. Ah a building-stone 
the lower beds furnish but an inferior material, that does not stand the 
weather. These beds come to the surface over much of the ground west 
of the Ermine Street. (See Fig. 58, and Pig. 62, p. 220.) 

The folloM'ing is the section at the Ancaster Stone Quarriesj 
the overlying Upper Estuarine Beds varying in amount at different 
places : — 

Upper Estuarine 



Grey, brown and white clay -' 
Band of greenish-coloured clay 
Dark blue clay, with thin bands 
of indurated grey earthy 
limestone near top - 
Grey and purple ochreous clay 
Rusty bed, 2 or 3 feet - 
'Coarse and fine grained false- 
bedded oolite (Bag), the top bed 
fairly even : the upper beds 
stained irregularly of a red or 
crimson-red colour, the lower 
beds blue or blue-hearted 
Fine yellow freestone : fine- 
grained oolite, showing in the 
quarry-face no marked lines of 
division or open jointing, but 
separating into irregular masses 
when quarried : the master- 
joints do not extend to the base 
of i;he freestone 

Ft. In. Fi. In. 

M5 0to20 

8 to 12 

about 15 

The division between the rag and freestone is marked in some places, 
but in others the beds appear to merge ; and there are indications of local 
thickening of the rag in an easterly direction. 

The rusty bed on top of the rag appears to he to some extent the decom- 
posed surface of the oolite commingled with clay, and ochreous material. 

The Bag beds are employed for road-mending, and also for building- 
purposes : they are sometimes spoken of as the Weather Bed. 

Where the capping of clay is but 4 or 5 feet thick, as towards the 
southern side of the quarries, the Bag-beds are much broken up, and even 
the freestone appears crumbly and friable at the top. 

The valuable free.stone, known as the Ancaster Stone, belongs 
to the upper part of the Lincolnshire Limestone, and occurs 
below the outcrop of the Upper Estuarine Series. It is largely 
worked at the Ancaster Stone quarries on Wilsford Heath (Mr. 
Lindley's and Mr. Kirk's). There the beds are obtained beneath 
a capping of clay 15 to 25 feet thick, and the greater the thick- 
ness the bettor preserved are the stone-beds beneath. Thus the 
freestone, in particular, occurs in a tolerably massive form, 
although the blocks obtained are of limited dimensions. The 
stone is parted by joints, but not by open fissures, except at 
considerable intervals. 

The Freestone is a fine but variable oolite, some beds being coarser, and 
containing comminuted shells. Where much exposed some of the beds 
scale off on the vertical faces. As a rule the beds are not very thick, nor 
are they very regular, the mass of the stone being more or less false-bedded. 
Blocks from 1 to 2 feet thick and 4 or 5 feet across are obtained. 



Mr. Jukes-Browne mentions that beneath the main freestone, another 
bed of ragstone (1 ft. 6 in. to 2 feet) and below it a fine-gained freestone (of 
similar thickness) have been worked. Palatal teeth of Sirophodus and a 
Saurian vertebra have been obtained below this lower bed of freestone.* 

In old times stone was extensively quarried at Pits Hills 
Plantation, south of Ancaster. At this locality there was no 
protecting cap of clay, but building-stone of excellent quality was 
obtained, though I am informed not in blocks of large size. 
No doubt a considerable amount of walling-material was pro- 
cured, while if the good stone was in small blocks, it had to a 
great extent proved its character by having witlistood the effects 
of long weathering. An open quarry showing the character of 
the beds was to be seen to the north of Copper Hill. (Fig. 59.) 

.„ The stone remains to 

TTyp fjq , . . . 

a, J.U-. ^d. some degree moist in its 

natural position at some 
depth from the surface, 
drying and hardening 
after it is quarried. 
Here as in other cases, 
the stone should be 
dressed for use while the 
quarry-water still re- 
mains. For I am in- 
formed by Mr. Lindley 
that old and seasoned 
stone from ancient build- 
ings, which has long 
is not durable if dressed 
(See p. 473.) 

Hill Farm, showed the 

Quarry north of Copper Hill Farm, 
near Ancaster. 

-ji, ■ 




■ k 



~i ~ 


withstood the action of the weather, 
again, and^then used in other edifices. 
.f The Old quarry, north of Copper 
following section (Fig. 59) : — 


3. Rabble of oolite 

2. False-bedded oolite (Rag), in 
thin layers resting evenly 
on, ■ 

1. Bedded oolite (Freestone), 
the layers themselves show- 
ing current-bedding, and 
' the top-bed, in places, con- 
sisting of a compact lime- 
stone with scattered oolitic 
grains . - . 

Fi. In. Ft. 
4 to 5 


7 tolO 

7 a to 8 

The beds of ^freestone are much jointed ; here and there a more 
massive bed {appears, but this becomes disintegrated in places 
where long subjected to atmospheric influences. 

The railway-cutting east of Wilsford showed the following beds, 
much tumbled : — 

» Geol. S.W. Lincolnshire, p. 58. 


TFlaggy oolite, stained red in places. 
I Massive beds of oolite, coarse-grained in places and 
Lincolnshire J shelly. 

Limestone. \ Tough, grey shelly and oolitic limestone splitting 
I irregularly. 
(_ White oolite. 

Anoaster Hall was built from stone obtained at the Castle Quarries- 
(Wilsford stone) now disused. 

The Greylees pits, west of Sleaford, show about 15 feet of 
remarkably false-bedded shelly oolite, with Ostrea and shell- 
fragments ; beds that recall the shelly beds at Ponton. At Bully- 
Wells there is a large quarry and lime-kiln; the upper beds com- 
prise fissile false-bedded oolites, and these rest on hard blue- 
hearted oolitic and shelly limestone, like beds seen at Washing- 
borough, near Lincoln. They contaia Galeolaria {Serpula) socialise 
as at Grlendon and other localities. 

Sleaford to Lincoln, 

At South Kauceby, south of the village and east of the road, 
a quarry showed about 16 feet of oolite. There is no clay 
covering, and the top-beds which are falSe-bedded, split into thin 
slabs ; these pass down irregularly into false-bedded freestone, 
with more solid beds at the base. Building-blocks are obtained. 

In the Fenland area, the evidence of a well-section at Parson 
Drove, Pinchbeck North Fen, to the north-west of Spalding, 
indicated the presence of 82 feet of rock, which may be assigned 
to the Inferior Oolite, beneath the Great Oolite Series, &c.* 

Northwards, in the deep boring at Woodhall Spa, Mr. Jukes- 
Browne has estimated the thickness of Lincolnshire Limestone 
and Northampton Sand at 140 f'eet.f 

The lower beds of the Inferior Oolite have been quarried in 
various places along the escarpment eUst of Caythorpe, Fulbeck, 
and Leadenham. They consist of oolitic limestones, coarse and 
shelly in places, and sometimes pisolitic, together with compact 
limestone and sandy limestone. 

The Basement Beds comprising representatives of Northampton 
Sand and Lower Estuarine Series, are not well-exposed along 
this escarpment ; but northwards, at Coleby, they consist of ferru- 
ginous sandy beds, with ironstone-nodules and clay-partings, 
having n thickness of 10 feet. Coprolites are said to occur at the 
base. In this neighbourhood and also to the north of Waddington, 
the ironstone has been worked. At Ooleby the richer bands 
contain as much as much as 40 per cent, of iron. J 

At Waddington, Mr. W. H. Penning noticed an interrupted 
band of ironstone, or ferruginous septaria, near the top of the blue 
clay (Upper Lias) that underlies the mass of concretionary iron- 
stone (Northampton Sand).§ This feature may be compared vnth 

* Jukes-Browne, Geol. S.W. Lincolnshire, p. 152. 

t Geol. Lincoln, p. 208. 

i Capt. Macdakin, Geol. Mag., 1877, p. 406 ; Geol. Lincoln, p. 87. 

I Ussher, Geol. Lincoln, p. 38, 89. 


2] ft 

that exhibited in some of the sections near Towcester and Blis- 
worth (pp. 178, 184). Ironstone was formerly worked at Oanwick, 
where 9 feet of it was noted. Indeed, according to Mr. Dalton, 
the ironstone facies of the Northampton Beds, ^extends locally 
from Navenby to Burton-by-Lincoln. 

Fig. 60. 

Diagram- section of the Oolite plain south of Lincoln. 
(W. H, Dalton.) 

C. Great Oolite Series. 
B. Inferior Oolite. 
A. Lias. 

D D D. Line ofperennial saturation, with springs at points of intersection with 

Further north near Navenby, Harmston, and Waddington the 
lower beds of Inferior Oolite comprise layers of oolite and 
marly, slightly oolitic, limestone, with thin bands of clay. These 
beds have been noted by Mr. Penning, in various eitposures, 
to a thickness of about 20 feet. The higher beds have been 
well shown in cuttings of the railway between Dunston and 
Washingborough, and they have been opened up in quarries 
near Scopwick and Metheringham.* At Washingborough a thick- ■ 
ness of 65 feet of stone-beds has been proved. 

The railway- cutting north of Nocton showed the following 
series of beds, some of which may fairly be correlated with 
certain divisions noted by Mr. Ussher to the north of Lincoln. 

A similar sequence of beds was shown in the cutting south of 
Heighington Station, and these beds were faulted to the north 
against the Great Oolite Series. 

Fig. 61. 

Section in Railway -cutting north of Nocton, Lincolnshire. 

* See Ussher, Geol. Lincoln, pp. 45, &c. 






Kirton Beds. 

5. Thin beds of pale-buff oolite 
Blue-bearted earthy oolitic lime 
stone . . - 

4. Marly bed 

"3. Shelly limestones, with Ostrea 

and other Lamellibranchs - 6 

2. Grey and yellow limestones, and 
dark shales, resembling beds of 
Lower Lias : the bottom layer 
containing clusters of' dark 
oolitic and other grains 7 to 8 

1. Compact buff limestone with 
scattered oolite grains ; bed 
with Piiiiia at the top, other 
beds shelly in places, some 
coarse grained : on the whole 
resembling the Silver-bed of 

Fine freestone with coarser politic 
grains (as at the Dean and Chapter 
pit, Lincoln), seen in deep road- 
cutting to north. 







A quarry east of Washingborough showed the following 
section : — 

Upper Estuarine 


Ft. In. 
I" Sandy and clayey beds ; showing lenti- 
i cular changes : with ochreous beds at 
I base - - - "12 to 16 

TBuff oolite, showing reddish tinges in"] 
I places. Good wall-stone - - | 

J Blue-hearted oolite, like some beds at I ■., „ 
<, Ketton : used for road-stone, and f 
\ called "Blue Stone," it breaks with 
L a cleaner fracture than good freestonej 

There are slight evidences of unconformity between the 
Estuarine beds aud Lincolnshire limestone. Oiay was proved 
below the " Blue Stone," to a depth of 5 feet. This would corres- 
pond with the clay separating the Hibaldstow and Kirton Beds. 
"West of Washingborough church a thickness of 4'2 feet of stone- 
beds was proved (down to water). 

The general section of the Lincolnshire Limestone south of 
Lincoln may be summarized as follows : — 

3. Buff and blue-hearted oolite more or less false- 
bedded , and earthy oolitic limestone - 

2. Grey marly and shaly bed - . . 

rCompaotand shelly limestone, grey limestones 
I and shales - - » - . 

1. J. Sandy and oolitic limestones, and chalky and 
I creamy limestones (with scattered oolitic 
[_ grains), with bands of marl and shale 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 


Oto 5 

12 to 15 

about 30 

The lower beds (1) include the representatives of the stone 
worked at the l)ean and Chapter Pit, Lincoln. From them I 
obtained specimens of Ammonites polyacanthus, Natica cincta, and 



Astarte elegans. The higher portion resembles the Kirton Beds. 
Bed 2, which is well shown in the railway-cutting north of 
Nocton, may be on the horizon of the marly bed that overlies 
the Kirton Beds. At Nocton it rests on beds of grey limestone, 
of a " Liassic " aspect, and thus it would seem to be stratigraphi- 
cally connected. Bed 3 may be compared with the Hibaldstow 

Lincoln to Kirton Lindsey and JVinteringham. 

The lower beds of the Inferior Oolite Series (the Northampton 
Sand and the lower portion of the Lincolnshire Limestone) have 
been well exposed at the Greetwell road quarry, east of Lincoln 
Gaol where the section was as follows* : — 


[Sand (Dogger). 

Upper Lias 


("Marl and rubble ... 

I White marly limestones, with scat- 

•{ tered oolite grains : beds known 

as Top 'and Bottom Nerlys (free- 

stone) .... 

'Fine oolitic and fissile limestone 

with scattered oolite grains: 

Upper Silver Bed 

Limestone with scattered oolite 

grains : Sink Stone 
Compact limestone with scattered 
oolite grains ; Ammonites polya- 
canthus, Natica cincta, and 
Astarte elegans. Bottom Silver 
Bed - . - 1 6 DO 




Marl and limestone with scattered 
oolite grains : used for road-metal 
and concrete - - - 1 6 

4. Variable beds of limestone with scat- 
tered oolite grains, and bands of 
coarse oolite : a bored-bed in upper 
part. The lower layers form the 
Walling Bed, and the more com- 
pact beds are regarded as good 
Weather Stone - - - 4 6 

3. Oolitic limestone (of no use), with at 
base 6 inches of very tough oolitic 
rock with pebbles - - - 2 2 

'2. Ironstones worked to depth of 8 or 9 
feet, when water is reached : total 
"i from . - - 6 to 10 

Ll. " Coprolite Bed " - - - 2 

Blue Clay. 

At the above quarry the beds are worked for building-stone, lime and 
concrete, and road-metal. The Walling Bed, which is blue-hearted, 
contains a few casts of Gasteropoda. This bed is said to stand better as a 
weather stone if got up " green " (or when damj)), and afterwards seasoned. 
The Silver bed, it is said, should be quarried in summer time and well 

The variable thickness of the Ironstone (Basement Beds), the 
occurrence of a pebbly layer at the base of the Lincolnshire 

* Numbers are affixed to the records of strata for the purpose of comparison with 
other sections described in the immediate neighbourhood. 



Limestone, and the absence here and there o£ beds that can be 
classed with the Lower Estuarine strata, indicate some local 

Sixteen feet of ironstone has in places been exposed in the 
workings of the Mid-Lincolnshire Iron Company. Mr. W. H. 
Dalton remarks that the rock is partly blue or green-hearted, and 
the lower portion of it is so crowded with phosphatic nodules as to 
be wortliless for smelting. At the same time its hardness has 
deterred the makers of phosphatic manures from attempting to 
utilize it as a source of phosphoric acid.f 

The ironstone is extensively worked to a depth of 10 feet in 
pits on the west side of Greetwell : here, as elsewhere, the rock 
is mainly brown, and the greenish cores are rejected. On the 
eastern side of the valley the ore is obtained by means of tunnels 
driven into the hill-side beneath the 'Lincolnshire Limestone. I 
observed no indications there of the pebbly layer in the limestone 
above the ironstone. 

The details of the limestone-series differ a little from those in 
the pit just described. A thin I'ayer of clay (3 or 4 inches) (5) 
separates the Walling Bed (4-) from the Silver Beds (6) above, 
and the Silver Beds contain small pea-like pebbles of oolite. The 
beds on top comprise marly limestone and marls (7), and occa- 
sional layers of compact limestone (8) with scattered oolite grains 
and numerous small Gasteropods, as in the top beds of the Dean 
and Chapter pit, north of Lincoln. I obtained Natica cincta, 
Ceromya concentrica, and Acrosalenia from the Lincolnshire 
Limestone at this quarry. 

Inferior Oolite was proved to a depth of 65 feet on the hill 
north of the railway-cutting at Greetwell. J 

The Dean and Chapter pit is situated on the east side of the 
main -road, about one mile north of the North Gate, Lincoln. 
Here the stone is quarried for building-purposes and to be burnt 
for lime. The section was as follows § : — 


7. •< 

"Hard grey limestones, slightly 
oolitic, and muoli shattered 

Marly layer with Pholadomya 

Irregular beds of shelly oolitic lime- 
stone (blue towards base), with 
oolitic marly and ferruginous 
layers ; small Gasteropods 

Blue shelly clay - - . 

Buff, grey, and blue, compact and 
argillaceous limestones, with oc- 
casional oolitic and iron-shot 
grains ; bed with Pinna near the 
middle. These beds to a certain 
extent resemble the Kirton Beds ; 
they yield no good building- 
stone .... 

Ei. In. 

* See also Uisher, Geology of Lincoln, p. 5."). 

t Uisher, Geol. Lincoln, p. 39. 

$ Geology of Lincoln, p. 55. 

§ Thii pit is also described in the Geology of Lincoln, pp. 53, 57. 


6. Fine-grained, buff and shelly, lime- Ft. In. 
stones, more or less oolitic, with 
Nerincsa : some of these layers 
resemble Stamford Marble : they 
include the Silver Bed, which is 
regarded as the best local building- 
stone : it was used' in Lincoln 
Cathedra] - - - - 6 

The numbers are given for comparison of the strata with those noted at 
the Greetwell road quarry (p. 217). The Silver Bed has been used for 
chimney-pieces and floors of passages. 

A band of ironstone, 4 ft. 6 in. thick, occurs above the Upper 
Lias north-east of Lincoln, where it has been exposed in the 
brickyard of Messr?. Swan Bros, and Bourne. 

Further north e;xposures are not common, but at Glentworth 
and Hemswell the Basement Beds seem to be considerably thicker. 
The Lower Estuarine Series is represented by grey and brown 
loam, sand, and clay with ironstone nodules in the upper part ; 
and it has been exposed to a depth of 10 or 15 feet. The lower 
beds of brown sandy rock, that represent the Northampton Sand, 
were estimated by Mr. Ussher to be from 10 to 15 feet thick. 

Along the escarpment nortii of Lincoln, the lower beds of the 
Lincolnshire Limestone have been quarried in many places. 
They comprise creamy and oohtic limestones with thin bands of 
clay ;* but they afford no sections of particular interest. Nor 
have we much evidence for tracing on the clay-band that further 
noiih overlies the Kirton Beds. (See Fig. 62.) 

Mr. Dalton states that " In the Nettleham Road, rather more 
than half a mile from the Cathedral, a small quarry now aban- 
doned shows, under 5 feet of rubble, a band of fossiliferous shaly 
marl nearly 3 feet thick overlying 6 feet of limestone." No such 
bed appears in tlie railway-cutting west of Greetwell, which 
exposes about 30 feet of the beds, but this " thick marl band " 
overlaid a similar thickness of stone-beds where seen on the 
Nettleham road. 

The exposures north of this area, by Ancholme Head, are 
neither very numerous nor very clear in exhibiting the succession 
of the beds. The lower beds comprise hard grey limestones, 
which Mr. Ussher has grouped with the so-called " Hydraulic 
Limestone" that occurs in parts of Yorkshire in the Lower 
Estuarine Series. These are overlaid by " Semi-oolitic beds," 
forming the main mass of the Lincolnshire Limestone, and on top 
there are " Grey limestones."! 

In North Lincolnshire Mr. Ussher has found it convenient to 
divide the Lincolnshire Limestone as follows : — 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Lincolnshire f Hibaldstow Beds - - 20 to 30 

Limestone. 1 Kirton Beds - - - 30 to 40 

■r> X T> J f Lower Estuarine Beds -lie; n +„ o« a 

Basement Beds. | Northampton Sand (Dogger) J" ^^ *° 26 

* TJesher, Geology of Lincoln, p. 54. 
f Geol. Lincoln, pp. 44, 55. 



The Yorkshire term of " Dogger,"* has been applied to the 
representative of the Northampton Sand ; it is a ferruginous 
sandstone, about 5 feet thick. It has yielded a number of 
Lamellibranohs, including Cardium, Corbis rotunda, Cypricardia, 
Isocardia, Modiola sowerbyana, ■ Myopsis, Pholadomya Heraulti, 
and Thracia; also the Echinoderm, Galeropygus agariciformis. 
Most of these fossils occur in the Yorkshire Dogger, but they are 
not species that characterize a distinct horizon. 

Fig. 62. 

Quarry xoest of Ermine Street, near 
the lOth milestone, north of 
Lincoln. (W. A. E. Ussher.) 

1 ^wj5^g^i^i<<^l^^£i'*^^5w^^ 


Ft. In 
5. Brown soil 
with fragments 
of grey lime- 
'4. Light drab 

loam - - 3 
'3. Tough irre- 
gular and im- 
pure lime- 
stone 1 to 
2, Drab loam - 
1. Hard grey 

limestone - 3 


The Lower Estuarine Beds consist of bluish clay or shale, with 
sand irret^ularly associated. 

Mr. Ussher states that the divisions of the Basement Beds 
cannot be separated by geological boundaries, as the series forms 
a narrow band on the upper slope of the Oolitic escarpment, and 
its total thickness is insignificant, probably nowiiere exceeding 
26 feet. The Lincolnshire Limestone, on the contrary, affords a 
marked contrast in its upper and lower beds, so that a geological 
boundary-line can be drawn from the Humber southwards, to 
separate the Hilbaldstow and Kirton beds. This boundary could 
not, however, be traced very far to the south, owing to the 
merging of these distinctive characteristics, and to the impossibility 
of restricting the variations in the Lincolnshire Limestone to 
definite stratigraphical horizons.f 

The Lower Estuarine Series in the Howardian Hills of York- 
shire contains, in places, towards the middle part, one or two well- 
marked beds of cement-stone or " Hydraulic Limestone." They 
are described by Mv. Fox-Strangways as consisting of hard grey 
argillaceous limestone, never more than a few feet in thickness 
and separating in places into two beds divided by shale. The rock 
can hardly be regarded as an hydraulic limestone, for it is said to 
,make " a very good lime for agricultural purposes," South of 

* A name also locally applied to nodulan-or gloljular masses of stone. 
I Ussher, Geol, N. Linoolnshiro, p. 59. 


Ellerker, the limestone could not be traced as a separate bed, and 
there was no evidence of it in a boring at Brantiiigham Grange. 

The introduction by Mr. Ussher of the term " Hydraulic Lime- 
stone " for the beds at the base of the Lincolnshire Limestone in 
Lincolnshire is to be regretted, as the layers supposed to represent 
it are not worked for hydraulic lime, and beds on a slightly higher 
horizon (Kirton Beds) are. Nor have we any evidence from 
fossils, for comparing the so-called " Hydraulic Limestone " of 
Lincolnshire with that of South Yorkshire. The latter stratum 
is regarded as equivalent to the Eller Beck Bed, a layer contain- 
ing marine fossils (including Astarte minima), discovered by Mr. G. 
Barrow in the Lower Estuariue Series of the north-eastern part 
of Yorkshire. Moreover, Mr. Ussher grouped the beds termed 
by him " Hydraulic Limestone," with the Basement Beds beneath 
the Lincolnshire Limestone ; but it must be borne in mind that 
the Lower Estuarine Beds of Yorkshire form a more comprehen- 
sive stratigraphical division than the Lower Estuarine Beds of the 
midland counties.* 

The HiBALDSTOW Beds have been so named by Mr. Ussher 
(1890), because they are well exposed at the village of that 
name, situated between Kirton Lindsey and Brigg. In the 
Geological Survey map (sheet 86), published iu 1887, and in the 
Memoir on the Geology of the country around Lincoln (1888 
p. 44) these beds were spoken of as 'the "Ponton Beds," after 
Great Ponton. But as the characteristic fossiliferous Ponton 
Oolite cannot be definitely correlated with these beds, and portions 
of the Ponton Beds may be equivalent to the Kirton Beds, it has 
been considered best to adopt purely local names for the divisions. 

As remarked by Mr. Ussher, they form the uppermost division 
of the Lincolnshire Limestone from Waddingham northwards to 
the Humber. They consist of buff or cream-coloured oolites, the 
oolitic structure varying from fine spherical to coarse, irregular 
granules, sometimes of large size. These beds do not appear to be 
ever intercalated with clay or loam. Their thickness is probably 
not much more than 20 feet. 

The Kirton Beds are so called from the town of Kirton 
Lindsey, in the vicinity of which they present their most marked 
hthological characteristics, and are of the greatest economic 
importance. They consist of grey limestones, interstratified with 
beds of loam and clay ; near Kirton they contain fine-grained 
irregular limestone-bands, which are ground up for hydraulic lime. 
In their lower portion the Kirton limestones, which are partially 
oolitic, fi'equently resemble the Hibaldstow Beds, weathering 
yellow and exhibiting oolitic structure throughout. 

The Basement Beds form the upper part of the face of the 
Oolite escarpment, the Kirton Beds occupying its crest and the 
upper part of its dip-slope ; these pass under the Hibaldstow Beds, 
which usually make a slight junction-feature at their very sinuous 

"^ See Eox-Strangways, Geol. Ool. and Liassic Eocks, Malton.p. 6 ; Geol. country 
between York and Hull, p. 20; and Jurassic Eocks of Yorkshire, vol. i. pp. 194, 203. 



boundary-line, and occupy the lower part of the dip-slope, termi- 
nated by the Alluvium between tli« Barnetby and Doncaster railway 
and Hibaldstow, and by the gravel-flats south of Hibaldstow. 

Between Waddingham and Grayinghara Warren Farm, there 
are limestones, referred by Mr. XJssher to the Hibaldstow Beds, 
which are similar in colour 'and texture to those commonly found in 
the^^Kirton Beds, yet theypass directly under the Great Oolite series. 
The Hibaldstow Beds, which are distinctly traceable south of a 
line between Grayingham Warren Farm and Waddingham, seem 
to preserve their very oolitic aspect only in their lower beds, and 
cannot be traced southwards, as a distinct lithological division. 
The Kirton Beds lose their distinctive characters south of Gray- 
ingham Warren. By these changes we find as we proceed south- 
ward, a more and more homogeneous series of beds composing the 
Lincolnshire Limestone.* Nevertheless, in certain areas, as before 
mentioned, divisions that appear to correspond with the Hibaldstow 
and Kirton Beds, may be traced further south. (See p. 216.) 

The following fossils have been recorded from these local' 
divisions of the Lincolnshire Limestone : — 

Kirton Beds. 



Ammonites (allied to A. humphriesianus) 


(allied to A. Truellei) 




Natica cincta 


Astarte elegans (Fig. 1 2) - - 


minima - 




Ceromya baiooiana (Kg. 21) - 


Corbis Lajoyei, var. cingenda - 


GerviUia acuta - ' - - 



Gresslya Lycetti ? 


Hinnite-s abjeetus 



Homomya gibbosa 



Lima pectiniformis 



Lycetti ? - 





JUlLllUUv/IliUQ ~ 

Lucina bellona 



Myacites jurassi 


Ostrea - - - 


Pecten aratus 






lens - - - - 



Pholadomya fidioula . - . . 






Pinna lanceolata 


Quenstedtia oblita 


Trichiles nodosus - - 


Trigoriia bemisphserica 


Terebratula maxillata 


Galeolaria (Serpula) socialis 


Judging from the foregoing list, there appears to be no marked 
palaeontologlcal distinction between the beds. The Kirton Beds 

* Ussber, Geol. N. Lincolnshire, pp. 63, 64. 


however have yielded a number of Corals including Isastraa 
Conyiearci, I. Richardsoni, Latimmandra Flemingi, TliamnastrcBa 
defranciana, and Thecosmilia gregaria. 

The Rev. J. E. Cross, has commented on the difference ex- 
hibited between the fossils from beds at the bottom of the Inferior 
Oolite at Santon and those obtained from the overlying beds. He 
calls the lower portion the Santon Oolites, and describes them as 
" a .soft dark-coloured ferruginous bed, and an oolitic limestone 
bed above it." These beds tire regai-ded by Mr. Ussher as above 
the " Hydraulic Limestone " in the section at Low Santon Lane ; 
they belong to a type which can be best studied between Winterton 
and Roxby, and at Raventhorpe, west of Broughton, on the 
Oolitic escarpment. They may be grouped for the most part with 
the Kirton Beds.* 

Mr. Ussher states that between Oleatham and Mount Pleasant 
a by-road, leading up the escarpment, affords a section of the 
Basement Beds of the Oolites, from the Dogger upwards. The 
beds are more continuously exposed than in any other part of the 
escarpment south - of the Barnetby and Doncaster Line ; in 
descending order they are as follows : — 

Ft. In. 

Cream-coloured, broken, shaly mud- 
stones, similar to those below the 
" Hydraulic Limestone " - - 5 

Tough, pale grey limestone, in part si- 
liceous and with oolitic grains, con- 
taining veiy small fossils ; repre- 
senting the " Hydraulic Limestone " 

2 Oto 3 6 

Impure arenaceous shaly stone - - 5 

Whitish sand-rock, exposed in the upper 
part of the road-cutting, apparently 
just above the " Dogger," and pass- 
ing under, or dovetailing into, bluish- 
grey shales, for the most part con- 
cealed by grass ; attaining a thickness 
of about - - - - 12 

{Dogger, represented by tough, reddish- 
brown, fine-grained, ferruginous 
sandstone, very partially exposed, ap- 
parently about - - - 5 

By the Railway between Kirton and Scawby Stations, west of 
Gainsthoi-pe, the Kirton Beds are finely exposed, both in tlie 
cuttings and in a large quarry, which furnishes material for the 
manufacture of a valuable hydraulic lime, sold as " Blue Lias 
lime." t The section which I noted at Kirton Lindsey is as 
follows : — 

• Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxsi. p. 121 ; Usiher, Geol. N, Lincolnshire, 
p. 60. 

f See Ussher, Geology of Kortb Lincolnshire, pp. 61, 69. 


Lower Estnarine 



Enbble of Oolite (Hibaldstow Beds) and soil. 

'Marly clay (seen also in pit by road) - - 5 to 

Top stone. Grey limestone, heavy and bard ; used for 

building-stone, paving, road-metal, and building-lime 

'Cement-layer. Bed of lime- | 

Ft. In. 

Kirton Beds. 

stone-shale forming natural , 

cement - - - ( 

Irregular beds of clay and f about 15 

limestone, like Lower Lias 

in appearance 
Thick beds of grey limestone with 

scattered oolitic grains - 3 to 3 6 
Grrey oolitic limestone - - 1 2 

Lower beds of gritty rock, marl, and oolitic limestonej may be 
traced in the railway-cutting east of the tunnel, but they wore not 
very clearly exposed. 

The only fossils obtained here by Mr. Ussher, were found in the 
upper beds below the marly clay. These were Homomya gibhom, 
Lima pectiniformis, and Pholadomya HeraultL* Mr. H. Parry 
showed me (in 1889) an Ammonite from the top stone-bed, and 
this was sent to Mr. G. Sharman. He says it is one of the group 
of Ammonites that includes^, cymodoce, A.'i-otundus, A. gowerianus, 
&c. These species, which approximate closely in character, belong 
to the Middle Oolites ; hence considerable doubt is raised about 
the horizon of the specimen from Kirton, although I was assured 
that it did come from the stone in situ. Drift fossils however do 
get occasionally into crevices of the rocks. 

Mr. Ussher states that by the road to Kirton, at about a quarter 
of a mile north of the tunnel, a quarry exposes 15 feet of pale 
bluish-grey shaly clay, rather loamy ; it contains an even bed of 
tough limestone about a foot in thickness, and, near the base, 
nodular impersistent bands of limestone occur. These beds appear 
to rest upon the Kirton Beds; dark bluish-grey, impure, fossili- 
ferous, shaly limestones. Oolitic ddbris (Hibaldstow Beds) overlies 
the shaly clay. The following fossils (identified by Messrs. 
Sharman and Newton) were obtained from the limestone and 
shales : — 

Amberleya gemmata. 


Natica canalioulata. 

Gervillia acuta. 




Pecten articulatus. 
Pholadomya Heraulti. 
Quenstedtia oblita. 
Galeolaria socialis. 
Thecosmilia gregaria. 

The clayey division that occurs between the Kirton and 
Hibaldstoiv Beds, was again seen near the Sturton Plantation 
N.E. of Manton. Here, according to Mr. Ussher, it is from 
3 to 8 feet thick, and contains Gervillia and numerous specimens 
of Trigonia hemispharica. Northwards the clay or loam becomes 

* Geol. N. Lincolnshire, pp. 68, 69, 



»— I 



Kirton Beds. 










INFERIOK oolite: hibaldstow. 225 

less distinct, being interstratified with even beds of bluish-grey 
limestone, as shown in sections near Wressle Houses, to thevN.E. 
of Broughton. 

The total thickness of the Lincolnshire Limestone passed 
through in the boring at Brigg, was estimated at 44 feet by Mr. 
TJssher : there no definite indication of the Lower Estuarine Beds 
was obtained.* (See p. 430.) 

Mr. Ussher notes the following section in a quarry on the north 
side of the turning to Broughton : — 

Dark brown sandy soil - - ... 

Bubbly oolitic limestone (base of the Hibaldstow Beds) - 

Three even beds of grey limestone 

Pale drab loam ... 

Grey limestone - . 1 3 to 

Pale brownish, decomposed, shaly 

limestone - - - - 1 G 

Hard, even-bedded, dark bluish- 
grey limestone, weathering light 
grey - - - - 1 

Drab and dark grey loamy clay, 

passing into earthy limestone - 2 6 

Hard bluish-grey limestones, wea- 
thering to a pale drab colour - 4 

At Scawby an irregular outlier of Hibaldstow Beds appears to 
rest directly on a clay stratum, forming the top of the Kirton 
Beds ; as clay has been dug on the western margin of the outlier 
towards Moor Farm, to clay the fields, which are covered with 
Blown Sand. Near the Roman Road, on either side, west of 
Scawby Vicarage, there are shallow pits showing brown and grey 
clay, and loam. 

The Hibaldstow Beds, which further south appear to be 
represented by grey limestones, were shown to a depth of five feet, 
near Grayingham Warren Farm. The beds (as described by 
Mr. TJssher) consist of fissile cream-coloured limestones witli 
oolitic grains irregularly dispersed, resting upon cream-coloured 
and pale buff limestone. The underlying bed appears to be pale 
drab loam : hence the limestones are taken as the base of the 
Hibaldstow Beds. The following fossils were found by Mr. 
TJssher, but they are too poorly preserved for specific determina- 
tion : — 



Near the Mill, south of Hibaldstow, the Hibaldstow Beds are 
exposed in a quarry to a depth of from 15 to 20 feet ; they consist 
of pale buff and cream-coloured oolite, in rather tiiin broken bed.". 

At a mile and a quarter south of Redbourne, Hibaldstow Beds 
are to be seen in pits by the road to Waddingham, and in a quarry 
on the south side of the valley, west of the road ; the beds in this 
quarry comprise partially oolitic, compact, grey limestone.-', in 

* Geol. N. Lincolnshire, pp. 71, 72, 211. 
E 75928. P 


which Lucina bellona, Trigonia hemispharica, var. gregaria, and 
Rhynchonella spinosa ? were obtained. Oolite has been quarried 
near Hibaldstow on the north, and not far from Sturlon on the 

North of the railway-tunnel at Kirton Lindsey there is an 
outlier of Hibaldstow Beds, and the following strata were shown 
in a quarry : — 

Ft. In. 
(■Limestone -with scattered oolitic grains 2 3 
Lincolnshire J Oolite - - ; - - 4 6 

Limestone. ] Li-egular hard grey limestone, with 

L scattered grains of oolite. 

From the beds at this locality Mr. Ussher obtained some Corals 
tind a Trigonia. 

Mr. Fox- Strang ways remarks that further north the Hibaldstow 
Beds consist of white very oolitic limestone, which is much purer 
and softer than the Kirton Beds below. A peculiar feature in the 
structure of the rock is that the oolitic grains are often aggregated 
together into small lumps about the size of a bean, which give it, at 
first sight, almost the appearance of a conglomerate. 

He states that in an old quarry by the road to Santon the lower 
part of this series is just exposed, forming a rubbly oolite, which 
is frequently decomposed into a kind of sand. The Hibaldstow 
Beds about here appear to be very thin, but perhaps the increased 
dip may in great measure account for the narrowness of the 
outcrop, or, what is more probable, the limestone may have been 
■denuded before the deposition of the Great Oolite Clay above, as 
there appear to be indications of an unconformity between the 
two in this neighbourhood. f 

Referring to the Kirton Beds of Appleby and Wintertun, Mr. 
Strangways states that they comprise the greater part of the 
Lincolnshire Limestone, and about Appleby cover a larger surface 
than the rest of the Lower Oolite divisions put together; they 
consist for the most part of siliceous earthy limestones, which 
become purer as we ascend in the series. The lower part of these 
beds is seen in the cutting at Santon, the upper beds are exposed 
under the Hibaldstow Beds in a quarry close by ; thence the 
outcrop extends 'in a westerly direction along the ridge formed by 
Santon and Kisby Warrens. Between Winterton and Roxby the 
lower part of the Kirton Beds contains layers of rubbly or bi'ashy 
limestone, including a representative of the so-called " Hydraulic 
Limestone." That they should be mapped rather as the base of 
the Kirton Beds, than as a part of the Basement Beds, seems 
■evident from the section by the lane on either side of the Railway 
Bridge at Low Santon (a Farm three-quarters of a mile west of 
Appleby Station). There, as far as the tumbled character of the 
beds permits observation, the following section has been 
obtained by Mr. Ussher : — 

* Ussher, Geol. N. Lincolnshire, pp. 73, 74, 77, 78. 
+ Geol,-N. Lincolnshire, pp. 78, 79. 



Ft. In. 
'Bather compact grey limestones with 

small fossils. 
Drab and brown sandy or loamy shale, 
partly consolidated, with grey clayey 
shale ; in the upper and lower parts, 
beds of the Eaventhorpe type occur, 
Lincolnshire becoming in places very oolitic, and 

Limestone < containing numerous small fossils at 
(Kirton Beds). the base - - - about 9 

Rubbly and broken, tough pale brown 
and grey, irregular oolitic limestones, 
stained by ferruginous infiltration in 
places - - - -50 to 60 

Hydraulic Limestone. 
Impure broken limestone. 
Lower Estuarine clays. 

Bather more than half a mile west of Appleby Station, Homomya 
Vezelayi and Gresslya abducta were obtained. 

Mr. Strangways further states that north of Winterton the 
boundaries of the Kirton Beds become more obscure, and it is a 
matter of some diflSculty to decide how much should be included 
within them. A large part of the rock when met with beneath 
the surface in shafts, bore-holes, &c., has usually a dark shaly 
appearance, and this is probably the reason why, in the shafts and 
bore-holes at Appleby, and also on the north side of the Humber, a 
considerable part of the section which must include this rock, is 
called " bind." These beds when burnt make good agricultural 
lime. In places near Winterton the limestone is much hidden by 
Drift Sands, Boulder Clay, &c., but at a little distance to the north 
of the village, the beds rise to a higher level and are better seen ; 
beyond this they are concealed by superficial deposits and are not 
again exposed on this side of the Humber.* 

* Geol. N. Lincolnshire, pp. 75, 76, 79. 

p 2 




Tub term Great Oolite was used in 1812 by William Smith, 
being applied to the Bath stone which locally is so much more 
important than the Inferior Oolite. At one time the term 
Superior Oolite was employed in contradistinction from Inferior 
Oolite, but the term was used in so comprehensive a sense that 
even the Portland Oolite was included.* The name Upper 
Oolite has also been applied to the Great Oolite, but was similarly 
liable to mislead ; hence the term Great or Bath Oolite came into 
general use, while the more comprehensive name Bathonian was 
introduced by D'Omalius d'Halloy in 1843.t 

As our knowledge of the strata increased, other local divisions 
came to be included ; and probably owing to the difficulty of dis- 
tinguishing the equivalents of Great and Inferior Oolite in York- 
shire, John PhiUips in 1829 unfortunately used the term '' Bath 
oolite formation " for all the strata from the Cornbrash to the 
Inferior Oolite, inclusive. Later on it became customary to 
restrict the term to the beds above the Inferior Oolite, sometimes 
including the Fuller's Earth, and usually including the Cornbrash. 
In this comprehensive sense it is best to adopt the term Great 
Oolite Series, and group the beds as follows : — 

Oornbrasli. Zone of Ammonites macrocepJiahis. 
Forest Marble audi Great Oolite Clay. ~1 

Bradford Olay - \ Great Oolite Lime- | Zone of 

Great Oolite and -J stone. r" ,i™ ^j... „*.■„„„..„ 

Stonesfield Slate - 1 Upper Estuarine I ^™- '^^^'t^aen^- 

Puller's Earth ~ " 


- 1 Upper Estuarine j 

- J Series. J 

Geeat Oolite Series. 
1. doksetshire to oxfordshire. 


General Account of the Strata. 

The term Fuller's Earth was applied in 1799, by William 
Smith, to certain marls and clays, near Bath, that yield an 
important bed of economic fuller's earth. These clays directly 
overlie the Inferior Oolite and underlie the Great Oolite. 

From a geological point of view the term is an unfortunate 
one, for important beds of fuller's earth occur also in the Lower 

* See Townsend, Character of Moses, p. 105 ; and Sowerby, Mineral Conchology, 
vol. ii., 1818. 

t Attale Riche, fitude Strat. Jurassique Inf. du Jura Meridional, 1893, p. 125. 
The name Bathian has been used by Mayer-Eymar. 

GKREAT- oolite: PUM-ONIAN. 22® 

Greensandat Nutfield rin) Siin-ev and 'Woburn- in Bedfordslnire, 
and bedsior seams are found in places in the Ludlow Series, as 
well as in other strata. .Hence -it^ has been suggested:' that" the 
termfiFidler's' EarthiiOoUte," be used to distinguifeh th*e feeds -©€ 
Jurassic oaget* 'This name however is not satisfaetoryj for 
although it' was given to notifynthe age of the beds, it might be 
taken to indicate their ;lrthological character, whereas they exhibit 
no oolitic structure. Again, the occurrence in the formation of 
beds of economic fuller's earth is local; For these reasons some 
modification of the name appears desirable, and it is suggested 
that the term Fullonian (from the Latin Fullonius) would meet 
all requirements. The beds are to some extent~equivaleiit to the 
Vesulian formation of Marcou, named from the town of Vesoul, in 

Where best developed, in Dorsetshire and Somersetshire, the 
Fuller's Earth or Fullonian formation has been divided as 
follows: — 

Upper Fuller's Earth Clay. 
Puller's Earth Kock. 
Lower Fuller's Earth Clay. 

The clays are blue, grey, and yellowish in colour, and are 
usually more or less marly in character ; only the upper bed has 
yielded the fuller's earth of commerce. Nodules of "race," 
occasional bands of earthy limestone and thin layers of sandstone 
occur in the clays. 

The Fuller's Earth Kock which was recognized by William 
Smith (1815-16), consists of earthy limestone, hard enough in 
places to be used as material for mending roads, though it cannot 
be recommended for the purpose. A specimen fromi Oldford, 
Frome, examined under the microscope by Mr. Teall, showed 
organic fragments, and a few quartz grains, in a granular 
amorphous matrix. The bands of rock alternate with soft marls, 
and they are often nodular or impefsistent in character. They 
have been traced northwards more or less persistently from 
Dorsetshire as far as Lansdown near Bath ; beyond this the rock- 
beds are less constant, and have only been recognized in places. 
The Fuller's Earth Rock is thus a lithological rather than a 
stratigraphical division, for the stony bands merge gradually into 
the clays above and below, and cannot be regarded as having a fixed 
horizon. Fossils, as a rule, are more abundant in the stone-beds 
and associated marls, th^n in the more clayey divisions, but the 
latter are especially characterized by Ostrea acuminata, and the 
economic fuller's earth has yielded a large number of Ostracoda.* , 
,0u the whole, Lamellibranchiata and Brachiopoda are the 
most- abundant fossils. The remains of Saurians and Fishes 
occur) but rarely. Cephalopoda are not uncomipon in the Faller'a 
Earth Rock, and it is characterized, by the presepce oi Ammonites 

* T. R. Jones and C. D. Sherborn, Proc. Bath Nat. Hist. Club, vol. vi. p. 249. 



subcontractus. This appears to be the form figured as " A. 
modiolaris " by William Smith, but it is not the same as the 
original A. modiolaris of Lhwyd. It should be mentioned that 
A. subcontractus has been recorded by E. Witchell* from the 
Clypeus Grit of Eodborough Hill, a fact of considerable interest 
as showing the incoming in the upper part of the Inferior Oolite 
of this Bathonian type of Ammonite ; for the same species occurs 
in the Great Oolite. Ammonites viator (A. Morrisi of Oppel) 
and A. arbustigerus also occur in the FuUonian formation. 

The following are the more abundant and characteristic fossils 
of the FuUonian or Fuller's Earth formation : — 





Ammonites arbustigerus. (Fig. 63) 


buUatus - - - . 


subcontractus. (Kg. 64) ... 


Tiator - _ - - 


Belemnites paralielus - - - 




Anatina plicatella .... 


Avicula costata ... 




echinata. (Hg. 124) 



Ceromya pUcata - - - . 


Cypricardia bathonica - - - - 


Goniomya angulifera 


■ literata ... 


Gresslya peregrina. (Fig. 121)- 



Homomya gibbosa - .... 


Isocardia minima 


nitida ..... 


Modiola gibbosa ... 



Lonsdalei - . - . . 


Myacites calceiformis - . . . 



• tenuistriatns - .... 



Nucula variabilis - - ... 



Ostrea acuminata. (Fig. 65) ... 



Sowerbyi. (Fig. 95) - 


sobrugulosa. (Fig. 110) 


Pecten vagans. (Fig. 122) - - . 




Pholadomya deltoidea ..... 


Placunopsis socialis - - 


Rhynchonella varians. (Fig. 67) - 




Terebratula globata. (Fig. 28) 




Waldheimia ornithocephala. (Fig. 66) 




Prof. Tate in 1870 argued that the " Fuller's Earth " formation 
should on palseontological grounds be considered as the upper- 
most zone of the Inferior Oolite, because, of the species he had 
been able to catalogue, 69 in number or 83 per cent, occurred in 
the Inferior Oolite, and 49 only or 60 per cent, in the Great 
Oolite.t The results obtained from specimens collected during 
recent work on the Geological Survey, are at variance with those of 
Prof. Tate. Of 72 species collected by Mr. Rhodes and myself, 
58 are known also in the Great Oolite, and 42 in the Inferior 
Oolite, a number being common to the two formations. 

* Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. vii. p. 125. 
t Quart. Journ. Science, vol. vii., 1870, p. 68. 




FtG. 63. Fig. 65 

Fig. 66. 

Fig. 64. 

Fig. 67. 

Fig. 63. AmmoniteB arbustigerus, d'Orb. i. 

,, 64. subcontractus, Mor. & Lyo. i. 

,, 65. Ostrea acuminata. Sow. Nat. size. 

,, 66. Waldheimia ornithocephala, Sow. Nat. size. 

,, 67. Ehynchonella varians, Scbloth. IJ. 

The Ammonites {A. subcontractus and A. viator) are decidedly 
Bathonian, and so generally do we find the former species in the 
Fuller's Earth Rock, it might be termed the zone of A. sub- 
contractus. It is however more convenient to take A. arbustigerus 
as the zonal index for the Great Oolite Series, from the Fuller's 
Earth to the Forest Marble. 

The Gasteropods, as a rule, are too poorly preserved to admit of 
specific identification, but the genera belong as much to the 
Inferior Oolite as to the Great Oolite.* 

The Lamellibranchs include 43 species found also in the 
Great Oolite, and 30 in the Inferior Oolite, many of them 
passing upwards from the one formation into the other. Avicula 

* The species are included with. those from the Great Oolite in the Catalogue of 
British Jurassic Gasteropoda hy Hudleston and Wilson; see also Hudleston, 
Gasteropoda of Inferior OoHte, p. 19. 


echinata, .GervilKa < tXeiMa, Nuculix '^Menkei, ■'Ostre\x' acuminata, 
0. Sowerbyi, and 0. subrugvlosa, represent the Bathonian 
side, while the species of Homomya, Modiola, Myacites, are more 
allied to the Bajocian. ^'"" 

The Brachiopoda are abcitit equally divided. Terebratula 
globata passes upwards from the Inferior Oolite, while 
Waldheimia oi-nithocepkala, ttxxd its ally PF. lagenalis, are Great 
Oolite forms. 

The Echinodermata, Oorals, &c. are rare, and the Ostracoda, of 
which Prof. Jones and Mr. Sherbom have recognized 62 species, 
arc with three exceptions new. 

These observations after all serve to confirm those of ]V&. 
Eiheridge. who slates that of 110 species from the Fuller's Earth, 
65 wore derived from the Inferior Oolite and 88 occur in the 
Great Oolite series.* 

Although numerical estimates of species cannot be said to 
furnish the most reliable data for classifying strata, yet the 
palseontological evidence favours our grouping of the Fullonian 
Beds with the Great Oolite. Again in lithological characters 
and method of formation, the Fullonian clays, marls, and earthy 
limestones, closely resemble beds in the Great Oolite of the 
counties of Gloucester, Oxford, and Northampton. The Fullonian 
formation, as Mr. Etheridge admits, is of a transitional character, 
but it is a subordinate and local accumulation, and, for general 
purposes of classification and correlation, not important enough to 
stand alone. It has been suggested that a divisional-plane be 
taken on top of the Lower Fuller's Earth Clayf ; but no such 
division is practicable, and to attempt it would be to violate the 
principles of stratigraphy. 

When we enter the region of east Gloucestershire and north 
Oxfordshire, it is difiBcult in places to separaite' the uppermost 
strata of the Inferior Oolite from the Fullonian Bed6, for there 
are limestone-beds that may in point of time represent the lower 
clays of the "Fuller's Earth" of othei" tracts. Reference has 
already been made to these'passage-beds. (See p. 129.) 

In the region south of Gloucestershire, however, the field- 
geologist has as a rule x\o difficulty in fixing the plane of division 
between " Fuller's Earth " and Inferior Oolite, for there is no 
marked alternation of limestones and clays at the junction ; and 
although we may occasionally find a band of limestone near the 
base of the Fullonian, yet in places the surface of the Inferior 
Oolite is bored by Annelides and Lithodomi and the junction is 
well marked. 

We may therefore regard the Fullonian formation as extendiig 
from the Dorsetshire coast through Somersetshire and Gloucester- 
shire to the neighbourhood of Chipping Norton in Oxfordshire. 
In This north'ern area the upper Fullonian clays merge into thje 
Stonesfield Slate Series ; and further on, both are to a certain 

* StratigrSfihic&l 'Ge<51ogy and Palse&ntology, p. 422. " 

t H. S. Solly and J. T. Walker, Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist. Club, vol. xi. p.l20: r 

•' ' l-ULLOlsnsK: BEIDPORT. 233 

txtctit represented by the 'Upper Estuarine' Series of the Midland 
counties. GeologicaUy; we most important development of the! 
Ftdioniiin Beds is in Dorsetfehii^, wh'^re its thickness is about 150 
feet. Ntirth and norfh-east of'Bath the thickness diminishes,' and 
the " fuller's Earth,"' excepting that it promotes landslips, occupies 
an insignificant part in the surface-features of the country. Its 
thickness near Stroud and Cheltenham is about 70 or 80 feet, and 
it ilimininishes eastwards. 

Local Details. 
Bi-idport and Weyinouth to Crewkerne. 

The FuUonian Beds farm the dull grey and somewhat trea- 
cherous cliffs between Bridport Harbour and Eype mouth ; these 
are known as the " West CliflF," but have also been described 
under the names of Fourfoot Hill and Watton Hill. The forma- 
tion (so far as exposed) consists of about 100 feet of pale bluish- 
grey marly clay, with many nodules and occasional bands of grey 
earthy limestone. Small concretions of carbonate of lime (" race ") 
are ako met with. About 9 feet from the top of the FuUonian 
formation, there is a prominent band of hard and fissile white 
marl (3 feet thick in places), and another impersistent band of the 
same rock occurs, a little higher up, in the bluish yellow marl 
thai here forms the uppermost portion of the strata. These beds 
are surmounted by the Forest Marble. (See p. 342.) At the 
western end of the clifife the " Fuller's Earth " is faulted against 
the Middle and Upper Lias, and at the eastern end, it is faulted 
against the Midfbrd Sand.* The latter fault cuts the cliff 
,obliq.uely, and the " Fuller's Earth " in proximity to it, consists 
ot grey marl with hard bands of earthy limestone and much 
fibrous carbonate of lime (" beef "), the beds being more or less 
disturbed. We are not here presented with the full thickness of the 
FuUonian formation, which may, as staled by Dr. Wright, attain 
a thickness of 150 feet. (See Fig. 99, p. 343.) 

Fossils are by no means numerous. Towards the upper part of 
the formation I obtained Ostrea acuminata, and, near the foot of 
the clay-cliffs, there were to be found a number of tender bivalves 
of the genera Lucina and Myosites. 

The lowest beds of the Fidlonian, consisting of grey marly clay, 
are exposed in the cliffs between the mouth of the Bride or 
Bredy,-and Burton Bradstook. There they rest evenly on the 
Inferior Oolite, and are faulted at one point with a downthrow of 
10 or 15 feet on the east; but the beds are not accessible, except 
in the tumbled masses that may occasionally be found on the 
foreshore. (See Fig. 32, p. 55.) 

East of Burton Bradstoak, at Cliff End, we again find the 
-u^^r beds-of t.he-FaU©Bia&,-everlaid by Forest Marble;- -Near the 

• See section by Buckland and De la Beche, Trans. Qfeol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. vf-., 
plate 2, and pp. 29 and 40 ; also Fig. 41, p. 52, in Memoir on the Lias of England 
and Wales. 


junction, but belonging to the Fulionian, specimens of Avicula 
costata ?, Nucula Menhei, Eulima, and Spinigera may be obtained. 

Many specimens, obtained from the " Fuller's Earth," have 
been recorded from the Forest Marble, and vice versa, for, as 
remarked by Lycett, fossils " were picked up from a bank on the 
sea shore."* Trigonia Moretoni, recorded from this locality, may 
belong to the Forest Marble. 

The following fossils were collected by Mr, J, Rhodes and 
myself at Burton Bradstock and Eype : — 

Lucina despeota var cardioides. 

Modiola gibbosa. 


Nuoula Menkei. 

Ostrea acuminata. 



Er3mia ? 





Area Pratti. 

Avicula costata ? 


OucullEea concinna ? 

Leda lachryma. 


Lucina despeota. 

Dr. Wright records in addition, Ceromya concentrica, Phola- 
domya lyrata (carinnta), and Waldheimia ornithocephala ; and the 
Eev. H. S. Solly and Mr. J. F. "Walker, have found Terebratula 
globata, Rhynchonella varians var. Smithi, R. spinosa var. power- 
stockensis, and Trigonia elongata var.f 

A few miles further east, the Fulionian Beds were again 
exposed by the coast-guard station on the borders of the West 
Fleet, south of Langton Herring, Attention was first directed to 
these beds by Robert Damon. { They form a bank about 30 feet 
high, made up chiefly of an elongated variety of Ostrea acuminata, 
with which O. Sowerbyi is also associated. Serpula ohliquestriata 
occurs also in the blue clay, which may be traced above and 
below this remarkable Oyster-bed. The general section here is as 
follows : — 

Ft. In. 

Sra1fofd^cS)}«'^^-^-^^-^«<l ■ ■ - -20 

TBands of pale earthy and flaggy limestone 
j and clay - - - - - 6 

Fulionian - < Clay, seen to depth of - - - 20 

I Osirea-bed - - - 25 to 30 


The Ostrea-heH again occurs in the low-cliff bordering the 
West Fleet on the opposite side of the little bay, south-west of 
Langton Herring. 

The " Fuller's Earth Rock " is not shown on the Dorsetshire 
coast, if we except some hard bands at or near the top of the 
Fuller's Earth clay at Eype : but these bands do not present the 
usual fossiliferous character of the Rock. The sections however 

* Supp. to MoUusca from the Great Oolite, p. 118. 

t Wright, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xii. p. 310 ; Solly and Walker, Proc. 
Dorset Nat. Hist. Club, vol. xi. p. 120. 
J Geology of Weymouth, 1860, p. 12. 

fullonian: bridpoet. 235 

are not continuous, so that while we have positive evidence of 
claj'ey beds above the Inferior Oolite and beneath the Forest 
Marble, we have no section to show the entire sequence. It is not 
right under these circumstances to deny the persistence of the 
TuUer's Earth Rock, although it is just possible it may have 
tapered away or have been overlapped by the Forest Marble. 
For some distance inland we find no distinct bed of Fuller's 
Earth Rock, for it has not been traced on the Geological Survey 
Map beyond a tract of ground between Soutli Perrot and 
Mosterton : thence over the greater part of the country to the 
south and south-east, towards Bridport, the Cretaceous rocks 
overlap the Forest Marble and rest directly on the FuUonian Beds. 
The "Fuller's Earth clay" was opened up in the railway- 
cutting near Smokeham, south of Powerstock station, and a 
number of fossils (now in the Dorchester Museum), were obtained 
from the beds : but the cutting is obscured. By Wicker Farm, 
nearer to Toller Porcorum, the beds have been exposed in the 
railway-cutting : here they consist of bluish-grey slightly calcareous 
clay, and this is burnt (with " slack " or small coal) for ballast, 
that is used on the railway. At an adjoining kiln, the clay is 
used for the manufacture of bricks and drain-pipes. The following 
fossils were collected by Mr. J. Rhodes and myself at this 
locality : — 

Tooth of Saurian. 
Belemnites parallelus. 
Avicula costata. 


Cardium^ ? 


Modiola Lonsdalei. 

Nncula variabilis. 
Ostrea acuminata. 

Sowerbyi ? 

Serpula tetragona. 
Ehynclionella varians. 
Waldheimia ornithocepliala. 

These beds most probably belong to the Lower Fuller's Earth 
clay, as the same group of fossils occurs in the lower beds that 
are exposed above the Inferior Oolite in the railway-cutting 
west of Orewkerne station. At that locality Avicula echinata and 
fragments of Pecten occur, in addition to a number of the species 
above noted. Sections are to be seen here and there in the 
brickyard west of Crewkerne station, and in that at High Cross 
Hill, between Haselbury and East Ohinnock. Here we have 
grey clay with a good many nodules of " race," due probably to 
the decay of fossils ; but Belemnites are preserved. (See Fig. 35, 
p. 69.) 

Sherborne to East Cranmore. 

Passing eastwards from Crewkerne, we come to the best 
development of the Fullonian series in this country. From 
Thornford near Sherborne to the neighbourhood of Bruton, the 
Lower and Upper, Fuller's Earth clays are separated by a mass 
of Fuller's Earth Rock, which forms a well-marked escarpment. 

The Lower Fuller's Earth clay with an occasional band of 
earthy limestone, may be seen resting on the Inferior Oolite, and 
faulted against it, in the railway-cutting east of Bradford Abbas. 


Therei it contains crushed specimens of Witldheimia omitktx-. 
cophala. (See Fig. 36, p. 77i) -The Lower beds were well exposed 
near Mew England, on the western slopes of- Stout Hill,. uortk»i. 
east of Milborne Port. Here nearly 50 feefr'of clay was to bej 
seen in a lane-cutting;- and the following .fossils were obtainedi- 
by Mr. J. Ehodes:and myself:— ., . 

Ostrea acuminata (abundant). 

■ giregaria. 

Pecten vagaas. 
Ehynchanella varians. 

Eelemnites parallelus . 
Avicula costata. 

' Miinsteri; 

Modiala Lousdalei. • 

Small specimens of Ostrea acuminata were also abundant in 
the clays beneath the Fuller's Earth Rock, west of the Cock 
Inn, Holton. The Fuller's Earth Rock in this, district consists of 
grey and buff earthy and sometimes shelly limestone, with bands 
of marly clay. Numerous quarries and lime-kilns occur along 
the outcrop, but the stone is now seldom burnt for lime, although 
employed for building walls and for mending some of the by- 

Shallow pits have been opened in the rock near Clifton Wood 
to the south and south-east of Stoford, also west of Thornford ; 
and the beds are exposed in the road-cutting at Dancing HUl, 
south of Sherboriie. They form a low ridge that extends through 
Sherborne Park, but the outcrop is displaced by faults in several 
places. Northwards from Henover Hill, by East'Hill, and Stout 
Hill, they form a fine escarpment. The best sections are those 
exposed in the railwny-cuttings north-east of Milborne Port 
station, and south-east of Shepton Montague. 

Tlie general appearance of the rock and its fossils is somewhat 
similar to that presented by many sections of the Great Oolite in 
the midland counties, where those beds consists of pale earthy 
limestones and marls with numerous Lamellibranchs. 

The following is the section of beds exposed in the Railway- 
cutting at Laycock, north-east of Milborne Port station : — 

Ft. Is. 
Grey and brown eartby limestones, rubbly 

on top, and very fossiliferous - 8 or 9 
Thicker beds of buflf earthy limestone, shelly 
in places : the shells weathering out on 
Fuller's Earth , joint surfaces - - - 9 or 10 

Eock. ^ Dark bluish-grey marls, with indurated 
bands of light bluish-grey earthy lime- 
stone. Casts of Myacites in natural 
position ; and Fholadomya, {not so abun- 
dant as at Thornford) - - about 15 

''■ZtS?} Clays, not well exposed. 

Further north, between Ciiarletpn Horethorne, and Stowel, 
and again west of the Cock Inn, Holton, the Fuller's Earth Rock 
has been quarried, and numerous fossils may be obtained. 

The cutting near Shepton Montague showed the following 
beds : — 


Fig.. 68. 


i:.. I' 

Section inRaihoaycutting, .outh-east of Shepton Montague. 


Fuller's Earth 


Ft. In. 
■3 Clay with thin bands of earthy limestone 

Ostrea, MyncUneUa, »«mm,^^and ^ ^ 

2 Hail™erey e'arthy limestone, irregularly 

^- beddfd Jnd much jointed: h hae-hearted 

in places. Ammonites suhcontractus, ana 

many other fossils - " " 

l.Bluemarlyclaywiththickhands of earthy ^^ ^ 

|_ limestone - - ■ " 

cSeton Horethorne (0.), and Shepton Montngue (S.) .- 

Ammonites suhcontractus 

. yiator - 

Belemnites parallelus 
Amberleya ? 
Chemnitzia - 
Auatina plicatella - 
_ — sp. 

Cardium oognatum - 
Ceromya plicata 
Corbis Lajoyei 
Grervillia acuta 
Goniomya literata - 
Gresslyaperegrina - 
Homomyp. gibbosa - 
Isocardia nitida 
Lima duplicata 

■ gibbosa 

peotiniformis - 

Modiola gibbosa - 
Myacites tenuistnatuB 
Nvioula - 

Ostrea subnigulosa - 
Peciien demissus 


Pholadomya deltoidea 
. oblita - 

ovalis - " ) 

Pinna - 

Placunopsis radians - 
Trigonia costata P 
— - (cast) - 


T. S. 

M. C. 

T. M. 



T. M. 

M. C. 






M. S. 





M. S. 


S. M. 

T. S. 


0. s. 

T. M. S. 


T. M. S. 























Unicardium . . - 

Khyiichonella obsoleta 

varians ... 

Terebratula globata - ' 


Waldheimia ornithocephala 
Corals ... 

Serpula tricarinata - 

A specimen of Ammonites viator, var., obtained from tlie Fuller's 
Earth at Godminster, south of Bruton, is now in the Museum at 
Jermyn Street. 

The Upper Fuller's Earth clay was well exposed in a brickyard 
north.east of Maperton, and south-east of the Cock Inn, Holton. 
About 25 feet of grey marly clay was exposed, the beds, where 
dry, being pale and hard, and much resembling those exposed in 
the cliff near Eype. Some small iridescent Ammonites were 
found in the clay, and among the debris on the slopes of the banks, 
I picked up a fine slab containing remains of Lepidotus. The 
latter specimen was probably derived from the Forest Marble, 
traces of which occur on top of the clay. 

A well at Ouddlesome to the east of Bratton, was sunk to a 
depth of 50 feet, through Upper Fuller's Earth Clay to the 
Fuller's Earth Rock. 

Lamyat Beacon, north-west of Bruton, is a conspicuous outlier 
of Fuller's Earth Clay and Rock ; Lima duplicata and Rhyncho- 
nella varians were found here. At Scale Hill south-east of 
Batcombe the thickness of the beds was thus estimated by De la 
Beche* : — 

Upper Fuller's Earth - . - - - 133 

Fuller's Earth Eock - - . . - 25 

Lower Fuller's Earth . . . - - 21 

179 feet. 

I was unable to verify this particular estimate, but the attenua- 
tion of the Lower Fuller's Earth clay is borne out l)y evidence 
obtained near Frome. 

South of West Oranmore, the Fuller's Earth Rock forms a 
gentle escarpment, not far above the Inferior Oolite, and higher 
up comes the Upper Fuller's Earth clay. The Rock has been 
exposed in the park at East Oranmore,, to the south of the Hall, 
and Pholadomya, Modiola, and other fossils have been obtained. 

Wanstrow itself is situated on Fuller's Earth clay, not Great 
Oolite as represented on the Geological Survey map. Grey marly 
clay is shown in the lane on the east side of the village. 

Frome to Bath. 

Approaching the Mendips we find the beds maintain their 
ordinary characters. East of Stoney-lane House^ south-west of 

" Mem. Geol. Survey, vol. i. p. 280. 

fullonian: fkome. 23 & 

Whatley, we find the Fuller's Earth Rock, yielding Goniomya, 
Pholadomya, Pinna, Rhynchonella varians, &c. ; and the same 
rock, consisting of pale grey earthy and shelly limestone, inter- 
Stratified with grey and brown " racy " clays, may be seen between 
Murdercombe and Egford Bridges, to the west of Frome. 

As befi)re mentioned, there does not appear to be any con- 
siderable thickness of clay between the Inferior Oolite and the 
I'lUler's Earth Rock in the neighbourhood of Frome. At the 
same time tiie Fuller's Earth Rock iiself may be developed at 
somewhat different horizons in the central portion of the series, 
and in this neighbourhood the stone-beds do not occur in so thick 
a form as at Shepton Montague and Sherborne. 

The beds near Frome were well exposed in a cutting on the 
eastern side of the stream at Egford Bridges. Here they com- 
prised about 10 feet of pale earthy and hard shelly limestones 
and mar], appearing in rubbly and irregular beds. Fossils were 
very abundant ; and from this section, and others exposed at 
the SeWage-works north of Frome, I obtained the following 
species : — 

Modiola gibbosa. 


Myacites tenuistriatus. 

Ostrea submgulosa. 
Pholadomya deltoidea (abun- 
, Trigonia (oast). 
Ehynchonella varians (abun- 
Terebratala globata (abundant). 


"Waldbeimia bullata. 

omitbooephala (abundant). 

Serpnla trioarinata. 

The following section was seen in a disused quarry, south-west 
of Bonnyleigh Hill, between Frome and Beckington : — 

Fuller's Earth/ Clay with bands of pale earthy lime-1 
Bock. L stone. Many fossils - - | 

T LI 11 ' fPale clay with "race," and with i' 12 to 16 feet. 

F Th ri \ iiodules and bands of pale earthy 

^^' L limestone - - - -J 

f Eubbly beds of oolite - - - | 

I Massive beds of pale oolite. (Many | 
Inferior Oolite«( Ammonites formerly obtained, when )■ about 12 feet. 
I stone was dug to build adjoining | 
L house) ... -J 

The total thickness of the Fullonian sei-ies at this locality 
cannot be much more than 35 feet, as the shelly oolitic limestones 
of the Forest Marble appear in the scarp above this quarry : 
whereas at the boring for coal at Buckland Denham, about 3 miles 
to the west, the formation must be upwatds of 100 feet thick. 
From this it seems possible that the Forest Marble overlaps some 
of the higher beds of Fuller's Earth, and such wonid tJso appear 
to be the case between Nunney and West Cranmore : but further 
evidence is needed on this point, (See Fig. 38, p. 91.) 

Anatina plicatella. 
Astarte rotunda. 
Cardium (cast). 
Oeromya plicata. 
Oypricardia bathonica (cast). 
Cyprina (cast). 

Goniomya literata. 
Gresslya peregrina. 
Isocardia minima. 


Lima duplicata. 


The Fullonian series is exposed in places along the railway 
between Frome and Radstook. Near the 118 and 119 milestones, 
grey marly clay with occasional bands of marly limestone were 
to be seen. Ostrea acuminata is abundant in the clay, and Rhyn- 
chonella varians in the stone. 

South of Green Parlour, Radstock, there was exposed a section 
of grey marly clay, with nodular beds of pale earthy limestone, 
yielding Waldheimia ornithocephala, Rhynchonella varians, Avicula 
costata, and Ostrea acuminata. There is a specimen of Ammonites 
viator, var., from the Fullonian Beds of Radstock, in the Museum 
of Practical Geology. The Lower Fuller's Earth appears to be 
very thin, but the Rock perhaps occurs at irregular horizons. It 
spreads over a flat area, and has been quarried immediately south 
of Green Parlour. 

The Fuller's Earth Rock has not been traced (on the Geological 
Sun^ey Map) Jiirther north than Stoney Littleton, in the main 
escarpment south of Bath. It has however been partially 
mapped in the Wellow outlier, but this tract of ground and that 
to the west of Combe Hay need revision. An examination of 
the ground near Upper and Lower Baggeridge, between Wellow 
and Norton St. Philip, shows that Fuller's Earth Rock occurs 
along the scarps in an attenuated condition. In the road-cutting 
leading from Wellow to Upper Baggeridge Farm, there may be 
seen (above the Inferior Oolite), grey clay with Ostrea acuminata 
and Rhynchonella varians, and this is overlaid by brown earthy 
and rubbly limestone with R. varians, Waldheimia ornithocephala. 
Isocardia, Modiola sowerbyana, Ostrea Sowerbyi, Pecten demissus, 
and Pinna. These beds may be traced around the hill to Hassage, 
and thence towards Norton St. Philip. 

Fuller's Earth Clay with occasional bands of earthy limestone, 
was well exposed in the railway-cuttings between Wellow and 
Midford. In this neighbourhood we first come to the beds that 
have been worked for economic purposes: and the fuller's earth of 
commerce has been obtained at various points in the outliers of 
Wellow, South Stoke, and Combe Monkton. It has been worked 
at Wellow, Combe Hay, near Dunkerton, Duncorn Hill, near 
English Combe, South Stoke, Odd Down, Midford, Combe 
Monkton, Lyncombe, and Widcombe. 

The total thickness of the Fullonian series in this neighbour- 
hood was estimated at from 135 to 150 feet by Lonsdale.* 

The lower beds were well exposed in the cutting south of 
Midford railway- station, as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
'&rey marly clays with Ostrea acuminata, 
Rhynehonella varians, and Terebratula 
„ 11 > Bands of pale earthy limestone -with 
^^"1!^^! '■'J Lamellibranchs. 

Jiartu Uiay. -^ Qlays with Modiola, Myaeites tenuistriatiis, 
I Pholadomya (abundant), Terebratula 
j glohata - • - - - 3 

(^Earthy limestones (in places). 
Inferior Oolite. Indurated buflf oolite. 

* Trans. Geol. Soc ser 2, vol. iii. p. 250. 



Near Severcomb Farm the lower beds, with Waldhdmia 
ornithocephala, were to be seen resting on a bored surface of the 
Inferior Oolite. (See p. 97.) 

The Fuller's Earth Rock makes no conspicuous feature in this 
neighbourhood. It consists of marls and clays with irregular 
bands and nodular masses of pale grey earthy limestone, about 
5 feet in thickness, having much the same character as the beds 
in Dorsetshire, and being likewise very fossiliferous. It has been 
exposed to the south-east of Highbarrow HUl (H.) ; in the road 
leading from Combe Monkton to the Paper Mill on the west ; 
also above Perrymead, in the lane from Widcombe (W.) to Oombe 
Down ; and at Bath (B.), above the Eoyal Villas, west of 
Wesley College. Fi-om these beds I have obtained the following 
fossils : — 

Ammonites arbustigerus 




Cypricardia battonica 



—. caudata 




Gresslya peregrina 









Myacites securiformis 




Ostrea subrngulosa 


Panopsea ? 


Peoten vagans 


Pholadomya Heraulti 




Rhynchonella conoinna 







Terebratula globata 



Waldheimia lagenalis 





Serpula tricarinata 


Holectypus hemisphsricus ? 


The Fuller's Earth at Wellow presents the same characters as 
the beds worked at Midford. At Combe Hay a shaft was sunk 
to a depth of 30 feet. The opening of the tunnel showed yellow 
fuller's earth 3 feet or more, that passes underground into blue 
earth, 4 or 5 feet. The earth is micaceous in places. The beds 
on top comprised yellow and grey marly clay, with Ostrea 
acuminata, Ceromya, &c. 

The connection of the beds with the Great Oolite, is shown by 
the following section at " Combe Grove Pit," which was recorded 
by William Smith* : — 

Great Oolite 
(see p. '266). 

r Bastard freestone 
< Shelly limestone 
L Sand and burs 

Pt. Is. 

- 10 3 

- 7 

- 6 

* Memoirs of W. Smith, p. 60. 

B 75928. 



Ft. In- 

f Dark marl 


- 1 


Bastard fuller's earth 


. 6 

Dull black earth] and selenite - 

. 2 

er's Bartli J 
Beds. 1 

Light blue earth] 

- 1 


Fuller's' earth 

- 5 

Hard grey atone - 

- 2 

Tender stuff 

. 1 


Black marl 

- 4 



The economic fuller's earth of the neighbourhood of Bath, is 
a bluish- or greenish-grey clay, that weathers to a brown or 
yellowish-brown colour. It is slightly calcareous and ferruginous, 
and contains small quantities of magnesia, soda, and potash. It 
is a soft dull earthy clay, having however a shining streak, and 
being somewhat greasy to the touch. Although apparently of 
an unctuous character, the clay possesses no plasticity, as when 
placed in water it forms no paste, but subsides as a pulpy impalp- 
able powder. The analyses of the earth kindly made by Mr. J. 
Hort Player (see p. 490) afford no clue to its fulling proper- 
ties, and these are therefore probably due to peculiar physical 

The section of the beds at the Midford Fuller's Earth pits, 
between Midford Castle and the Cross Keys Inn, is as follows : — 

Fig. 69. 
Section at Midford near Bath. 

Great Oolite. 

Ft. In. 



Fuller's Earth 


/ -„-=--- - 

"6. Soft marl and brown clay 6 
5. Dark bluish-grey clay - 4 
4. Brown marly clay with 
indurated bands of 
earthy marl, and ' ' beef " 
(fibrous carbonata of 
lime). Some lignite and 
many fossUs 
3. Bastard fuller's earth: 

blue and yellow - 
2. Soft marly stone - 
1. Yellow fuller's earth, 
with occasional indu- 
rated bands and small 
hard nodules of earthy 
limestone. This earth 
passes laterally into the 
Blue earth further in 
the hill - ■ .SO 

6 6 

1 6 


I obtained the following fossils from the clay above tlie 
economic fuller's earth : — 

Belemnites aripistillum. 


Myacites jurassi P 

Ostrea subrugulosa P 
Pecten demisaus. 


Placuuopsis sooialis. 
Rhynchonella variana. 
Waldheimia ornithocephala. 

Fuller's Earth < 













A number of Ostracoda and some Forarainifera have been 
obtained from the economic bed of fuller's earth, by ProP. T, R. 
Jones and Mr. C. D. Sherborn.* 

A Pit at Odd Down showed the following section, which was 
recorded by H. W. Bristow : — 

Great Oolite - Limestone . . - . 

"Yellow marl, very soft ... 
Blue clay - . - . . 

Eubbly rock, blue in the inaide, with 
yellow coating ... 

Bastard fuller's earth, blue 
Bubbly rock as before . 
Blue fuller's earth, variable 
Eubbly rock as before. 

A well at Beckford's Tower, on Lansdown, noted by Bristow,. 
proved the following strata : — 

Ft. In. 

Great Oolite - - - - - - 30 

FuUer's Earth. Light.grey clay with occasional layers 

of thin stone - - - . - - 70 

Sand [? Inferior Oolite]. 

Bath and the Cotteswold Hills to Chipping Norton. 

At the Box tunnel the thickness of the FuUonian formation 
has been estimated to be 148 feet,t but as the wells at Bath do not 
prove more than 70 feet of the beds, I think that thickness must 
have been overestimated. 

Highbarrow Hill and Kelston Eound Hill near Bath, are 
capped by tiny outliers of Great Oolite, resting on Fuller's 
Earth clay with Rhynchonella varians, &c. 

In a lane east of Slaughterford, north-west of Corsham, the 
thickness of the beds was estimated at 65 feet by Prof. Hull — and 
there the marls and clays contained a central division, about 10 
feet thick, of Fuller's Earth Eock.J The Rock has not been 
recognized further north, although occasional layers of earthy and 
shelly limestone or calcareous sandstone, are met with in the blue 
and yellow shales and marly clays that represent the Ftillonian 

Northwards along the Cotteswold Hills, the exposures are few 
and far between, for the beds are not worked for economic 

• See Geol. Mag., 1886, p. 272, and Proc. Bath Nat. Hist. Club, toI. vi. p. 249. 

t Lycett, Cotteswold Hills, p. 85. 

j Geol. parts of Wilts and Glouceitershire, p. 12. 

Q 2 

(Fuller's Earth). 



purposes otber than " marling," and rarely on this account. Traces 
of clay and earthy limestone were exposed in the valley of the 
Broad mead Brook, north of Marshfield ; and clays were exposed 
here and there to the south-east of Horton. The presence of the 
formation is indicated by springs and marshy ground. 

A number of fossils have been collected from the formation 
near Cubberley, a few miles south of Cheltenham ;* but as a rule 
not many fossils have been obtained from the formation in 
Gloucestershire. Near Stroud and Minchinhampton, Ostrea 
acuminata occurs in the clays and bands of earthy limestone. 
The beds were proved in the Sapperton railway-tunnel, and the 
thickness was estimated at 70 feet. Here Ostrea suhrugulosa, 
Homomya Yezelayi, Myacites calceiformis, Ceromya plicata, 
Avicula echinata, Pecten vagans, Sphcsra Madridi, Area lata, and 
Rhynchonella concinna have been obtained, f 

The following section was made by E, Witchell from a trial- 
shaft sunk on Stroud Hill : — < 

Ft. In. 

Bands of sandstone alternating ■with, clay, 
and beds formed of the valves of Ostrea 
acuminata - - • - - 15 

Yellowish-brown marl and shale, with 
several thin bands composed of 0. 
acuminata ; passing downwards into blue 
and buff laminated rshale - - - 30 

Blue marly clay and shale, the lower portion 
partly consolidated, and, when dry from 
exposure, having a conohoidal fracture - 25 
Inferior Oolite. 

In the shaly beds, Witchell obtained specimens of Lima duplicata, 
Posidonomya opalina, Trigonia Witchelli, T. imhricata, and 
remains of Crustacea belonging to the genus Magita ; as well as 
numerous specimens of Glyphea pseudoscyllarus. From the 
upper beds he procured, in addition to Pecten vagans, Placunopsis 
socialis, and Ammonites gracilis, forms that characterize the 
Stonesfield Slate of the neighbourhood : but (as he remarks) the 
upper beds pass into the Stonesfield Slate. J 

Witchell also noted the presence of Fuller's Earth at White 
Hill, near Stroud. It occurred as an isolated mass, in a depres- 
sion of the Inferior Oolite; and a well had been sunk in it to 
the depth of 35 feet. The clay must originally have sunk or 
slipped from higher ground into a fissure, in the Inferior Oolite, 
of considerable width and depth. 

With regard to the Fuller's Earth near Minchinhampton, 
Lycett observed that its thickness varies from 60 to 80 feet. 
Northwards in the parish of Bisley, " it rapidly thins out, and 
at Througham and Lypiatt, where the Stonesfield Slate in 
mass begins to occupy its position, the thickness is reduced 
to about 9 or 10 feet. It consists of stratified blue and 

* Hull Geol. Cheltenham, p. 52. 

t Lycett, Cotteswold Hills, p. 89. 

j Geology of Stroud, p. 69 ; Proc. Cottesw. Club, vol. yi. p. 144, vol. vii. p. 117. 


brown marls and clays, traversed by three or four bands of hard 
brown argillaceous rock called ' clay-rag.' The uppermost of 
these is a lamellar argillaceous slate having all the characters of 
the Stonesfield Slate, and judging from the number of places 
where it occurs, would appear to be continuous over the whole 
district."* At Miserden the thickness of the beds was estimated 
at 30 feet by Witchell. 

The FuUonian formation was exposed south of Bagendon 
Church, where it consists of stiff grey clay with much "race," and 
bands of hard earthy and shelly limestone, yielding Pholadomya. 

In a cutting of the railway south of Chedworth, the junction 
with the Great Oolite was well exppsedj and the following beds 
were seen (see Fig. 42, p. 128) : — 

Tt. In. 

{Enbble of white oolite and marl. 
Fine hard false-bedded oolite (= Taynton 
Stone) - - - - 4 Oto 6 

fBlue and brown clay and marl with sandy 
Stonesfield | layers and Ostrea - - -40 to 60 

Slate and <; Impersistent bands of hard partially oolitic ] 
Fuller's Earth, j sandy limestone, fissile and false-bedded. \-4 
i_Clay and impure fuller's earth - - J 

Here we find the blending of the Fuller's Earth and Stonesfield 
Slate, of which we have evidence from the neighbourhood of 
Lansdown near Bath, onwards to Stonesfi.eld and Chipping Norton 
in Oxfordshire. 

Through Chedworth village, a long cutting was made in blue 
Fuller's Earth clay with beds of Impure fuller's earth. On the 
south side of the tunnel the junction with the Great Oolite was 
again exposed, though not very clearly at the time of my visit, 
owing to slips. Beneath flaggy beds of oolite, and layers of hard 
concretionary and flaggy sandy limestone (Stonesfield Slate), 
there occurred about 4 feet of clay with Ostrea acuminata, a hard 
band of white marl, and a considerable thickness of blue clay 
beneath. The entire thickness of the Fuller's Earth was shown 
further on, in a cutting west of the Barrow near the Koman Villa 
at Chedworth. For the most part it consists of blue and grey clay 
with '"' race," and occasional bands of earthy limestone towards 
the, base; and near its junction with the Inferior Oolite it yielded 
Ostrea acuminata, Avicula echinata, Homomya, and Pholadomya, 
The thickness was about 50 feet. 

In the railway-cuttings between Andoversford and Bourton-oh- 
the- Water, fine sections of the Great Oolite and the passage 
through the Stonesfield Slate into the Fuller's Earth, have beeh 
exposed. The cutting north of Hampen showed the following 
section (see Fig. 43, p. 131) : — 

* Quait. Joum. Geol. Sec, vol. iv. p. 187 ; see also Lonsdale, Proc. Gool. Spc, 
Tol. i. p. 414; Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, p. 51 ; and Brodie and Buckman, Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Sec, vol. i. p. 222. 


Ft. Is. 
Great Oolite - False-bedded oolite {= Taynton Stone) about 30 
f Tellowisb. marl (a few passing into 
brown and blue shaly beds, witli concre- 
tionary layers of micaceous and sandy 
limestone — irregular andimpersistent, and 
associated with buff and grey sands. These 
beds are very changeable in character. 
Stonesfield The concretionary beds exhibit " pot-lid " 

Slate and <{ fsatures, they are slightly oolitic in struc- 
FuUer's Earth ture, and pass into slaty beds (Stonesfield 

Series. Slate) in the cutting N. W. of Salperton - 10 

Bluish-marly shales with micaceous gritty 

layers, slaty at base - - - 9 

Shalybeds - - - - - 2 

Blue, obscurely oolitic and shelly limestone 4 

Bluish-grey marly shales, with bands of 

hard pale marl and impure fuller's earth, 

shown to depth of - - - - 10 

The total thickness of the FuUonian Beds is from 25 to 30 
feel, and this was shown in the second cutting east of JSotgrove 
Station. Here the mass of the formation consists of grey clay 
with "race," and yields Ostrea acuminata. Towards the upper 
part there was a layer of fissile calcareous sandstone, exhibiting 
sun-cracks and trails of animals. The clay rested on a thin band 
of earthy iron-stained limestone, below which was the coarse 
oolite of the Olypeus Grit. 

Further eastward, in a cutting south-east of Roundhill Farm, 
a complete section of the FuUonian Beds is again shown, and 
there the Olypeus Grit is separated from the " Fuller's Earth " by 
about 8 feet of brown obscurely oolitic and rather sandy limestone, 
yielding Ostrea acuminata, Homomya, and Trigonia. The clays 
here are about 25 feet thick, and contain thin bands of fissile 
brown sandy and shelly limestone and white marl. It has been 
suggested that the beds of sandy limestone that overlie the 
Olypeus Grit, may correspond in age with the Chipping Norton 
Limestone. (See p. 133.) 

On the Geological Survey Map the Fuller's Earth has not 
been traced further than Little Barrington to the west of Bur- 
ford, in which neighbourhood it was considered to thin out by 
Lonsdale.* (See p. 510.) 

Near Chipping Norton there has been much difficulty in corre- 
lating the beds. The observations o£ Mr. Hudleston, Mr. T. 
Beesley, and Mr. E. A. Walford, have it is true, smoothed the 
path for all subsequent inquirers, while the cuttings on the 
Chipping Norton and Banbury railway have afforded a capital 
view of the beds. Speaking with a little more confidence than 
they have done, I recognize the following strata : — 

n i /-v Tj. r White Limestones, &o. 
Great Oolite gtonesfleld Slate Series. 

Series. L FuUonian Beds. (See p. 381.) 

Chipping Norton Limestone. 

• Proc. Geol. Soc, toI. i. p. 414. 


The Chipping Norton Limestone has proved a source of much 
perplexity, because it overlies the Clypeus Grit, which has usually- 
been regarded as the uppermost division of the Inferior Oolite of 
the Cotteswolds. It has yielded few fossils, and some of these 
tave Bathonian affinities.* On the whole we cannot separate 
this Limestone on stratigraphical grounds from the Inferior 
Oolite ; but it may be regarded as a passage-bed between that 
formation and the FuUonian. (See Fig. 92, p. 329.) 

It seems hardly necessary in this northern area to separate 
the Fuller's Earth clay from the Stonesfield Slate; and both 
become incorporated with the Upper Estuarine Series, as we 
proceed from the neighbourhood of Chipping Norton eastwards 
and north-eastwards into Buckinghamshire and Northamptonshire 
In fact, in the sections previously described (pp.156, 159) at 
Sharpe's Hill and Swerford, we may note the incoming of beds 
that approximate in character to the Upper Estuarine Series. 

As the Upper Estuarine Series constitutes a stratigraphical 
division that may include the Upper Fullonian, the Stonesfield 
Slate, and the lower part of the Great Oolite, it will be more 
convenient to describe the beds with the several subdivisions of 
the Great Oolite that occur in the midland counties and Lincoln- 

' S^e E. A. Walford, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, toI. xxxix. p. 237. 




Great Oolite and Stokesfield Slate. 

General Account of the Strata. 

Eeference has previously been made to the introduction of 
the term Great Oolite (p. 228). It is used by the Geological 
Survey to include the beds which in Wiltshire, Somersetsbire,- 
Gloucestershire, and Oxfordshire, occur between the Fuller's 
Earth and Forest Marble. The formation thus consists of a 
variable set of oolitic freestones, hard shelly limestones (rag), 
and earthy and compact white limestones and marls ; together 
with occasional layers of calcareous sandstone, and the fissile 
sandy and oolitic limestones that constitute the so-called " Stones- 
field Slate." Locally the following subdivisions may be 
made : — 

f wj-g fFalse- bedded oolites -„ Kemble Beds. 

Ip^P Pale earthy white litaestones,,"1 . 
Upper Division. -^ ^ °o < sometimes oolitic, or with I White 

I ft tS 1 scattered oolitic grains ; C Limestone. 
Lta o L ^^d marls - - - J 


False-bedded oolite — the main \ Bath 

building-stone - - - J Freestone. 

Lower Ragstones ; and fissile cal- 1 gto^esfield 
I careous sandstone and oolitic > ai t- 

[_ limestone ; and clays • . j 

It will be found that these divisions are by no means persistent, 
that the upper beds are in places partially overlapped by the 
Forest Marble, and the lower beds by higher stages of the Great 
Oolite. Pebbly ooiite-beds, indicating local erosion, are occa- 
sionally met with. The thickness of the series ranges from 100 
to 130 feet. 

Lonsdale noted the chief changes undergone by the Great 
Oolite when traced north of Bath, and first pointed out the 
stratigraphical position of the Stonesfield Slate, which had pre- 
viously been grouped with the Forest Marble and thus supposed 
to overlie the Great Oolite. The correct view was originally 
suggested to him by Greenough.* Messrs. Brodie and Buckman, 
from a study of the Stonesfield Slate of the Cotteswold District, 
concluded, in 1844, that " it is part of the Great Oolite, or at least 
not suflSciently distinguishable from it, to entitle it to rank as an 
independent formation."t This view is true enough from a 
stratigraphical point of view ; while regarded from an economic 

* Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. i. p. 415. 

f Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. i. p. 224. 

Lower Division. < 


and also from a palaeontological point of view, the Stonesfield 
Slate is of great importance. 

The Stonesfield Slate is hut locally developed, and appears to 
be intimately connected with the Fuller's Earth below and to 
merge upwards into the Great Oolite above. Thus it occupies a 
position analogous to that of the Oollyweston Slate, which links 
together the Lower Estuarine Series and the Lincolnshire Lime- 
stone. Traced to the north-west beyond Stonesfield and Chipping 
Norton, both Fuller's Earth and Stonesfield Slate are represented 
by the Upper Estuarine Series. 

In 1857 Prof. Hull divided the Great Oolite of Gloucestershire 
and Oxfordshire as follows* : — 

Ti -npv 7o / Marls and white limestones, usnally devoid of oolitic 

pp ne. -j^ structure, and eveply bedded. 

T 17 r False-bedded oolitic freestone, shelly limestones, 

Liower z,one. <^ ^^^^^^ ^^g. ^^^^^ ^^^^ (Stonesfield Slate). 

In the Lower Zone Prof. Hull placed the building-stones of 
Minchinhampton, Taynton, &c., regarding them as on the same 
geological horizon as the Stonesfield Slate of Sevenhampton, 
Eyeford, &c. In the Lower Zone, also, were included portions 
of the Northampton Sand. (See p. 146.) 

The lower beds evidently represent the shallower-water con- 
ditions. In the Upper Zone the fossils, though seldom fragmentary, 
occur often in casts, and appear to have been buried where they 
lived. The stratigraphical evidence has shown that the true 
Northampton Sand can be separated from the Great Oolite 
Series with which at one time it was confounded ; and the Stones- 
field Slate, wherever it is developed, occurs at the base of the 
main freestones. 

None of the subdivisions of the Great Oolite can be regarded 
as very constant : although broadly speaking we can recognize a 
lower division of sandy and oolitic flags and current-bedded 
oolite, and an upper division of soft earthy limestones and marls, 
over great part of the area. To the north-east of Oxfordshire 
other stratigraphical subdivisions become necessary. 

The freestones of Bradford-on-rAvon, Bath, Corsham, Minchin- 
hampton, and Taynton degenerate, further north and are not 
distinguishable; and from the neighbourhood of Buckingham 
through Northamptonshire and Lincolnshire, the white limestones 
and associated marls (belonging to the Upper Division of the 
Great Oolite) form the chief portion of the formation to which 
the term of Great Oolite Limestone is applied. This division 
rests on the Upper Estuarine Series, and is overlaid by the Great 
Oolite Clay, with only occasional beds that present the characters 
of Forest Marble. 

In the neighbourhood of Minchinhampton and for some distance 
northwards, it becomes a matter of diflSculty to separate the 
Great Oolite and Forest Marble, for in this area there is a con- 
siderable development of false-bedded oolites above the white 

* Geol. Cheltenham, p. 53. See also Geol. Parts of Wilts and Glouceiitershire, 
p. 12 ; Quart. Jonrn. Geol. Soc, vol. xvi. p. 72. 


limestones of the Great Oolite. These oolites are overlaid in 
places by the Bradford Clay, but on account of its inconstant 
character it is difficult to fix a definite plane of separation. These 
upper oolities will for convenience be referred to as the Kemblb 
Beds, as they are vyell shown neair Kemble Station, the junction 
for Cirencester and Tetbuiy on the Great Western Eailway. 
North-east of Cirencester they appear to be overlapped by the 
Forest Marble. 

These difficulties in defining horizons are natural enough, and 
it is only needful to bear in mind that the subdivisions are made 
, for local convenience. 

Organic Remains. 

Including the Stonesfield Slate, the Great Oolite has yielded a 
rich and varied fauna and fiora. Especially noteworthy are the 
Mammalian and Oruithosaurian remains of the Stonesfield Slate; 
but as a list of fossils from that deposit will be given further on, 
it will be sufficient here to notice the more generally distributed 
fossils of the Great Oolite. 

Among Sauriana, the remains of Cetiosaurus, Megalosaurus, 
Steneosaurus, and Teleosaurus, are more commonly met with ; 
and of Fishes, those of Mesodon (^Pycnodus), and Strophodus. 

Of Cephalopoda, Belemnites are very rare, and Ammonites are 
only occasionally found ; the species A. subcontractus occurs also 
in the Fuller's Earth Kock. Other forms of MoUusca are abun- 
dant, together with Brachiopods, Polyzoa, Echinoderms, Corals, 
&c. The Corals are frequently calcitic, and they occur at various 
horizons, more especially in the upper beds.* 

Excepting in the Stonesfield Slate, the Lower Division contains 
few, if any, distinctive fossils. The false-bedded oolites naturally do 
not preserve many species, though layers made up of comminuted 
shells of Ostrea, fee, and fragments of Echini and Crinoids occur. 
There are layers, however, which yield Gasteropods, and they 
may be obtained on the weathered surfaces of the stone. Even 
at the celebrated quarries of Minchinhampton, few fossils are to 
be obtained during a casual visit ; those which were procured by 
Dr. Lycett, representing the labours of many years. Again at 
Ashford Bridge near Stonesfield, certain fossiliferous beds have 
been assigned to the " lower zone " of the Great Oolite ; but 
there seems no great reason for separatipg them from the " upper 

In the Upper Division, there occur rich fossil-beds, sometimes 
made up of line examples of Terebratula maxillata, or Ostrea 
Sowerbyi, and containing in abundance Lima cardiiformis, Phola- 
domya Heraulti, Pecten vagans, Rhynchonella concinna, and 
Corals. Some of the rag-beds are largely made up of Polyzoa 
'and minute Gasteropods. 

* See Tomes, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xli. p. 170. 



Fig. 72. 

Great Oolite Fossils. 
Fig. VO. Fig. 71. 

Fig. 73. 

Fig. 77. 

Fig. 79. 

Pig. 70. Natica huUiana, Lye, Nat. 

„, 71. Nerita costulata, Beth., 

Small fig., Nat. size. 
„ 72.' Nerinaea voltzi,i?esZ., Nat, 

^ „ 73. Purpuroidea Moriisea, 

Buv. i. 
„ 74. Cyprioardia rostrata, Sow., 

Nat. size. 

Fig. 75. Lima cardiiformis, Sow., 

Nat. size. 
„ 76. Maorodon hirsonensis. 

d'Areh. f . 
„ 77. Ehynchonella oonoinna, 

Sow. IJ. 
„ 78. Terebratula maxillata, 

Sow. |. 
„ 79. Acrosalenia hemicidaroides, 

Wright., Nat. size. 



The following list is intended to show the more abundant and 
characteristic fossils of the Great Oolite, many of the species 
occurring throughout the formation : — 

Ammonites arbustigerus 
(Fig. 63). 

subcontractus (Fig. 

Nautilus Baberi. 


Alaria armata. 


Ceritella acuta. 
Cerithium quadricinctum. 
Cylindrites acutus. 
Exelissa pulchra. 
Natica hulliana (Fig. 70). 


" Micbelini. 

Nerinsea Eudesi. 



Nerita costulata (Fig. 71). 


Patella cingulata. 


Pseudomelania Lonsdalei. 
Purpurina elaborata. 
Purpuroidea Monisea (Fig. 

Area aemula. 


Astarte angulata. 


Avicula costata. 
Cardium Stricklandi. 
Ceromya conoentrica. 


Oorbula involuta. 
Cypricardia bathonica. 

rostrata (Fig. 74). 

Oyprina loweana. 
Gervillia acuta. 
— — : bfithonica. 

— Waltoni. 

Homomya Vezelayi, 
Isocardia minima. 

Lima cardiiformis (Fig. 75). 

• • duplicata. 


Lucina bellona. 

Macrodon hirsonensis (Fig. 

Modiola imbricata. 


Ostrea acuminata (Fig. 65). 


Sowerbyi (Fig. 95). 

Pachyrisma grande. 
Pecten lens (Fig. 123). 

vagans (Fig. 122). 

Pholadomya Heraulti. 


Placunopsis socialis. 
Pteroperna costatula. 
Tancredia bievis. 
Thracia curtansata. 
Trigonia Moretoni. 


Unicardium impressum. 


Ehynchonella concinna (Fig. 



Terebratula maxillata (Fig. 

Acrosalenia hemicidaroides 

(Fig. 79). 



Olypeus Miilleri. 
Echinobrissus Griesbachi. 


Anabacia complanata.* 
Calamophyllia radiata. 
Convexastrsea Waltoni. 
Isastrcea limitata. 
Latimseandra lotharinga. 
Thamnastraea Lyelli. 

Crustacea are rare. The Isopod, Cyclosplimroma, from the 
Great Oolite of Northampton, was identified by Dr. H. Wood- 

* Known to old writers as the " Button Stone,'' or " Shirt Bntton Madreporite " 
(Forpites of Plot). 


ward;* and some Ostracoda have been found. Foraminifera also 
occur. The fossils on the Stonesfield Slate are noted on pp. 296, 

In some respects the fauna of the Inferior Oolite is repeated in 
the Great Oolite, excepting in a marked degree the Cephalopods. 
Terehratula maxillata (often termed submaxillata), so abundant 
in the Oolite Marl of Stroud, is one of the prevalent fossils 
of the Great Oolite : so also Rhynchonella concinna occurs in 
both Great and Inferior Oolite. Of the Lamellibranchs common 
to the two formations, there are similar species of Area, Astarte, 
Cardium, Ceromya, Corbula, Cypricardia, Gervillia, Hinnites, 
lAma, Lucina, Modiola, Myacites, Nucula, Ostrea, Pecten, Phola- 
ddrrtya, Trigonia, Unicardium, &c. 

Mr. Hudleston has remarked that the Gasteropod fauna of the 
Great Oolite at Minchinhampton, has far more resemblance to 
that of the Inferior Oolite which underlies it, than it has to the 
Gasteropod fauna of the Inferior Oolite in the Dorset district.f 
This may perhaps be accounted for by the thinness of the Fuller's 
Earth in this region — an attenuation which may imply a shorter 
duration of clayey conditions (see p. 151), so as to bring nearer 
together the conditions attending the Inferior and Great Oolites. 
Lithologically some beds of white oolite in the Inferior Oolite 
near Minchinhampton are precisely like beds in the Great Oolite 
at the same locality. 

Again the shelly beds belonging to the Lincolnshire Limestone 
at Great Ponton and other places, have yielded a number of 
species that are found also in the Great Oolite. The following 
Gasteropods are common to the two formations : — ^ 
Actaeon Sedgvioi. 

Bonrgnetia elegana. 
Cerithinm quadxioinctum. 
Cylindrites turricnlatns. 
Dmarginala scalaris. 
Exelissa pnlohra. 
Monodonta Lyelli. 
Katica huUiaUa. 
Nerinsea Eudesi. 
Nerita costulata. 

Patella rugosa. 
Pseudomelania Loasdalei. 
Piirpurina elaborata. 
Eimula Bloti. 



Trooliotoma extensa. 
Troclms Ibbetsoni. 


The fossils of the Great Oolite and Stonesfield Slate do not 
lend themselves to particular zonal grouping. Strictly speaking 
the whole of the Great Oolite Series from the Fuller's Earth or 
FuUonian to tlie Forest Marble and Great Oolite Clay, belong to 
one zone. We have no constant horizons of Ammonites or 
Belemnites, nor could we expect them in. the false-bedded oolites 
that were no doubt rapidly accumulated. 

Terehratula maxillata is not sufficiently restricted in its vertical 
range to be of service ; and in reference to Corals, Mr. Tomes 

* Geol. Mag., ) 890, p. 529. 

t Gasteropoda of Inf. Ool., p. 70. See also Lycett, Quart. Jourii. Geol. Soc, 
vol. iv. p. 181 ; Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. i. p. 62 ; and Brodie, Quart. Journ.iJeol. 
Soc, vol. vi. p. 245. 


has remarked " that no satisfactory divisian of the Great Oolite 
could be made by means of the coral-fauna."* 

Oppel took the Bradford Clay with the Great Oolite, and 
grouped them as the zone of " Terehratula digona " : while he 
placed the Forest Marble and Oornbrash in the zone of " Terehratula 
lagenalis"\ We cannot, however, separate Bradford Clay from 
Forest Marble, 

Ammonites ariustigerus has been taken on the continent to 
indicate the horizon of the Great Oolite. It belongs to a group 
that includes A. subcontr actus, A. bullatus, and A. viator. The 
A. suhhakericB, of d'Orbigny, which occurs in the Bathonian of 
the Bas Boulonnais, may also (if it be not identical with one of 
the above-named forms) be considered to belong to the group. 
A. arbustigerus has been recorded from the Fuller's Earth of 
Somerset and from the Great Oolite of Minchinhampton. It 
occurs also in Normandy. We may therefore class the beds 
from the Fuller's Earth or Fullonian to the Forest Marble as the 
zone of Ammonites arbustigerus. 

Local Details. 

Bradford-on-Avon to Bath. 
Relations of Great Oolite to Fuller's Earth and Forest Marble. 

One of the problems in Jurassic geology is the disappearanca 
of the Great Oolite south of Bath.f It forms the dominant 
features around the city, and stretches northwards and westwards 
to Minchinhampton, Cirencester, and Stonesfield. It is exten- 
sively mined at Box and at Bradford-on-Avon; but it tapers 
away between Wellow and Norton St. Philip, at a distance of 
about 6 miles south of Bath. 

So few geologists have expressed any views on the subject that 
what has been said may be readily quoted. 

The Rev. W.D. Cony beare remarked in 1822, that "The whole 
mass of this oolitic system in Dorsetshire (excepting the inferior 
oolite and its sand) presents the fissile character of the forest 
marble ; but it seems more probable that the great oolite here 
passes into this structure (as it undoubtedly does occasionally in 
other places), than that the forest marble, generally a subordinate 
bed only, should here swell to such a disproportionate thickness, 
and the great oolite itself be wanting."§ 

Lonsdale seven years later, in his excellent account of the 
Oolitic District of Bath, after referring very briefly to the dying 
out of the Great Oolite, remarks " It might, however, be con- 
ctived, that the termination is only a lithological change, and 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxix. p. 174. 
+ Jurafoimation, p. 443. 

X H. B. W., Geol. Mag., 1888, p. 467 ; and Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1888. p. 651. 
See also Fioc. Geol. Assoc., vol. ziii., p. 133, and Fig. 1. 
§ Outlines of the Geol. Eng. and Wales, p. 205. 


that here, as elsewhere, the great oolite merely assumes the 
characters of the forest marble."* 

Subsequent writers have, as a rule, simply repeated these 
opinions, and it is only necessary to mention that in 1876, I 
ventured to say that " In the district south of Frome the Great 
Oolite thins away entirely, and is represented partly by the 
Forest Marble, and perhaps also by the Fuller's Earth."t 

It might have been expected that the oiEcers of the Geological 
Survey would long ago have settled the matter ; but while the 
Oolitic area in question was surveyed geologically by John 
Phillips and H. W. Bristow, and tlie map shows the superficial 
distribution of the strata, yet tlie memoirs furnish but little help 
towards a solution of the problem. This, however, is not 
surprising when we come to examine the debatable ground. 
For, unfortunately, where the dying away of the Great Oolite 
takes place, there is a singular absence of sections ; an absence 
no doubt due to the fact that there is little or no building-stone 
to be had, and that the clays would be too marly for brick- 
making. Moreover, Lonsdale's paper is such a model of careful 
and accurate work, that we may be sure he would have recorded 
any sections, open in his time, that threw a light upon the 

Fig, 80. 

Diagram-section to show the attenuation of the Great Oolite, near 
Bradford-on-Avon, (Distance about 6 miles.) 

North. South. 

Box Bradford-on- 

Biook. Kings Down. Avon. Wingfield. 

10. Oxford Clay. 4. Fuller's Earth Clay, with Fuller's Earth 
9. Kellaways Beds. Bock. 

8. Combrash. 3. Inferior Oolite. 

7. Forest Marble. 2. Midford Sands. 

6. Bradford Clay. 1. Lias. 
5. Great Oolite. 

The problem, however, may be attacked from a more general 
point of view, and the questions that arise are these. Does the 
Great Oolite pass laterally into the Forest Marble, or into the 
Fullonian Beds (Fuller's Earth), or into both 1 Does it wedge 
out independently of either formation, there having been a pause 
in deposition further south ? Or, was it deposited over much of 
the south of England and afterwards denuded in Oolitic times ? 

We may consider first, the relations of the Great Oolite and 
Forest Marble. 

* Trans. Gleol. Soc., ser. 2, vol. iii.p. 254. 
t Geol. £og. and Wales, ed. 1, p. 188. 


Taking Bradford-on-Avon as a central poini, we find the Great 
Oolite overlaid by the Bradford Clay, which all observers agree 
in regarding as a subordinate portion of the Forest Marble. 
There the rich beds of Orinoids which flourished on the surface of 
the Great Oolite, indicate some pause in the sedimentary con- 
ditions, and show that iu this neighbourhood we have a marked 
divisional plane between the Great Oolite and overlying deposits, 
a boon indeed to those engaged in the process of Geological 

We can trace this hoiizon of Bradford Clay northwards through 
Box and Corsliam, but further on beyond West Keynton and 
Yatton Keynell, the fossiliferous Bradford Clay seems but locally 
developed, and near Cirencester and Kemble it becomes a matter 
of great difficulty to separate the Great" Oolite from the Forest 
Marble. There is at any rate wanting in this northerly area, 
evidence of a panse between the Great Oolite and the Fprest 
Marble, and Nature has consequently left no definite guide to 
enable us to draw a satisfactory boundary-line. ,: Consequently 
Prof. Hull and Prof. Buokman, in the neighbourhood of Ciren- 
cester, and Phillips and Hull, in Oxfordshire, have differed 
considerably in their interpretation of the sections, differences 
with which I fully sj^mpathize. While Lycett, in reference to 
the Sapperton area, near Stroud, remarks that " probablj' the 
terms Forest Marble and Bradford Clay might be omitted 
altogether without any detriment to science."* 

Turning to the area south of Bradford-on-Avon, the most 
important evidence is the occurrence of the Bradford Clay in 
Dorsetshire. The characteristic " Bradford, Encrinite " has Ipng 
been known from the Forest Marble of that area, but even in 
1884 Damon, referring to the Bradford Clay, observed that "its 
separate occurrence cannot be established in this district [Wey- 
mouth], though its prevailing fossil is sparingly distributed."t 

In Dorsetshire the Forest Marble consists of three main sub- 
divisions, as follows : — 

Glay. ' 

Shelly and oolitic limestone. 


At the base of the lower clay there is a rich fossiliferous bed 
which may be seen at Herbyleigh near Weymouth, at Burton 
Bradstock, and at Eype near JBridport. Attention was drawn to 
this bed when the Geologists' Association visited Dorsetshire in 
1885j and I then remarked that it appears to represent the Brad- 
ford Clay. J We find the bed to yield numerous Brachiopods, 
large specimens of Rhynchonella varians, R. Boueti, Waldheimia 
digona, Terebratula coaj'ctata, also Mytilus pectinatus, Acrosalenia, 

* The Cotteswold Hills, 1857, p. 142. 
f, Geol. Weymouth, &c., 1884, p. 15. 
J Proc. Geol. Assoc., vol. ix. p. 807. 


Although the persistence of this fossil-bed had not before been 
dwelt upon, yet Davidson recorded several species from the " Brad- 
ford Clay " of Radipole near Weymouth, and from Burton Brad- 
stock ; -these fossils were collected by Mr. J. F. Walker and Mr. 
Darell Stephens, to whom we thus owe our first acquaintance 
with the extent of this horizon.* 

I have seen no evidence in this southern region of the Crinoid 
growth in situ, as we have it at Bradford-on-Avon, but the 
occurrence of this fossil-bed on top of the comparatively barren 
Fuller's Earth is significant, for it marks a considerable change in 
conditions. The Rev. O. Fisher, however, informed me (1889) 
that years ago he found evidence of Orinoid growth in situ north 
of Langton Herring. 

The evidence before us is that the Bradford Clay is present in 
Wiltshire and in Dorsetshire, in the one area resting directly on 
the Great Oolite, and in the other on the Fullonian (Fuller's 
Earth) ; and the natural conclusion is that the Great Oolite of 
Bath and Bradford-on-Avon does not pass into the Forest Marble 
of Dorsetshire. 

We have now to consider the relations between the Great 
Oolite and the Fullonian Beds. Junction-sections are unfortu- 
nately in most cases the exception rather than the rule ; but in 
the area north of Bath, and extending to Stonesfield in Oxford- 
shire, there is abundant evidence to show the intimate connexion 
between the Fuller's Eirth and the Great Oolite. This consists 
in the alternation of clays and stone-beds. I have noticed it on 
the slopes of Lansdown, N.W. of Charlcombe. In the Stroud 
area attention has been directed to the passage by E. Witchell, 
who observed that " the upper part of the [Fuller's Earth] for- 
mation consists of a sandy clay alternating with beds of sand- 
stone, brown on the surface, blue internally, and closely resembling 
the Stonesfield slate, except that it is less laminated. The 
passage from the Fuller's Earth to the Stonesfield slate is shown 
in the disappearance of the clay and the greater development of 
the sandstone beds which assume a more persistent character."! 

Similar indications of a transition have been shown on Seven- 
hampton Common, and in the cuttings of the railway betwee, 
Cheltenham and Hook Norton near Banbury ; and they are 
observable at Stonesfield in the one open working I was able to 
examine, where there is an alternation of marls and stone-beds 
above the "slate." Moreover this feature at Stonesfield is con. 
firmed by the careful record of the strata made in 1827 by 
Fitton, J when he sought to demonstrate the stratigraphical position 
of the first Mammals found at Stonesfield, although he did not at 
that time convince all the scientific sceptics. (See p. 312). 

* Supp. to Brit. Jurassic Brachiopoda, pp. 151, 156, 17S, Sir:, 

+ Geol. Stroud,- pp^^ 70, 71. - 

J Zool. Journal, vol. iii. p. 402. 

E 75928. R 


So far as I know there is no difference of opinion on this 
subject of the passage of FuUonian, or Fuller's Earth into Great 

In Dorsetshire and South Somerset the Fuller's Earth is divi- 
sible into three stages, upper and lower divisions of clay, separated 
by the Fuller's Earth Kock, a marly limestone which forms a 
marked feature in the scenery between Sherborne and Wincanton. 
Northwards by Frome the Fuller's Earth Rock may be readily 
traced, but towards Bath it becomes much attenuated. Indeed, an 
examination of tlie Geological Survey Map (Sheet 19) suggests 
that the Fuller's Earth Rock might represent the Great Oolite, 
for curiously enough the mapping of the Rock ceases in one 
place near Stoney Littleton, where the Great Oolite comes on. 
Moreover the texture of the Fuller's Earth Rock is very similar 
to some of the soft beds of white earthy limestone that form the 
upper portion of the Great Oolite in East Gloucestershire and 

The notion that the two might be portions of one formation 
possessed me for some time, but it was dispelled when I came to 
examine the ground at Bath. In several places where the Fuller's 
Earth Rock has become too attenuated to be shown on the map, 
it is nevertheless present ; as I found to be the case between 
Wellow and Norton St. Philip; as the Rev. H. H. Winwood 
pointed out to me on the slopes of Lansdown, and ms Prof. Hull 
has shown to be the case at Slaughterford, N.E. of Bath. 

It is therefore clear that the Great Oolite overlies the Fuller's 
Earth Rock in the neighbourhood of Bath and Bradf ord-on-Avon. 
At the same time this Rock maintains a fairly uniform character 
of white marly limestone, and -contains a similar assemblage of 
fossils, in its range from Dorsetshire to Somersetshire, while it 
merges upwards and downwards into the marly clays of the 
FuUonian formation, and is of varying thickness and importance. 

The evidence before us, then, is that the Great Oolite, and 
more especially the Stonesfield Slate, pass downwards into the 
FuUonian. Bearing this in mind, it is worthy of note that the 
Fuller's Earth Rock does not extend far north of Bath (in the 
•Ootteswold regions) where the Stonesfield Slate is developed at 
the base of the Great Oolite. 

Here I may mention that in Normandy, the Fuller's Earth 
Marls appear to pass laterally into the Caen Stone, a rock 
yielding Saurian and other remains that serve to connect it with 
the Stonesfield Slate. The strata just mentioned are overlaid by 
the Great Oolite. The irregular and varying characters of the 
beds in that country have been pictured by M. Deslongchamps ;* 
but as the authorities are not of one mind on the subject of the 
grouping and correlation of the strata, we shall perhaps do best 
to discuss the stratigraphical relations of our rocks on independent 

* Etudes sur les Etagee Jurassiques Inffirieures de la Normandie, 1864. 


We are now in a position to consider whether the Great Oolite 
is represented in any way by the FuUoniaa Beds of Dorsetshire. 
We have seen that where the two are developed, there no rigid 
line of division can be drawn, that where the Stonesfield Slate 
occurs the two are inseparable. Hence it is quite possible that 
south of Bradford on- Avon, the lower portion of the Great Oolite 
may be replaced to some extent by the Upper Fuller's Earth 
Clay. More than this I am not prepared to say, for it cannot be 
the case vsfith the mass of the Great Oolite, 

The Oolite has either wedged out abruptly, or it has been 
denuded over the whole or a portion of this southern area. The 
evidence of the quarries between Bath and Bradford-on-Avon, 
shows that the fiag-beds above the Freestones become thinner 
towards the south ; but such evidence cannot be regarded as of 
much value when we remember how fickle are the majority of the 
oolites. Looking, however, at the subject from a broad point of 
view, I tliink we are justified in considering the case to be one of 
unconformable overlap or overstep ; in other words, that the Great 
Oolite has suffered denudation locally, and to a certain extent 
contemporaneously, so far as the Great Oolite Series is concerned. 

The Oolites as a whole are characterized by much false-bedding, 
by pauses in deposition marked by bored-surfaces, and occasionally 
by rolled masses of previously-formed Oolite. A minor amount 
of local erosion is evident, although in some instances scanty 
deposition of sediment accounts for the attenuation or local 
absence of beds. 

The Forest Marble itself is remarkably false-bedded and 
current-bedded. In its changeful series we find clays and shales, 
sands and sandstone, shelly, and oolitic limestone. The curious 
track -marks and the ripple-marks show "it was deposited under 
shallow-water conditions. The numerous ochreous clay-galls 
probably originated from rolled masses of clay. While the 
structure of the oolitic beds, the grains being irregularly mingled 
with comminuted shells, and ligiiite, or scattered in a sandy as 
well as in a calcareous matrix, suggest the notion that they may 
have been derived. This notion occurred independently of other 
considerations, and I find it was suggested in 1879 by Dr. Sorby,* 
from a microscopical examination of specimens of Forest Marble, 
from Wiltshire and Somersetshire. He observed that the facts 
clearly show that the oolitic grains were not formed in situ, but 
were drifted along with the shell-fragments. He noticed the 
occurrence of grains of previously consolidated limestone, which 
itself was oolitic; while in other instances the rock contained 
broken grains of oolite. Still more interesting is his statement 
that, " In a few cases, as at Frome, the greater part of the rock 
is composed of comminuted Corals and Polyzoa;" for it is not 
unreasonable to infer that these remains were derived from the 
Great Oolite. 

Address to Geol. Soo. 1879, Quart. Journ. Geol, Soc, vol. xsxv. (Proc), p, i 

R 2 



The evidence is therefore in favour of the mass of the Great 
Oolite (over part at any rate of the Dorsetshire region) having 
been eroded, and there is consequently a local break between the 
Forest Marble and FuUonian formation, marked by the rich 
fossil-bed which has been identified with the Bradford Clay. 

It is interesting to find that in the Geological View and 
Section through Dorsetshire and Somersetshire, published by 
William Smith in 1819, he noted the sequence of strata beneath 
the Cornbrash in the southern county as follows : — 

r Clay. 
[Forest Marble.] { Forest Marble. 
L Clay. 
Place of the Upper Oolite. 



Fuller's Earth Eock. 

Smith thus recognized the true position of the Great Oolite, as 
independent of Forest Marble and Fuller's Earth, and he showed 

it in his section as wedging out towards the outcrop 
Fig. 80). 

(See also 

Fig. 81. 
Section at Avoncliff, Bradford-on-Avon. 

Great Oolite. 

"5. Coarse wedge-bedded oolite. 

4. Marl. 

3. Shelly oolitic limestone. 

2. Rag (Eoof-bed). 
_1. Freestone, 

The first traces of Great Oolite appear in the scarp between 
Hassage and Norton St. Philip. To the north-east of Hassage we 
find exposures of oolite overlaid by clays and shelly limestone of the 
Forest Marble ; and again east of Lower Baggeridge, an old quarry 
shoAved rubbly oolite resting on earthy limestone and clay, with 
Rhynchonella varians, &c., belonging to the Fuller's Earth. 



There are, however, no clear and continuous sections, showing the 
sequence from Forest Marble through Great ObKte into Fuller's 
Earth. - The Bradford Clay was not exposed, and it could only 
be inferred that the Great Oolite was represented by a few feet of 
oolite, that clearly occupied a higher horizon in the scarps than 
the Fuller's Earth Rock. 

To the north-east of Farleigh, brown shelly and oolitic lime- 
stones are exposed on the western eide' of ihe road leading towards 
Westwood, but the absence of. clear sections in this neighbourhood 
is unfortunate. 

In the Bath district, the beds may generally be divided as 
follows* : — 

Ft. In. 



Upper Division. 

Lower Division. 

J Upper Eags ; oolites and shelly 

1 limestones ■ - 12 to 50 

r Freestones (oolites) - 8 to 30 

J Lower Eags ; shelly and marly 

I limestones, fissile oolite, &c. 

10 0to40 

The Great Oolite has been extensively quarried or mined at 
Upper Westwood (AvonclifF or AnclifF), and to the south and 
east of Bradford-on-Avon. At Upper Westwood, the section is 
as follows (see Fig. 81): — 




Upper Division. < 

Lower Division. ' 

[Eubble with Corals] 

5. Coarse oolite with shelly frag- 
ments ; a thin-bedded stone, 
much broken up near the top 
[celebrated for the " Anoliff " 
fossils, described by Sowerby] 

4. Marly layer [with Sponges and 
fragments of shells, &c.] 

3. Coarse shelly oolitic and pasty 
limestone, of rubfcly character ; 
with shell-fragments, Polyzoa, 

,&c. -. : 

2. Eag; pale oolitic limestone, form- 

ing roof of mine 
'1. Firestone ; one or more beds of 
oolite, with ochreous galls in 
places, and more particularly 
in the lower part. On the 
whole a very uniform stone, 
and free from open joints; di- 
vided as follows : — 

Good freestone 6 10 to 
Freestone - - about 

Eubbly stone - about 






A brief record of the above section was published by Lonsdale, 
with whose measurements my own agree ; some additions are 
inserted in square brackets . on his authority.f The " Ancliff 
Limestone " is noted for the tiny organisms it has yielded. Ostrea 
costata is noted as " one of tka. miniature productions." Many 

* See also Lonsdale, Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 251. 
t Trans. Geol. Sod., ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 252. 


minute Gasteropoda were obtained (from bed No. 5) by Lonsdale, 
and also by the Rev. George Cookson (who formerly resided at 
Westwood). These included ^species of Cylindrites (ActcBon), 
Neridomus, Nerita, Pileolus, and Rissoina (Rissoa). In Mn 
Hudleston's opinion, some of the forms described by Sowerby 
might be regarded as immature. The average length of the 
specimens is about 3 mm. Attention has recently been directed 
to the fossil-beds by Mr. "W. H. Wickes. 

To the south of Bradford-on-Avon we find sections showing 
the Bradford Clay, overlying the Great Oolite. 

At the Lime-kiln on the east side of the Frome road,* and in 
another quarry on the slope of the hill to the north-east, the top 
bed of the Great Oolite, where it is protected by the covering of 
Bradford Clay, is a hard brown oolitic limestone. This, tsgether 
with beds of coarser oolite beneath, are about 10 feet thick; 
below comes the Rag Bed which forms the roof of the mines, a 
hard band, about 2 or 3 feet thick, which overlies the Freestone. 
The Freestone is 6 or 7 feet thick, and is obliquely bedded at the 
Lime-kiln quarry, so that it does not afford so serviceable a 
building-stone as it does elsewhere. 

Old quarries on the eastern side of Bradford-on-Avon, and to 
the south of the Melksham road, show also the connexion with 
the Bradford Clay, as follows : — 

Bradford Clay - Pale-grey marly clay witt "race," 

Avicula costata, Ostrea Ungulata, 
Sihynclionella concinna, Waldheimia, 
digonajApiocrinusParlcmsoni, &c. 
Shelly oolite with marly patches : 

mimitely false-bedded 
Marly layer - - - . 

Upper Division. -^ False-bedded shelly oolite, with 

I Ostrea, Pecten, Bhynchonella, 
Polyzoa, Corals - - . 

L.Rag Beds .... 
Lower Division - Freestone : false-bedded buff oolite 

Ft. In. 






The thickness of the Great Oolite from the base of the Brad- 
ford Clay down to the top of the Freestone, varies in this neigh- 
bourhood from about 13 to over 27 feet. The beds are nfuch 
thinner at the lime-kiln south of Bradford-on-Avon than at 
Upper Westwood. 

Murrel (or Murhill) quarry near Winsley, about 1 mile west 
of Bradford, was described long ago by Lonsdalef : in the accom- 
panying section, the details of the Lower Division are given on 
his authority ; and those of the Upper Division on the authority 
of Mr. Wickes : — 

* See also Lonsdale, TrSns. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 25 . 
■f Abbreviated from Lonsdale, Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 253. See also 
J. C. Pearce, Proc. Geol. Soo., vol. i. p. 484. 

GREAT oolite: BATH. 



Upper Division. •* 

Lower Division. 
"Fuller's Eartli - 

"Ooral band, with Oalamophyllia 

Isastrcea, &c. 
Clay parting 
" Fossil Bed " : with Polyzoa, Eti' 

talophora (Spiropora) strammea 

Echinoderms, Aerosalenia; small 

Gasteropods, &c. - 
Clay with Sponges, Crustaceans 

small oysters, &o. 
Hag . - . - 

■ Freestone (the lower part soft) 
Kag beds, with layers of freestone 

and occasional partings of clay - 

Ft. In. 







As pointed out by Mr. Wiokes,* the Fossil-bed of Mnrrel is 
equivalent to bed No. 5 in the section at Ancliff. The Murrel 
quarry was worked some seventy years ago, but has long been 
abandoned. Tumbled masses of the fossil-beds now strew the 
floor of the quarry, which extends for several hundred yards 
along the scarp : hence a rich treat is afforded to the collector. 
Among the Gasteropods, Mr. Hudleston has identified Cerithium 
costigerum, Exelissa formosa, Rissoina acuta, R, duplicata, Turbo 
hurtonensis, and Solarium turbiniforme. 

The thickness of the lower E,ug beds evidently increases in 
this direction, to the north of Upper Westwood. 

The upper beds of the Great Oolite were exposed further- 
north at Oonkwell, as follows : — 



Upper Division. 
(Upper Eags.) 

Lower Division. 

Hard brown oolitic limestone, and 

pale oolite (white beds), with 


Hard brown compact limestone; 

shelly and ochreous in places 

Oalc^eons sandy and oolitic marls, 

with Gasteropods ; leocardia, 

Ostrea, &c. 

Compact brown shelly limestone 

Marly and shelly oolite with Pecten 

vagans - . . . 

r Fine oolitid limestone, even bedded 

< and with shelly layers ; seen to 

L depth of - 

Ft. In. 




On Farley (at Farleigh) Down, and near Ashley Wood, north- 
west of Monkton Farley, there are several quarries and mines in 
the Great Oolite, where the following beds may be observed : — 

Forest Marble. 
(Bradford Clay.) 

Ft. In. 

I- Greenish marly clay. 

TSard shelly ooUtio lime-") 
stone - - - I 

Flaggy false-bedded white >-15 to 20 
oolite (passing down into 
bed below) - -J 

* Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol.xiii, p. 135. 





Upper Division. 

Lower Division. < 


j Oolitic rag bed, very shelly, with 
■, Peeten and PolyzrOa,&c. 3 6 to 
Hard, compact . and oolitic lime- 
stone ; with ochreous and sandy 
'galls, that give rise to a honey- 
combed appearance on the wea- 
thered faces of the rook - 
Eoof-bed ; coarse oolite with many 
Mollusca, Polyzoa, Echini, and 
Corals. Large Ostrea on surface 
and Lithodomi - - 1 2 to 

'Pale oolitic freestone ; false-bedded 
in some places^ and evenly 
bedded in others (about 24 feet). 
This has been divided as follows 
by the quarrymen * : — 

Capping (fine-grained oolite 
used for carving) 1 6 to 
Grey bed - 1 8 to 

"White beds (used for carving) 
Hard weather bed - 2 6 to 
Eed weather bed - 5 to 


4 . 








The details vary from place to place^ and in the escarpment 
below the monument on Farley Down, we find the Roof-bed to 
be very Irregular, and to be surmounted in places by marly beds, 
with an impersistent Coral-bed, 2 to 10 feet thick. This Ooral- 
bed was noticed by Lonsdale ; and it has been observed by 
Mr. E. F. Tomes at this locality, and also on Oombe Down. The 
Corals appear to have been drifted, and they include Anahacia 
complanata, Calamophyllia {Eunomia) radiata, Convexastrcea 
Waltoni, Isastrtea limitata, LatimcEandra, Microsolena excelsa, 
Montlivaltia caryophyllata, Oroseris Slatteri, Stylina Ploti, and 
Thamnastrcea.-f Sponges also occur in the Coral-bed. Their oc- 
currence was noted at " Anclifif" by Lonsdale, and on Bathampton 
Down, by Moore.J Lonsdale has also referred to the bed that 
" after long exposure to the weather often acquires a cavernous 
appearance, similar to that which is called 'rustic work' by 
architects." It may be on the horizon o£ the White Limestone of 
Cirencester. (See p. 286.) 

Pale flaggy oolites, belonging to the upper part of the Great 
Oolite, were exposed to the south of King's Down ; and here 
there is a comparatively sharp dip-slope towards Monkton 
Farley and Soutli Wraxall. In fissures of the Oolites near Bath, 
Pleistocene mammalian-remains are occasionally found. § 

Passing on to Bathampton Down,|| we find in the upper- 
most beds, traces of Bradford Clay fossils. Moore has stated that 
fragments of Apiocrinus 'farhinsoni, species of Echini, Ostrea, 

* See Lonsdale, Trans. Geol. Soc, seiv 2, vol. iii. pp. 251, 252 ; and account of 
Drewes. quarry, Monkton Farley, in Report on Selection of Stone for building the 
New Houses of Parliament, 1839. 

t Tomes, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xli. pp. 174, 189. 

j Geologist, vol. iii. p. 440. 

§ Moore, Proc. Bath Nat, Hist. Club, vol. ii. p. 37. 

II Hampton DoTcn, Bath, is liable to be confused with Minchinhampton, as in both 
localities the stone has been termed " Hampton Stone." 



Upper Division. < 


and many Bracbiopoda occur in the Coral-bed, which is 
separated from the freestone beds of the Great Oolite, by 5 feet 
of compact grey limestone yielding Lima cardiiformis, Trichites, 
Lithodomi, Polyzoa, and many Corals, and is overlaid by 4 or 5 
feet of thin-bedded oolite.* 

The beds of rubbly stone and marl, yielding Bradford Clay 
fossils, that here, and also at Combe Down occur on top of the 
Great Oolite, form an intimate link between that formation and 
the Forest Marble; and the upper beds of the Great Oolite 
above the freestone do not exceed 20 feet in thickness. 

On Combe Down, near Lodge Hill (Prior Park), and St. 
George's Cross, there are several quarries where the following 
sequence was shown : — 

Ft. In. 
"Rubble or Ridding ; bands of 
rotten stone and marly beds witb 
fossils ; (some beds used for road- 
metal) - - 10 to 12 
Layer of large specimens of Ostrea. 
Rag Beds ; hard and rubbly limeO 
, stones - - - - Ua 
Picking Beds (used for ashlar) ■ f 
Cockly Bed, with fossils - -J 
Lower Division, -i Freestone (in places divided into 
I 3 Weather-beds and a bottom-bed) 
L iO Oto 14 

The Rag, Picking, and Cockly beds are hard smooth-jointed beds, more 
or less oolitic. 

In a section recorded by Lonsdale,! he notes that beneath 
the "Cockle Bed" there was from 25 to 30 feet of good 
freestone, and under that 10 feet of Lt>wer Rags. The total 
thickness of freestone and Lower Rags does not exceed 35 feet. 
There is no doubt that in detail the beds vary very much indeed ; 
what is called the Ridding or Riddingtop, is simply the weathered 
and rubbly stone or " Head " above the workable material, and 
it sometimes directly overlies the freestone beds ; it is the material 
that has to be got rid of in the quarries, before the good stone 
can be obtained. The freestone which is minntely false-bedded 
in places, contains darker veins of shelly matter, with recogniz- 
able fragments of Ostrea and Pecten. The Cockle Bed (according 
to Lonsdale) contains Corals, and apparently from the same bed 
Mr. Tomes and Mr. T. J. Slatter have obtained a number of 
species.J This layer, which directly overlies the good freestone, 
also contains drusy cavities, lined with calc-spar ; and there is a 
specimen from Box now in the Museum at Jermyn Street, show- 
ing one of these cavities, evidently due to the dissolution of a 
mass of Coral, portions of which are to be seen in the stone. 

From a quarry near St. George's Cross I collected the 
following fossils from the upper rubbly beds of stone and marl, 

* Moore, Geologist, vol. iii. p. 443; H. Jelly, Mag. Nat. Hist., 1839, p. 561. 
t Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 252. 
j Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xli. p. 174. 


whlcli appear to be equivalent to the strata yielding Bradford 
Clay fossils on the summit of Farley Down, &c. : — 

Ostea acuminata. 


Pecten vagans. 

Terebratula maxillata. 


Apiocrinus Parkinsoni. 


The basement-beds of the Great Oolite were exposed in the 
lane-cutting on the north side of Combe Down, and they consist 
of coarse oolite with clayey galls, and tiny fragments of shale ; 
and also of flaggy beds. In the section at Combe Grove pit 
(noted p. 241), the strata down to the Fuller's Earth, are recorded 
on the authority of William Smith. The " Sand and burs " were 
grouped by him with the Fuller's Earth Beds, but they would 
now be classed as representing the Stonesfield Beds, at the base 
of the Great Oolite. 

At Odd Down a quarry afforded the following section : — 

Ft. In. 

Rubble - - 2 Oto 3 

Lower f freestone (Best stone) - 10 to 15 

-n-^- i Bastard stone (Lower 

Division. 1^ ^^ggj. / - 15 Oto 20 

(FuKsarth). I^l^^ " Marl-bed" throwing out springs. 

Tbe Btone is very irregular and false-bedded ; there are five or six layers 
of the good stone, which in places is worked underground. 

The Blue Marl indicates the nearness of the Fuller's Earth, but it may 
represent a bed seen at Lansdown, that occupies a position above the lowest 
bed of flaggy oolite. 

Bath, Corsham, and Marshjield to Nailsworth. 

On the south-eastern side of Lansdown we find only the 
Lower Bags exposed. They comprise thin-bedded and flaggy 
oolite, much of it shelly, and some beds containing lignite. TTie 
stone has been quarried for building walls, for roofing-purposes, 
and for road-metal. 

The general section afforded by quarries and cuttings near the 
Hare and Hounds," and to the north-west of Charlcombe, is?as 
follows : — 

Ft. In. 
'Flaggy and shelly oolite • -"t 

Hard brown oolite with marly patches, \-.a r. 

Great Oolite and 
Stonesfield Beds. 

(Fuller's Earth). 

becoming compact at base. Ammo- 
nites siibcontraotus - - -J 
Clay, with nodules of pale-grey earthy 
limestone - - -20 to 30 
_Fissile brown shelly oolite - 3 to 4 
P ■,, . r Blue clay with Ostrea, acuminata, Bhyn- 
iiuiioniaffl. j chonella varians, &c., seen to depth of 

about 20 

The sections show the intimate connection between the Fuller's 
Earth and Great Oolite, and the incoming of the conditions 
represented by the Stonesfield Slate. From the clayey bed near 

GBEAT oolite: BATH. 


the base o£ the Great Oolite, which was exposed on the high 
ground north-west of Oharlcombe, I obtained Trochus Bunburyi, 
Lucina hellona, and Echinobrissus. Lansdown is the locality 
where the " Lansdown Encrinite," Millericrinus Pratti, was first 
obtained from the Great Oolite.* 

A tiny outlier of Great Oolite occurs on the Round Hill at 
Kelston, as noted by Sir A. C. Ramsay.f 

The Great Oolite is quarried in places on Charmy Down, north- 
east of Lansdown, where we find false-bedded shelly, oohtic, and 
sandy limestones. I saw no evidence there of beds higher than 
the freestone division. The rock has been quarried on Little 
Salisbury Hill to the south, and again on Bonner Down, north- 
east of Batheaston. Where the full thickness of the Great 
Oolite is represented it is probably from 100 to 110 feet. J 

There are a number of quarries to the east of Box, and south 
of the railway-tunnel, where the general sequence is as 
follows : — § 





[(Fuller's Earth). 


Fiaepale and fissile oolites, 
with softer marly beds, 
shelly in. places, and 
much false - bedded. 
Harder beds of fine- 
grained oolite at or near 
the base are known as 
Scallett (in places 10 feet 
above Scallett Bag), and 
have been used for carv- 
ing and ashlar : they do 
not furnish a weather- 
stone, and are seldom 
quarried now-a-days 

Coarse shelly oolites ; one bed 
known as the Scallett R&g or 
White Rag ; in some places di- 
vided into Black, White, Malmy 
and Red Bags - - 5 to 

False-bedded oolite, known as Corn 

Grit, and employed for dressings 

IS Oto 

Eoof-bed, forming the ceUing or 
roof of the mines ; a hard coarse 
shelly oolite : too hard to be of 
much service, but employed for 
road-stone, when worked 3 to 
'Oolitic freestone or Ground Bed, 
somewhat variable in character, 
but yielding good weather- stone, 
and employed for plinths, strings, 
cornices, &c. - - 12 to 

Stone-beds (proved in well) 

30 Oto 
"Clay (" red marl ") and dark blue 
\ marly clay with " beef." 

Ft. In. 

i.20 Oto 35 




* See P. H. Carpenter, Quart. Journ. Geol. See, vol. xxxviii. p. 29. 

•f Hor. Section, Sheet 14, No. 2. 

J See Memoirs of W. Smith, by J. Phillips, p. 59. 

§ See also Lonsdale, Trans. Geol. Soc, «er. 2, vol. iii. p. 253. 


Here the upper beds, which include the, Scallett; are probably 
on the horizon of the Kejnble Beds. ' ■ 

In the railway-cutting west of Oorsham railway-station, ^e 
find immediately beneath the grey and- yellow marl that belongs 
to the Bradford Clay, a group of false-bedded buff oolites with 
Pecten and Trigonia. The eastern entrance of the Box tunnel 
is situated in these upper beds of Great Oolite, and the tunnel 
penetrates this formation, as. well as the Fuller's Earth and 
Inferior Oolite, in its extension westwards..' 

The Great Oolite has been extensively mined on the southern 
side of the railway, south-west of Corsham. From 10 to 25 feet 
of freestone in several beds has been worked at vaiious depths up 
to about 100 feet from the surface. The " Corsham stone " is 
said to underlie the Bath or Box " Ground stone," and judging 
by the maximum thickness of the freestone-beds here obtained, 
we may infer that beds lower than those mined at Box_ are 
obtained near Oorsham. The mines are reached by inclined 
tunnels which are driven through the superincumbent Forest 

Prof. HuU notes that freestone was worked by means of a 
shaft 70 feet deep at Lower Pickwick.* A boring made in 1880 
by Messrs. Le Grand and Sutcliff at Oorsham (for Messrs. Randell, 
Saunders and Oompany), reached the Great Oolite at a deptli of 
about 68 feet. (See p. 356.) 

To the W.S. W. of Yatton Keynell there is an old quarry where 
the Great Oolite has been extensively worked. The following 
section was noted in 1886 in company with the Rev, H. H. 
Winwood : — 

Ft. In. 
Forest Marble. [ Flaggy oolitic limestone - ' -1 4 n 

(Bradford Clay.) I Clay J 

rShelly oolite - - - 3 

Marly layer - - - 4 to 0-6 

Upper J Marly and shelly oolites - - 2 3 

Division. \ Marl - - - - 6 

I Irregular band of shelly oolite .04 

^ . (^Shelly layer, with TerAratula - 2 

S r Fine false-bedded oolitic freestone 6 

[5 \ Lower J Irregular rubbly and ferruginous l 

I Division. | bed, with Echini and Sponges - ^ 10 
I L False^bedded oolite - - - J 

I picked up one specimen of Terebratula coarctata which 
probably came from the clay at base of the flaggy limestone at 
the top "of the quarry. The section was described by Prof. Hull 
as exhibiting the junction of the Upper and Lower " Zones " of 
the Great Oolite.t The upper beds of the Great Oolite here 
contain many of the characteristic Bradfordian fossils, and show 
the intimate connection between the Great Oolite and Forest 

* Geol. parts of Wilts and Gloucestershire, p. 13. 

t Geol. parts of Wilts and GlouceBtershire, pp. 13, 14. 



Fig. 82. 

Quarry at Yatton Keynell, north-west of Chippenham. 
(Prof. E. Hull.) 

a. Forest MarWe. Fissile shelly oolite, resting obliquely on the Great Oolite, 4 feet. 
6. Great Oolite (Upper Division). Eegularly bedded, massive, shelly, limestone, 

7 feet. 
c. Great Oolite (Lower Division). Shelly oolite full of false-bedding; the upper part 

coarse, the lower affording fine building-stone, which has been followed 

underground : 16 feet. 

I obtained the following fossils from the Great Oolite Series of 
Corsham (C) and Yatton Keynell (Y) : — 


Lower Beds. 







Natica - 






Onustus burtouensis 






Eimula clathrata 









« " 






Astarte interlineata 






Avicula costata 






Cardiiim Stricklandi 






Corbis Lajoyei 



















Lima cardiifonnis 











impressa - 



















Mytilus asper - 





Ostrea gregaria 














Pecten hemicostatus 







vagans - 







Tancredia curtansata ? 



' - 










Trigonia pullus 






Bhynchonella concinna 











Terebratula maxillata 








Waldheimia cardium 






digona - 


















Lower Beds. 

Upper Beds. 






C Y 



Cidaris bradfordensis - 





C Y 










Calamophyllia radiata 






C Y 

Montlivaltia - 



Stylina Ploti - 



The lower beds of Great Oolite (belonging to the freestone 
division), consisting of false-bedded oolite, and resting on flaggy- 
oolite, were exposed on Doncombe Hill, south-east of Marsh- 
field ; and a mile west of Marshfield the oolite was exposed to a 
depth of 5 feet. The upper beds were seen beneath the Bradford 
Clay in a lane below West Keynton Church, where they consist 
of buff false-bedded oolites, with marly layers, and beds of 
compact marly limestone. It is however noticeable that pale 
false-bedded and fissile oolites, resembling beds of Great Oolite, 
occur above the fossiliferous Bradford Clay at this localitj. 
Stratigraphically there is no real break in the series. 

At Luckington and Great Sherston, and again from Tormarton 
northwards to Hawkesbury Upton and Symonds Hall Hill, the 
Great Oolite has been worked in places, but I have no records of 
any sections showing the main subdivisions of the formation, 
(See Fig. 67, p. 214 of the Memoir on the Lias.) 

A section at Tiltups End, between Kingscote and Avening, 
south of Nallsworth, Was described by E. Witchell. It 
showed fissile sandy and shelly limestones, resting on thick 
beds of white limestone, exposed to a depth of 4 feet. The white 
limestones were taken by Witchell, as the top of the Great Oolite 
(following the Geological Survey) ; and below them come the 
weather-stones of Minchinhampton. From the upper beds he 
obtained several species of Nerincea and other Gasteropods, 
including fragments of Purpuroldea, also Cyprina loweana, Iso- 
cardia minima, Lima, Lucina bellona, Ostrea costata, Pecteii 
vagans, Terebratula maxillata, &c.* I should prefer to group all 
the beds above noted, with the Great Oolite, as the higher strata 
probably represent the Kemble Beds. 

Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. viii. pp. 267, 268, 271. 




Great Ooute and Stonesfield Slate — 

(Local Details continued). 

Minchinhampton, Tetbury, and Cirencester. 

We now come to the country around Minchinhamptonj Tet- 
bury, and Cii'encester, where the Forest Marble and Great Oolite 
cover an extensive tract of country, where there are many 
quarries and railway-cuttings, and where it has been found 
exceedingly difficult to fix a recognizable plane of division 
between the two groups. 

The fact is that false-bedded oolites occur at different horizons 
throughout the series ; beds of compact white more or less oolitic 
limestone, with the irregular cavities that characterize the Dagham 
Stone, form a division in which these cavernous beds occur, at two 
if not at more horizons ; fossil-beds yielding Terehratula maxillata, 
Lima cardiiformis, &z. are clearly impersistent for they appear 
as irregular beds or seams at different horizons ; and clays with 
Ostrea Soweriyi occur in both Great Oolite and Forest Marble. 

There is indeed no band that can be relied upon as a constant 
horizon in the series. Even the Bradford Clay, as a fossiliferous 
bed, is to be found only here and there ; and as several marly 
layers occur in the upper part of the Great Oolite, it is quite 
likely that each one may locally be fossiliferous, and even yield 
a similar assemblage of organic remains. 

Prof. Buckman has remarked that he could by no means agree 
with Prof. Hull in his grouping of the upper beds of the Great 
Oolite. According to the former geologist, the upper portion of the 
Great Oolite comprises about 45 feet of " Yellowish oolite, with 
more or less of oblique lamination, sometimes separated into two 
or more stages with thin partings of sand or marl, [and it is] occa- 
sionally a hard compact freestone throughout." Tins division was 
generally grouped with the Forest Marble by Prof. HuU, who 
took the top of the White Limestone group as the upper limit of 
the Great Oolite. Prof. Buckman however maintained that the 
" yellowish oolite " is always found to occupy a position below the 
Bradford Clay, where that clay is present.* 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xiv. p. 113 j Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, pp. 65, 66; 
Lycett, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. iv. pp. 183, 185 ; and Morris and Lyeett, Gt. 
Ool. MoUuBca, p. 2. 



The general section by Prof, Buckman is as follows : — 

Great Oolite 

and Stonesfield 



Yellowish, oolite, &c. [■= Kemble Beds] 
Marl, &c. witli Lima cardiiformis and 

Terebratula maxillata 
Hard limestone with Purpuroideu,, 

Pachyrisma, &o. ... 

White limestone 
Eough freestone or Ragstone (" black 

rock " of quarrymen) 
Stonesfield Slate ... 







With this general section my own observations agree. Oou- 
sequently over much of the ground between Kemble, Tetbiiry 
and Minchinhampton, a larger area of Forest Marble is shown on 
the Geological Survey Map than would be mapped according to 
the grouping adopted. 

The following are the principal divisions that may be found in 
the Great Oolite near Minchinhampton and Cirencester, further 
particulars of which will be subsequently given : — 


















Bath Free- 


stone and 











Even beds of oolite 
bands of marl. 

False-bedded oolites (becom: 
ing freestones in places) 
with marly and sandy ^ 30 
layers, and impersistent 
fossil-beds yielding Tere- 
hratula maxillata, Lima 
cardiiformis, &o. 
'White oolite and oolitic' 
limestones, false-bedded 
in places ; with beds hav- J> 
ing perforations or cavities 
like Dagham Stone. 

False-bedded oolite (free-' 

Grey limestones with white 
grains of oolite. 

Sandy beds (passing in 
places into Stonesfield 

Kemble, Cuttings 
I Tetbury road 
' to Sapperlon 


>• 40 


Tetbury, Jack- 
ments Bottom, 

, Tetbnry,Minohin- 

The following are among the abundant fossils in these sub- 
divisions* : — 

In the Kemble Beds : — Nerita rugosa, Purpuroidea Morrisea, Ceromya 
concentrioa, Cyprina loweana, Lima cardiiformis, Lncina belloaa, Pecten 
vagans, Pholadomya socialis, Ehynchonella obsolfeta, Terebratula maxiUata, 

In the White Limestones : — Oerithium, Natica intermedia, N. Michelini, 
Nerineea Eudesi, N. funiculus, N. Yoltzi, Purpuroidea Morrisea, Gervillia 

See Lj'oett, Cotteswold Hills, pp. 90, &c. ; Witchell, Geol. Stroud, pp. 72, &c. 



socialis, Iso.cardia minima, Lima cardiiformis, Lucina bellona, Maorodon 
hirsonensis, Ostrea costata, Pachyrisma grande, Pecten vagans, Pteroperna 
costatula, Terebratula m.axillata, Anabacia, IsastrEsa, &o. 

In the Lower Division : — Nerita rugosa, Area Pratti, Gerrillia acuta, 
Lima cardiiformis, Pecten lens, P. vagans, Placunopsis socialis, Trigonia 
impressa, Ebynolionella conpimia, Olypeus Miilleri, &c. 

In the cuttings and quarries near Kemble railway-station, and 
bordering tlie Cirencester Brancli railway, the following sequence 
may be traced : — 







'Shattered oolitic limestone 
Marly clay with palatal teeth of Fishes 
Brown oolite in tolerably even layers - 
False-bedded shelly oolite, with palatal 
teeth of Fishes, Ostrea, &c., and beds 
of somewhat sandy limestone yield- 
ing remains of Thuytes divaricatus - 
Hard fissile sandy limestone and marls 
Pale false-bedded sandy and oolitic 

limestone - * - 

Hard shelly and oolitic limestone 
Marly oolitic clay with irregular^ 
layers of limestone, with | 
Rhynchonella ohsoleta, Tere- '>!. 
hraiula maxillata, and spines ( 
of Echini. J 

Impersistent white marly and slightly 
oolitic limestone. Fossil Bed, with 
Terebratula maxillata, Rhynchonella 
ohsoleta, Lima cardiiformis, &c. - 1 

r Pale bufi and white oolites and 

1 sparsely oolitic limestone - 4 6 to 6 





Here the Kemble Beds are well shown, though we do not see 
their connection with the Forest Marble, which must (with its 
basement Bradford Clay) be near at hand. 

Leaving Kemble Station, and passing along the Kemble and 
Tetbury JRailwaj^ we come to two shallow cuttings in Great 
Oolite, before we reach the principal section. At the commence- 
ment of that section we find an exposure of grey clay, with a 
rubble on top of shelly and marly limestone, suggestive of Oorn- 
brash. The clay is evidently Forest Marble, and faulted against 
the Great Oolite. A long and interesting section of Great 
Oolite is then seen as follows (see Fig. 83) : — 

Pale false-bedded and fissile oolite (like 
the beds worked at Kemble Station) ; 
with marly layers 

Brown and white marly clay, with 
occasional fissile beds of pale shelly 
oolite : Ostrea. abundant - 2 to 

Hard irregular marly stone, weather- 
ing to a rubbly marl at surface (im- 
persistent). Fossil Bed ; with Tere- 
bratula maxillata, Lima cardiiformis, 
&c. - - - - 2 Oto 

Ft. In. 


E 75928. 







































S o a 
t^ to us 


i § o 

Pn O 

S ■4-» 

Si S 

■o a 

■S a 




" ►, 










3. Obliquely bedded oolite, very sbelly in 
places : Lima, &c. These beds 
become more massive, where capped 
by brown clay ... 

Irregular marly parting (impersistent). 
False-bedded oolite and thick beds of 
pale limestone, more or less false- 
bedded and shelly. The distinction 
between these two masses of false- 
bedded oolite is not apparent west of 
the bridge, for the clay-parting dies 
away. Moreover fossil-beds with 
T. maxUlata, Ostrea, &o. occur irregu- 
larly at different horizons down to the 
base of the series 
'2. White marly oolite with scattered 
oolitic grains ; perforated in places - 
Even beds of white oolite, and marly 
beds . . - . 

1. Daghara stone : bluish limestone the 
top compact and the bottom oolitic, 
with irregular perforations to a depth 
of 2 feet - . - 9 to 

White, more or less oolitic stone, with 
tubiform markings 

Ft. In. 


7 i) 

The White Limestone is well seen at Jackment's or Jacuraan's 
Bottom ; an appellation said to be derived from its position on the 
Koman way known as Akeman Street. 

At Tetbury Station and in adjoining quarries to the south- 
east, we have evidence of the following series of beds : — 





Ft. In. 
" Brown thin-bedded and false-bedded 
shelly oolites, with thin clay- 
seam - - - - 3 
Paler false-bedded oolite with shelly 
bands : sandy in places, and with 
an occasional marly layer - 
Hard white compact oolitic lime- 
■^ stone (like Dagham stone) : burnt 
for lime .... 
Soft limestone and marl, with fossils 
Hard bed, as above (like Dagham 

stone) - - - 4 C 

r Fine buff oolitic freestone (six or 
\ seven beds) seen to depth of • 11 6 


I obtained Ceromya cuncentrica, C. Symondsi, and Pholadomya 
(cast), from the fossil-bed in one of the quarries. 

The full thickness and sequence of the Lower Beds cannot be 
very clearly made out. There are shallow cuttings on the i-ail- 
way, and in adjoining roads, to the south-east of Haresdown 
Bam, and near Eodmarton Cottage ; and these show a variable 
set of beds beneath the white limestones. Sic. These lower beds 
include grey limestone with white oolite grains, about 15 feet 
thick; and lower down, 6 feet of sandy beds that approach Stones- 
field Beds in character. In one cutting, however, west of the 
road near Rodmanon Cottage, there were shown a pisolitic bed 
3 feet thick, resting on a brecciated and nodular limestone 
16 inches thick, with tubiform markings ; and these beds resemble 

s 2 



certain layers which are shown in tlie cutting by Hayley Farm, 
and which I have grouped with the Upper Division of the Great 
Oolite. (See p. 277.) 

The upper beds of the Great Oolite and the junction with the 
Forest Marble, were sliown at. Vaze's Quarry, in the valley north- 
west of Tetbury. The section was as follows : — 

ford] an). 





Ft. In. 

{Fissile and more or less sandy oolite, 
much false-bedded : the lower beds 
used for planking - - 15 6 

Grey clay - - 1 to 3 

• fOolite in thick beds, shelly in places ; 
I the bottom layer current-bedded, and 
I resting on a fairly level surface of 
-( markedly false-bedded oolite beneath. 

Beds used for walling - 10 to 12 

Buff and white, false-bedded oolitic free- 
stone : hard and soft beds - 10 to 12 
(White Limestone series, below; but 
not exposed.) 

Proceeding along the railway-cuttings north of the old Tetbury 
road station (G.W.B,.), we find shallow sections of fissile and 
false -bedded shelly oolite, divided by a band of marly clay 6 to S 
inches thick. These represent the upper (Kemble) beds of the 
Great Oolite, and cannot be far below the Bradford Olay. 
Further on by the 92nd milestone, lower beds aTe seen^ as 


: — 







-s 1 



5 L 


{Bubbly and fissile oolite, with Ostrea 
(abundant), large specimens of Tere- 
hratula maxillata, Lima ca'rdiiformis, 
and Corals .... 
Seam of clay, 
/ False-bedded white oolite, with Corals 
"1 (stone quarried) . -. about 

Ft. In. 





At this locality, a little south of the Thames and 
Canal, a fault is marked on the Geological Survey Map. 
of the canal we find, on the east side of the railway, a quarry in 
fissile shelly oolite. 

In the south-eastern pari: of Hayley Wood there is a fiiie 
cutting on the Great Western Railway, which shows the following 
sequence : — 

Marly bed (base of Forest Marble P) 1 to 2 
fSoft oolite, rubbly, and with marly 
I layers ; and one or two bands of 
compact limestone, with irregular 
I cavities like Dagham stone - 4 

I Hard creamy limestone ; pale matrix 
I with brown oolitic grains 
■i Oolitic marly layer with Lamellibranchs 
Pale fine-grained and hard oolite with 

cavities in top part : Nerinma - 
Pale and brown oolite ... 
Hard pale oolite, prominent layer 
Fissile and shelly oolite; false-bedded 
shivery freestone . - 10 to 12 

■■ " White Lias " (I wag informed) had been 
proved about 4 feet beneath the level 
of the railway. 













Great Oolite 

(Upper Division). — < 

Kemble Beds. 

The beds, which, exhibit a gentle anticline, dip at about 2° towards the 
north-west and south-east. The higher beds (above the shivery freestone) 
are tolerably even layers, though wedge-shaped in places. 

South-east of the railway -bridge there is a fault that brings on higher 
fissile beds of gritty limestone and shales, that belong to the Forest 

In the cutting by Hayley Farm, south of the small tunnel, and 
in that between the two tunnels, we have the following succession - 
of beds : — 

Ft. In. 
Bubbly and coarse-grained oolites, with 
marly layer near base ; beds becom- 
ing flaggy near the top - . 10 
Hard white pisolitic and oolitic lime- 
stone, with hard nodules near the 
top. Bone of Megalosav/rus (?) on 
surface of stone - - 1 6 to 2 
Ochreous marly and sandy parting (im- 
persistent), with tooth and bones of 
Megalosaurus, and Plant-remains. 
Pisolitic and brecoiated oolite - - 1 9 
Clayey seam. 

Compact oolite, with large grains* - 1 2 
Brown and white fossiliferous oolite - 1 6 
Pale and buff oolites (freestones) - 11 6 

Pine oolitic and pale earthy limestone, 
and rubbly marl, passing into brown 
oolite at base. Fossil Bed : with 
Natica, NerincBa pseudopunctata ? 
Pleurotomaria, Oypricardia caudata, 
Homomya Vezelayi, Lima impressa, 
Lucina hellona, Myacites, Ostrea 
costata ?, Rhynchonella ohsoleta, Tere- 
hratula maxillata, Echindbrissus 
Woodwardi, &o. - . - 5 0* 

Kemains of Mesodon and Strophodus were also obtained front 
the beds in this cutting : and the fossils agree generally with 
those obtained from the Upper beds of Great Oolite by Oo]leg& 
Farm, Cirencester. The beds dip at an angle of 2° towards the 

The short cutting between the two tunnels, although it showed 
beds perhaps on a lower horizon than those in the cutting to the 
south, yet it did not exhibit any marked fossil-bed. This, however, 
is not surprising when we know that the fossil-beds (as seen near 
Kemble) end off abruptly. 

Beneath the beds thus recorded in the open sections, adjoining 
the Sapperton railway-tunnels, we have the following account of 
the strata noted by the Engineer, R. P. Brereton, and publislied 
by J. H. Tauntonf : — 



J White Limestone - 
1 Lower Division - 

White Limestone Bed 
Lower Beds of Great Oolite 



Fuller's Earth - - 80 to 90 
Inferior Oolite (seen at northern 
end of great tunnel). 

* See Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, p. 65. 
f Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. v. p. 25.5. 



That the "White Limestone" comes beneath the mass of 
oolites sho'A'n in the cuttings south of the railway-tunnels, is to 
some extent confirmed by a quarry east of the White Horse, on 
the main road to the west. There we find white oolites exposed 
or 8 feet as follows : — ■ 

fWTiite Oolite. 

I Eubbly layer 

I maxillata. 

<J Wh-ite limestone (like Dagham stone) with burrows 

or caTities passing down irregularly, 2 feet 

to a depth of ' 

Great Oolite 
(Upper Division). 

with Isocardia and Terebratula 

^White oolite. 

The Great Oolite has for a long period been extensively worked 
on Minchinhampton Common,* near Stroud ; for the beds yield 
good weatherstone. The district has been rendered famous to 
geologists from the long continued labours of Dr. Lycett, who 
obtained over 320 species of organic remains from the strata.t 

It is difficult now to recognize the paiticular beds described by 
him, but as he observes : " The shelly weatherstones which con- 
tain the well known Minchinhampton fossils, appear to extend over 
very limited areas in large useful blocks, and with testacea entire ; 
thus it has happened that nearly the whole series of beds in one 
quarry are shelly, and produce large blocks of stone, and in 
another neighbouring quarry a large portion of the whole mass 
wanting these features is useless for economic purposes. 
Even in the larger of the two quarries now used upon Minchin- 
hampton Common, the uppermost or planking bed changes its 
condition very materially between the two- extreme ends of the 
section, losing all its testacea towards its southern extension." 

It is not surprising then, that the section recorded by Lycett 
differs materially from that open at the time of my visit, about 30 
years afterwards. This no doubt arises in great measure from 
the fact that beds split up differently according as they are subject 
to atmospheric influences, thus forming freestone at the base, 
wall-stone nearer the surface, and rubble on top. 

The following is an account of the principal quarry at Minchin- 
ihampton, from my notes of 1886 : — 

Ft. In. 

Rubble - 

Thin-bedded compact 
limestone and sandy >5 to 6 
beds. [=Dry Wall 
Stone] - -J 

Hard pale and smooth limestone 
with scattered oolitic grains, 
and with hollows due to 
decomposed Corals - - 1 

Wedge-bedded oolite, pale buff 
or white, and shelly ; exhibit- 
ing honeycombed weathering 

Upper Division. -^ 

* Amberley Heath, a second name for Minchinhampton Common, gives name to 
the genus Amberleya, described by Morris and Lycett, JSupp. to Gt. Ool. MoUuica, 
p. 19. 

t J. Lycett, The Cotteswold Hills, 1857, p. 93, and Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc 
vol iv. pp. 185, 186. 

^ J 

Lower Division. 


GREAT oolite: minchinhampton. 279 

Ft. In. 

in places. Purpuroidea near 

base in bottom layer. [=Plank- 

ing] - - - -80 

4. Parting with Lima cardiiformis. 

3. False-bedded white shelly oolite 

[=Soft white stone]- 4 to 6 
'2. Current-bedded stone with 
shelly layers and comminuted 
shells, Lima, &c. [='W"eather- 
stone and Shelly Beds] 12 to 15 
Fulloiiiaii . - 1. Clay (not seen). 

According to Morris and Lycett the stone-beds to which they apply the 
genei'al terms of " Shelly Beds " and " "Weatherstone series," here rest on 
the Fuller's Earth " without any appearance of Stonesfield Slate ; " they 
add however, that " as a general rule, throughout the district, the Great 
Oolite, near to its base, has one or more beds, which possess all the 
essential characters of Stonesfield slate " ;* and this fact is noted by Prof. 
Hull, who observes that "At the base of the Great Oolite, along the 
margins of Stroud and Nailsworth valleys, a few inches or feet of brown 
sandy slates with partings of clay may frequently be observed."t 

Bed 2 in the above section is now known to the quarrymen as the 
Weatherstone. It corresponds with beds C, D., and E. of Lycett's section, 
which he divides as follows : — 

Ft. In. 

C. Soft yellowish oolite, much false-bedded ; numerous 

holes bored by Lithodorrms. Known to the work- 
men as Oven Stone. The softness enables it to be 
sawed into ridge-tiles and copings for walls. It is 
termed " Soft Shelly Sandstone " by Morris and 
Lycett - - - - - - -60 

D. Weatherstone, in two or three beds, full of shells, 

Ostrea, &c. - - - - - -60 

E. Basem.ent-bed, with Ostrea • - -04 to 09 

Bed 3 is the soft pale calcareous oolite with occasional sandy partings 
(Bed B. of Lycett)', described, I know not why, as " Thin-bedded yellowish 
sandstones " by Morris and Lycett. Astarte angulata occurs here ; and 
Ostrea, Tancredia, and other shells are abundant towards the base. The 
thickness noted by Lycett is 10 to 14 feet. 

Bed 5 corresponds with the main mass of Planking (Bed A. of Lycett), 
in which he obtained a large number of organic remains. Among these 
are Ceritella, Cerithium, Cylindrites, Natiaa, Nerincea, Nerita, Patella, 
Pileolus, Pwrpuroidea, Trochotoma, Trochus, Twrbo, Area, Gervillia, Lima, 
Limopsis, Ostrea, Pecten, SphcBra, Tancredia, &o. together with fragments 
of Echinoderms, Corals, Crustacea, Fish-remains, and Lignite. 

Cephalopoda, Brachiopoda, and Mollusca of the Mya-group are stated to 
be rare. Specimens from Minchinhampton of Ammonites suhcontr actus, A. 
a/rlustigerus, A. Waterhousei, and A. iiflexuosus, are preserved in the 
Woodwardian Museum at Cambridge. The occurrence of Pholas oolitica 
has been noted at Minchinhampton and Bisiey Commons. J 

. Speaking of the Weatherstones, Morris and Lycett state that "The 
shelly relics often constitnte a considerable proportion of the whole mass ; 
they are converted into crystalline carbonate of lime, which frequently 
fills the interior of the univalves ; and it is to the abundance of this 
mineral, disseminated everywhere, that the weatherstones owe their 
superior durability upon exposure to the atmosphere. As a general rule, 
therefore, the beds which contain the greatest abundance of shells are 
those which are most fitted to resist the action of frost ; water percolates 
_ __ _._ 

* Gt. Oolite Mollusca (Palaeontagr. Soc), p. 4. 
t Geol. parts of Wilts and Gloucestershire, p. 12. 

j Jjycett, Cotteswold Hills, pp. 93, 94 ; and Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. i. p. 17 
Morris and Lycett, Mollusca of the Great Oolite, pp. S, &c. 


their structure in much smaller quantity, and more slowly, and, on 
escaping, carries away but little lime in solution."* 

Lycett mentions that " In one curious instance a large Nautilus was 
severed by a joint, and the divided- portions remained a yard apart on 
opposite sides of the chasm."t 

The lovfer beds of Great Oolite are evidently thinner at Min- 
ehinhamptoii than they are further east near Sapperton. Prof. 
Hull notes their thickness as varying from 20 to 40 feet. The 
total thickness of the Great Oolite was estimated to be 120 feet 
by Morris and Lycett. This would include the Kemble Beds, 
which are probably not exposed in the Minchinhampton quarries, 
the upper beds (there seen) belonging to the White Limestone 

West of the Folly at Minchinhampton, the following section 
was opened in beds mapped by the Geological Survey as Forest 
Marble, but which I should include with the Great Oolite : — 

Ft. In. 

{Thin pale, false-bedded and shelly 
oolites, with sandy layers and small 
hard calcareous and sandy nodules - 5 6 
Pale oolite. 

This nodular bed occurs in the TJj)per Beds of the Great 
Oolite, and may be compared with that noticed in the railway- 
cutting south of Sapperton tunnel. It is probably not far above 
the beds shown in the Minchinhampton quarries. The stone is 
quarried for building walls, for road-metal, &c. 

The following section of the beds at Bussage, west of Ohalford, 
was noted by E. WitchellJ : — 
[Kemble Beds.] Bubbly oolite ... 

f Buff limestone, with casts of Na- 
tica, Purpuroidea, &c. 
White limestone 

Fachyrisma-he&, consisting princi- 
pally bf shells of Fachyrisma 
grande - - . . 

White limestone, with oasts of Na- 
tica - . . . 

White freestone. 




<; White J 

Limestone. ' 







The only other locality where the Pachyrisma has been found 

is at Ccwcomb Hill, south of Ohalford. Among other fossils that 

have been obtained from Bussnge, are the following: Astarte 

Jlexicostata , Gervillia ornata, Pecten Woodwardi, and Sotcerbya 


Eeference has been made (p. 279) to the incoming of beds of 
the character of Stonesfield Slate in the vicinity of Stroud and 
Minchinhampton. Witchell observed that " In a well sunk on 
Stroud Hill, in connection with the Water Works, the lower part 

* MoUusca of Gt. Oolite (Pal. Soc), p. 2. 

t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. iv. p. 184. Ljoett remarks that the term 
" Lissens " is applied by the quarrymen to the open ioints in the strata. 
J Geol. Stroud, p. 77.J 




of the Stonesfield Slate was found to be laminated, and split up 
on exposure like the true roofing-tile."* 

At Throughatto Field, north-east of Bisley, and south of 
Througham or Druffham, we find quarries opened for the working 
of Stonesfield or Bisley Slates. The Stonesfield Slate series is 
overlaid by 10 feet of current-bedded oolite, which is quarried for 
building-stone, for wall-stone, and for road-metal. The details of 
the underlying beds vary very much, but the following section 
noted in Mr. Freeuian's quarry (in company with J. H. Taunton), 
affords a good example of the series : there the oolitic freestone is 
not seen : — 

Soil. Ft. In. 

'Oolitic sandy stone, yielding the best 
" slate," but now for tbe most part 
worked away - - - - 2 6 

Calcareous sandstone, used for wall- 
stone and road-metal - - -~| 
Soft calcareous sandstone with scattered ( 

oolitic grains - - - - )> 4 6 

Hard calcareous sandstone : building- I 
stone ■ ■ ■ -J 

Fissile sandy beds - - 2 6 

Hard irregular earbliy sandstone, ob- 
scurely oolitic ; with fossils 1 2 to 2 
Fissile micaceous sandstone with Tri- 
gonia impressa. Slate Bed. The top 
4 in. will never split ; the next 9 in. 
forms good slate ; the lower part is 
not so good - - - - 2 

Fissile sandy beds - - - 1 6 

Fullonian - Clay. 

The " slate " does not exhibit planes of division in the quarry. 
It is never more than 18 inches thick, and this occurs at slightly 
different horizons. 

Stone tiles or " Slates " have also been obtained from Miserden 
(Miserdine), Rendcomb, and Nettlecomb near Birdlip; and 
Prof. Hull states that they have been worked on the north-east 
side of Oakridge Common and at Battlescomb, east of Bisley.f 

In quarries north-west of Queen Anne's Monument in Oakley 
Park, Cirencester, and by th* four-mile Lodge near Sapperton, 
there were exposed about 12 feet of false-bedded oolite and shelly 
rag with an occasional marly layer, containing Ostrea, &c. The 
beds probably belong to the u[)per division (Kemble Beds) of 
the Great Oolite. Lower beds were to be seen at Dean's Quarry 
on the Stroud or Minchinhampton road, 3 miles from Cirencester, 
ivhere the following section was exposed : — 

Ft. Is. 
fPale oolites - - - - 3 

Eubbly and sandy marl and tough 
Great Oolite ' oolite [Eohinobrissus] - - 1 6 

(Upper Division). -^ Compact limestone, oolitic, with irregu- 

I lar cavities like Dagham Stone - 2 4 

I White oolite and coral-limestones, 

(_ false-bedded - - - - 6 

» Proc. Cotteewold Club, vol. vii. p. 117. 

t Geol. parts Wilts and Gloucestershire, p. 13 ; Geol. Cheltenham, p. 60 j Lycett, 
Cotteswold Hills, p. 100. 



The late Joshua Brown of Cirencester, collected many Corals 
from this quarry, including Convexastrcea Waltoni. IsasttcBa gibbosa, 
T. limitata, Thamnastrma Lyelli, &c. Mr. Tomes compares the 
Coral-bed with that on Farley Down near Bath.* 

On the north side of the Tetbury road, a little more than 
2 miles from Cirencester, beyond the old pit known as Jarvis' 
Quarry, we find the following section : — 

Great Oolite. 
(Upper Division)— 
Kemhle Beds. 

Bubble and false-bedded sbelly oolite, 

with Ostrea . - . . 

Marly and shelly clay with Ostrea 

(abundant), and Terebratula - 
Shelly and oolitic limestones with Fish- 
remains, Ostrea, Fccten vagans, &o. 
(stone worked for building-purposes 
\ and road-metal) ... 

Clay-band .... 

I Marly and shelly oolitic limestone. 
/ Fossil Bed ; with Terebratula maxil- 
I lata, Lima cardiiformis, &o - 
I Shelly oolitic limestones, " Soft Oookly 
[_ Beds " - . . about 

Ft.- In. 



The top beds are evidently the same as those that occur at the 
base of the Bi-adford Clay at Jarvis' old quarry, where they 
attain a thickness of 12 feet. The above beds compare well with 
those seen near Kemble. I obtained the following fossils from 
them : — 

Crocodilian tooth. 


Mesodon (Pycnodus). 


Corbula P 

Lima cardiiformis (abundant). 






Pect'en annulatus. 


peregrinus ? 

vagans (abundant). 

Unicardium varicosum. 
Terebratula maxillata. 
Echinobrissus Griesbachi. 
Isastrsea limitata. 

By the College Farm at Cirencester tlie following beds were 
exposed at the Lime-kiln : — 

'Eubbly oolite. Fi. In. 

Bubbly marl and pale limestone with 
Naiica intermedia, N. Strichlandi ? 
TrocJiotoma dbtusa, Mytilus sublcevis, 
Homomya, Vexelayi, Lima cardii- 
formis, Terebratula maxillata, and 
False-bedded oolitiu limestone, irregu- 

Great Oolite 
(Upper Division) — 

Kemble Beds and -i Thin-bedded oolite and sandy layers 

White Limestone. 

Oolitic limestone 

Bubbly and marly beds - 1 to 

Compact oolitic coral-limestone, with 
in the upper part (for about 1 foot) 
irregular ferruginous and earthy 
veins, causing cavities as in the Dag- 
ham stone. Gonvexastrcea Waltoni ? 
and Btylina - - - - 

Oolites with sandy partings in places - 






* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xli. p. 172. 


A well sunk at the Farm was carried to a depth of 140 feet, 
into the Fuller's Earth. The full thickness of the Great Oolite 
probably does not exceed 120 feet. 

The task of fixing a precise division between Great Oolite and 
Forest Marble, is difficult enough in the neighbourhood of Ciren- 
cester. From a general point of view there is indeed a marked 
difference between the white limestoaesj the marls and more or 
less shelly oolites that belong to tlie Great Oolite ; and the hard 
oolitic shelly and sandy flags and planking of the Forest Marble, 
separated as these are by beds of clay, and accompanied as they 
sometimes are by sands and concretionary masses of calcareous 
sandstone. Nevertheless the junction-beds not unfrequently 
comprise alternations of marls and clays with shelly and oolitic 
limestones, there being clayey bands, sometimes crowded with 
Ostrea Soioerbyi, at several distinct horizons. The fauna of the 
Bradford Clay is only preserved here and there; and to the north 
and north-east of Cirencester, as remarked by Prof. J. Buckman,* 
■we have but rare indications of it. On the whole the flaggy beds 
of Great Oolite are not so hard nor so thinly divided, as are those 
of the Forest Marble ; nor when obliquely bedded, are they sepa- 
rated by the even bands of blue and shaly clays that mark the 
Forest Marble. Again, the Forest Marble limestones are usually 
characterized by ochreous clay-galls, and they are more often blue 
in colour, owing to the protecting layers of clay associated with 

Great Oolite has been quarried in several places bordering the 
Great Western (branch) railway south of Cirencester station. 
The junction-beds with the Forest Marble are shovrn in some of 
the openings, and it is evident that the clays and marl-beds are 
of varied thickness in different places, and it is impossible to 
correlate the layers, bed for bed, in the several exposures. 

The following section was shown in one of the quarries : — 

Ft. In. 

(Clay, with band of blue flaggy oolitic 
and shelly limestone - - - 2 6 

Brown and bluish clay, with baud of 
marly oolitic limestone - - 3 6 

fHard blue and brown oolitic and shelly 
„ i J J limestone - - - - 3 

Passage-beds. ^ ^^jj^j^ ^^^^^ ^-y^^^ ^itj^ <<race," and 

L Ostrea - - - . 

{Pale oolite, (with Ostrea) 
Marly clay, with Ostrea ' 
Pale false-bedded oolites - 

Echinobrissus Grieslachi was obtained from the Great Oolite 
at this locality. Other Echinoderms also occur sometimes abun- 
dantly in this neighbourhood. A large number of specimens 
(many hundreds indeed) of Acrosalenia pustulata, were obtained at 
Cirencester, by Fred. Bra vender and T. C. Brown, in the winter 
1858-59.t The following section was given by Bravender: — 







* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xiv. p. 117. 
t Wriglit, Ool. Echin. Pal. Soc, pp. 460, 46). 



Ft. In, 
Forest Marble - Bradford Clay with Waldheimia cligona 6 
rOolite - . - . - 6 

Great Oolite J ^^""^J 7? ^'^^ Aorosalenia. - -0,2 

(KembleBeds).S ?»/£*- - - . .04 


The only other species found was Holectypus depressus ; but I 
was _ informed by Mr. VV. A. Baily of Cirencester, that the 
specimens of Acrosalenia occurred in a cluster, and that he con- 
veyed away a barrow-load of them. Few, if any, examples can 
now be found in the quarry. 

Fig. 84. 
Section at Hare. Bushes Quarry, north-east of Cirencester. 


f-----]r— rjrr-x.— IT 

IL ' 

An interesting section (Fig. 84) has been opened to the north- 
east of Cirencester, at the Hare Bushes quarry, a little south- 
west of the Foss Way. It was as follows : — 




r7. Thin bedded marly and shelly oolitic 

Forest Marble J limestone - - . . 

(passage-beds.) j 6. Pale and dark brown clay with 

L " race " and Osirea - 6 to 

("5. Shelly oolite - -_ . . 

' 4 Oolitic marl with Ostrea, Sowerhyi 

(abundant) - . . . 

. 3. False-bedded buff oolite, shelly and 

I fissile - - - 2 Oto 

I 2. Buff and white, compact, and slightly 

I oolitic limestones, with fibrous 

■i markings on surface - 3 to 

I 1. Brown oolitic and somewhat sandy 

L limestones : seen to depth of 



Ft. In. 


The false-bedded oolite rests on a very uneven surface of the 
compact white limestones, which appear in greater thickness at 
the southern end of the quarry. The appearances point to some 
contemporaneousi erosion of the strata. About 10 feet more of 
oolite was at one time exposed at this quarry, as mentioned by 


Prof. Buckman.* The details of the beds are however subject 
to much variation. From this locality he obtained the Reptilian 
eggs named Oolithes bathonicm, in a bed of white freestone ; and 
these he considered to have belonged to Teleosaurus.f (See 
pp. 17, 313.) 

These rocks are overlaid to tlie north-east by beds of undoubted 
Forest Marble, well shown in a quarry and in the adjoining rail- 
way-cuttings that extend by the Norcott plantation. 

The upper strata may be grouped as passage-beds between the 
Great Oolite and Forest Marble ; and the top bed appears to 
correspond with the thick layer of blue and brown oolitic and 
shelly limestone, marked in the section south of Cirencester. 
The top layer of white and compact limestone belongs to the White 
Limestone series, and corresponds with one of the beds of Dagham 

The general section of the Great Oolite at Cirencester appears 
to be as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
r Kemble f 0°^^*^^ (false-bedded chiefly at base) 
u li \ n Aa \ ^^^ marly beds with occasional 

«.2 J ^®'^^- L fossil-beds- _ - from 30 to 10 

*^^ I Wb"t rWliite and oolitic limestones with 

fi I Limestone. | tibiform markings (Dagham^Stone^ ^^ ^ 

Lower f False-bedded and fissile oolite and 

Division. \ calcareous sandstones - 25 to 35 

The Kemble Beds evidently become thinner when traced from 
Kemble to Cirencester ; while onwards in a north-easterly direc- 
tion they become overlapped, near Baunton Downs, by the Forest 
Marble, which then rests directly on the White Limestone, 

Cirencester to Sevenhampton, Salperton, Nauntov, and 
Stow-on-the- Wold. 

A quarry on the Cheltenham road,"east of Stratton, showed 
the followlno; section ; — 



Fnrpqt Marble f ^"^^^^ '^e^s of marl and marly lime- 
Jorest Marble J ^ j^j^ ^^^^ crowded with 
(passage-beds). \ ^^^^^ 

TFalse-bedded shelly oolites, fissile in 
1 places, and with thin partings of 
Kemble J marl . - - . - 

Beds. ( Fissile marly bed . . - 

1 Hai'd rnbbly oolite ... 
I False-bedded oolite ... 
(Hard and compact white limestone, 
I with scattered grains of oolite 

. J Marly band .... 

Limestone. \ Fine-grained brown oolite 
Hard white oolite 

Ft. In. 

Cb I White J Marly band 









(_Fine-grained brown oolite 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xiv. p. 117. See also Journ. Bath and W. of 
Eng. Soc vol. xiii. p. 220. 

t Ibid., vol. ivi. p. 107. See also figure in Prestwich'g Geologj, vol. ii. p. 206. 




The beds here are very changeable in character within short 
distances. The Gas House Quarry, half a mile north of Ciren- 
cester, described by Prof. Buckman, showed beds that probably 
correspond- with those noted in the above section. It was carried 
to a grea,ter depth, so that he describes 35 feet of stone-beds 
beneath the top rubbly layers. He moreover records Wold- 
heimia digona from " Bradford Clay," evidently a portion of the 
3 feet of rubbly beds above mentioned.* 

North of Stratton there is considerable difficulty in tracing out 
the sequence of the beds, but there are several quarries along the 
main road. In one of these we find a section showing about 
10 feet of false-bedded oolite, shelly in places, and yielding 
Strophodus and Ostrea, representing the Upper (Kemble) Beds. 

East of Daglingworth the connection of these with the under- 
lying beds, was shown in a quarry north of the 15th milestone 

as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
fBrown oolitic and shelly limestone 

2 to 3 
■j^ , , Rubbly roolitic bed with Oeromya 

^ H ^ "^ excentrica, EJomomya Vezelayi, Lima 
® ■ ca/i-diiformis, Lucina hellona, Modiola, 

Fholadomya, Terebratula maxillata, 

&c. 2 6 

"Hard bed of limestone, the surface 
< covered with large Ostrea Bowerbyi. 

1 Oto 1 6 
Dagham Stone ; the cavities filled with 
Yvuii-e ; irregular ochreous marl. Compact 

jjimesTone. l oolitic limestone passing down into 
White Oolite, with a shelly bed 
I (3 ft. down) yielding Nautilus, 
\_ Purpuroidea glabra, Pecten, &c. - 9 

Dagham Stone. 

In the neighbourhood of Cirencester there are found layers and 
blocks of Great Oolite characterized by irregular and ramifying 
tubiform cavities. Where the stone is in situ and protected from 
the direct influence of the weather, the cavities are usually filled 
with ochreous material ; where exposed to the action of the 
weather, the cavities in the stone have been emptied and enlarged. 
Irregular blocks have been obtained for rustic work or rockeries, 
on Dagham or Daglingworth Downs to the north of Cirencester. 
Attention has previously been called to stone of this character, 
under the name of "Dagham Stone." Keferring to this rock, 
my father, S. P. "Woodward, has stated that " In Gloucestershire 
there is a bed of the Great Oolite, called ' Dagham Down Stone, 
because it forms the substratum of a large extent of (formerly) 
down-land. This must have originally enveloped a continuous bed 
of sponges, or something of the kind, for now the rain eats into 
it irregularly, leaving holes such as one could make with the 
fingers in dough."t 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xiv. p. 114. 
t Geol. Mag., 1867, p. 405. 

GREAT oolite: dagham stone. 287 

Lycett attributed these Irregular holes " to the forcible escape 
of gases from beneath while the stratum was of a soft or past^ 
consistence " ;* and Prof. Allen Harker considers them to be due 
to the action of humic acid.f Witchell, again, remarked that 
these beds full of holes, have been called " holy-stones," and that 
" the probable explanation of this peculiarity is that the calcareous 
matter was deposited round soft substances which liave been 
dissolved or otherwise removed, and through the labours of boring 
animals when the surface of the limestone was the floor of the sea." J 

The rock itself is a pale slightly oolitic limestone, that occurs 
in the White Limestone division of the Great Oolite. It is not, 
however, confined to one particular horizon, as two or more layers 
exhibiting these cavities may sometimes be observed, separated 
by some thickness of other beds. Where seen at some depth 
beneath the surface the cavities are fiUed, or partially filled, with 
ochreous marl containing oolitic grains ; and altiiough occasionally 
small cavities may be due to the decomposition of branching 
Corals, as I take to be the case at Minchinhampton, or of 
clusters of oolite grains that occur in the compact limestones, yet 
in the majority of instances no definite structure can be found 
associated with them. 

Stone showing these curious hollows has been found in many 
places near Cirencester ; but in most cases the stone has not been 
subjected to surface weathering, as on Dagham Downs. Lycett 
mentions the old monumental stone, the Longstone, near Minchin- 
hampton, as being formed of rock full of irregular holes. 

In a quarry in white and slightly oolitic llniestone at Eastcombs 
near Bisley, the stone contained these ramifying ochreous perfora- 
tions, which appeared like ferruginous stainlngs, to a depth of 
3 or 4 feet, or more. Again near Ledgemore Bottom, north of 
Tetbury the rock is found in a weathered condition. 

The appearances are not confined to the Great Oolite, as I 
have noticed them, on a smaller scale, in the Inferior Oolite 
between Stroud and Painswick. From their position they cannot 
have originated from modern surface-agencies, although these 
have modified and enlarged the hollows, especially at or near the 
surface. In all cases the original structure of the rock must have 
led to the formation of the features ; but even underground the 
ochreous nature of the branching materials, and the sharp and 
irregular outlines of the walls of rock, show that the influence of 
permeating waters has been at work. 

The most reasonable explanation seems to be that the soft 
calcareous mud was penetrated by burrowing organisms, which 
hare left no other traces of their former presence in the now 
indurated deposit, than the irregular lines of weakness caused by 
their burrows. These have been subsequently acted upon both 
superficially and underground, by acidulated waters. 

* Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. iv. p. 185. 

t Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. ir. p. 316. See aUo Phillips, Geol. Oxford, &c., 
p. 243. 

J Geology of Stroud, p. 78. 


The Lower Beds of the Great Oolite have been exposed near 
Smith's Cross, south-west of Elkston, and again at Briary Hill, 
east of Nettleco.mb, near Birdlip, where we find in sequence the 
following beds : — 

Et. In. 
f'False-bedded. shelly oolite - - 4 

C t O rt I Fissile shelly, sandy and marly oolite, 

,T -i-i- • • \ '^ passing down into thin false-bedded 

(Lower Division). ^| ^^^^^^%f calcareous sandstone and 

t_ oolite (of Stonesfield type) - about 10 

Ostrea and Rhynchonella conchma occur here. Similar beds, 
comprising fissile shelly and oolitic limestone, with a clayey band, 
were exposed in a quarry west of Perrot's Brook, and south-east 
of Bagendon. 

A quarry west of Baunton, and a little south of Trinity Mill, 
exposed a series of flaggy and sandy oolites and limestones, with 
an intermediate marly oolitic band (4 feet tliick). From this band 
of marl, I obtained the following fossils: — 

Astarte (cast). 
Lima duplicata. 
Lucina bellona. 
Modiola imbricata. 
Ostrea Sowerbyi. 

Pholadomya deltojdea P 


Terebratula maxillata. 

These beds come above the White Limestone, and the fossil- 
bed may be compai-ed with thsit found east of Dagling worth 
(See p. 286.) 

North-east of Baunton there is a quarry showing nearly 15 
feet of thin bedded oolite, resting on false-bedded buiT shelly and 
sandy oolite. These beds, mapped by the Geological Survey as 
Forest Marble, belong to the Upper Division of the Great Oolite 
(Kemble Beds). 

South-east of Galmsden, a quarry between the railway and the 
high-road, showed the following sequence : — 

'Shelly oolitic limestone - . . 

Brown sandy marl with Ostrea - 
Forest J Osirea-limestone, with Lima cardiiformis 
Marble. '■ Irregular rubbly limestone, and brown 
I sandy and " racy " marls ; with Ostrea 
[_ Sovierhyi (abundant) ... 
Great Oolite 1" Hard brown oolitic and shelly limestone - 
(Upper -J Yellow rubbly marl 
Division). L Brown shelly oolite with marly patches - 

The top beds here (in part' at any rate) are equivalent to the 
beds seen in the quarry on tlie Cheltenham road, east of Stratton. 
(See p. 285). A quarry about | mile S.S.W. of Galmsden, showed 
about 7 feet of false-bedded and current-bedded oolite and buff 
sandy oolite, worked for wall-building, &c. These beds are on a 
lower horizon, equivalent to the strata in the quarry west of 

Beds belonging to the White Limestone division of the Great 
Oolite, were well shown in a quarry by the cross-roads south-west 
of Baunton Downs, as follows: — 














Oreat Oolite 


Rubble of limestone 

Hard false-bedded white oolite, with bed 

like the Dagham stone, in places, at the 

top - - - - 2 to 

Hard white limestone with scattered 

oolitic grains ; brown in places 
Brown limestone with abundant oolitic 

grains ..... 

Ft. In. 

North-east of Eendcomb, and north of Holly bush, a Lime-kiJn 
on the west side of the road showed the followino; beds : — 

Great Oolite 

(White -{ 
Limestone). I 

Smooth white limestone, slightly oolitic - 

Rubbly beds with Lucina lellona and" 
Oypricwrdia ivuculiformis 

Compact limestone 

Hard Ooral.limestone 

Hard slightly oolitic stone 
I Fine oolitic stone - 
I Coral-limestone 
LHard oolitic marly bed. 

Ft. In. 
2 6 

The railway-cuttings between Cirencester and Ched worth 
have opened up some good sections of the Great Oolite. This 
rock is exposed near Wiggold (Wigwold) Copse, both in the 
cuttmg and in a quarry by the adjoining plantation. At the 
quarry we see about 6 feet of rubbly oolites and maris, resting on 
3 feet of oolitic freestone. In the cutting we find lower bede, 
comprising about 6 feet of pale shelly and oolitic limestones, 
false-bedded, and presenting resemblances to the White Limestone. 
The same beds are exposed to a depth of 10 feet, further on to 
the south-east of Baunton Downs Farm, and clay-bands a few 
inches thick appear among the stone -beds. 

The strata are best shown in a long cutting to the north-east of 
Baunton Downs, and there we appear to ha\e evidence of the 
<)verkp of the Forest iMarble on to the White Limestone division 
of the Great Oolite. (See Yig. 85.) 

At the southern end of tlie cutting the upper beds of the 
'Great Oolite showed an alternation of marls and oolites having a 
banded appearance. These are the beds exposed in the Wiggold 
Copse quarry. They are overlaid by obliquely bedded oolitic 
limestones with ochreous clay-galls, belonging to the Forest 
Marble. About midway in the cutting the section was; as 
> follows : — 

Forest Marble 





E 75928. 

Ft. In. 
/ Hard current-bedded oolitic limestone 

t with clay-galls - - 4 to 6 

rMarlyclay - - - 1 to 1 9 

J Oolite - - . 1 Ito 2 6' 
1 Clay with thin bands of limestone in 

L places . - - - - 1 
r Shelly, and pale earthy limestone with 

1 scattered oolitic grains - 3 to 12 " 

290 lower oolitic rocks of england : 

Fig. 85. 

Section north-east of Baunton Downs, between Cirencester and 
Chedworth, on the Midland and South-Western Junction 

S. N. 

3. Hard flaggy and current -bedded oolitic limestone with clay-galls T p. tit„-i,i„ 

4 to 6 feet. J 
2. Marly clay with impersistent band of oolite - 1 to 6 feet, l p . p, i-^ 
1. White limestones, oolites, and marls - 3 to 6 feet. J ^'** uoiiie. 

The band of oolite in ihe Kemble Beds, tapers away towards 
the north ; the marly clays also become attenuated, so that the 
Forest Marble is separated from the White Limestone by a band 
of clay 1 foot or 18 inches thick. The top bed of White Lime- 
stone is here a hard pale oolitic and shelly limestone, with cavities 
like the Dagham stone, and the beds beneath comprise alternations 
of more or less oolitic limestone and thin marls. 

The Cutting, north of the Foss Way, showed hard white and 
shelly limestone, covered by greenish marl and dark shelly oolite 
in rough irregular beds. These Uppet beds probably belong to 
the Forest Marble. Further north there are several deep cuttings, 
one near the Barn, showing 6 feet of marls and limestones in 
alternate bands, overlying a hard pale limestone with scattered 
oolitic grains, and with cavities like the Dagham stone. 

Northwards of the Barn, from 15 to 18 feet of more or less 
oolitic limestone was exposed, with occasional marl bands — the 
stone being employed for railway-works. At the time of my 
vi=it these cuttings were not completed, but they hav^ sinne befen 
described by Prof. Allen Harker.* In the cutting east of All^ove 
(Aldgrove) Barn he notes two beds of limestone perforated by 
irregular cavities, and separated by a bed of "grey compact 
iieestone " 4 feet thick. From another and lower bed of grey 
compact freestone, he obtained a number of spheroidal masses 
about the size of a cricket ball, made up of alternate concentric 
bands of pink and yellowish white limestone. In these masses 
he lias found traces of Solenopord (or a closely allied Hydroid 
Zoophyte), a genus hitherto found only in Lower Silurian or 
Ordovician strata. This fossil Avas recognized by Prof H. A. 
Nicholson. The mass of these beds I take to belong to the Wiiite 
Limestone division, although the rubbly oolites and marls, seen 
in places on top of the more compact and partially oolitic lime- 
stones, may belong to the Kemble Beda. 

A cutting, which I uoted, north-west of Long Furlon", and 
south-east of Chedworth, showed the following section : — 


* Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. x. p. 82. 



Bubbly bands of shelly oolite 
Marly layer (impersistent) 
Even beds of more or leas oolitic lime- 
G-reat Oolite stone — the top layer a hard white and 
(Upper ■< pinkish limestone with scattered grains 
Division). of oolite - . - . . 

Pale limestones, as above, with ferru- 
ginous cavities like Dagham stone in 
top layer ..... 



6 6 

The pink limestone here is of the nature of that discovered by 
Prof. Harker, for I had brought away a specimen *t)f it, which 
closely resenibles the rock he kindly sent to me. 

Further on to the soutli of Chedworth, the lower beds of 
Great Oolite were exposed as follows : — 



Division , 
(with Stones-'' 
field Beds). 


f Bubble of white oolite and marl. 

"Hard fine-grained and false-bedded oolite 
(freestone) - - . 4 to 

Blue and brown clay with sandy layers 
and Ostrea. 

Impersistent bands of hard partially 
oolitic sandy limestone, fissile and false- 
bedded in places ; and impure fuller's 


Ft. In. 

On the south side of the Chedworth tunnel, the flaggy beds 
appear somewhat concretionary, and the FuUoninn clays inime> 
diately below, yielded Ostrea acuminata. (See Fig. 42, p. 128.) 

The Great Oolite and Forest Marble were shown in a quarry by 
the high.road, west of Coin St. Denis, where the section was as 
follows :— 

Forest Marble. 

Great Oolite 
(Upper Division). 

f Oolitic and shelly limestone with 
ochreous galls and fine oolite 
Thin-bedded oolite and laminated marly 
clay . 
r Compact brown limestone with occa- 
J sional oolitic grains and dendritic 
] markings .... 

L Hard brown limestones . 

Ft. In. 

Prof. Hull reckoned the thickness of the upper division of the 
Great Oolite at Coin St. Denis to be as much as 145 feet, and 
that of the lower 45 feet ;* but the evidence since afforded by the 
boring at Burford, and by railway-cuttings in Gloucestershire, 
would lead to the conclusion that the total thickness of the 
formation does not exceed 120 feet. 

The cuttings on the Banbury and Cheltenham railway, between 
Andoversford and Bourton-on-the- Water have thrown much light 
on the nature of the Great Oolite in that region. (See Fig. iS, 
p. 131.) The beds become much more argillaceous, especially in 
the lower divis'on, than they are near Cirencester and Tetbury on 

* Explan. Hor. Soc, Sheet '59, p. 3. 

T 2 



the western side of the Cotteswold Hiils : indeed in places we 
find that the formation comprises in bvxlk about one-third of marl 
and clay to two-thirds of limestone. 

At the western end of the railway-cutting north of Hampen, 
the FuUonian beds (Fuller's Earth) are exposed, while the over- 
lying strata of Great Oolite are much obscured. East of the 
bridge also we find beds of Great Oolite limestone much tumbled 
and obscured, but further on there is a clear sequence of beds from 
the Fuller's Earth, through the Stonesfield Slate Series and 
Great Oolite. The general section which I measured in det^iil is 
as follows: — 

r_. T-v- ■ ■ r White limestones ■ 35 

I. TTnno.r Divi«,on. JMarlybeds - - - 28 

"Freestone (=Tayiitoii stone) 

abont 30 

. Stonesfield Slate Series - 21 

- Fuller's Earth (25 to 30 feet thick 10 

I Upper Division. 
CtJ Q ] Lower Division. 


FuUonian - 




Immediately above the slaty beds in a cutting near Notgrove, 
Mr. E. A. Walford noted a Crinoid-bed with Millericrinus Pratti 
This bed is a brown shelly marl, with Ostrea, Cyprides, and 
Foraminifera, and with rolled and bored stones. In the overlying 
freestones he obtained Ceritella, Cerithium, Cylindrites, Nerinaa, 
Corbula, Tancredia, (fee* 

Mr. R. F. Tomes has noted the occurrence of a thin Coral-bed, 
with Isastraa, Thamnasiraa, and Microsolena, at Aylworth, on 
the railway between Bourton-on -the-Water and Cheltenham.! 
This layer occurs immediately above the Stonesfield Slate. 

The details shown in the section of the Great Oolite north of 
Hampen (C.) were as follows : the numbers attached to the sub- 
divisions are those given in the section Fig. 43, p. 131 : — 

Ft. In. 
("White limestones ; mbbly beds, with 
Gasteropods, Ostrea, Terebratula 
maxillata (smooth forms), and Corals 6 

Harder beds of white or creamy lime- 
stone, with scattered oolitic grains : 
Lima cardiiformi^ - - - 5 

Alternations of pale grey marly lime- 
J stones, and somewhat fissile marls - 5 
j Pale earthy and finely oolitic limestone : 

bored - - - - 1 2 

Fissile, rubbly, and marly limestones - 9 6 

Hard fiHe-grained white oolitic lime- 
stone: Lueina - - - 2 2 

Fissile brown oolite - - - 1 

Hard and compact white oolitic lime- 
stone - - - - - 6 

'Bluish-grey and yellow oolitic marls, 
with Ostrea ; and with two bands of 
grejr shelly oolitic limestone : with 
lignite in the lower band - - 8 

* P-rOC. Warwicksh. Nat. Club, March 14, 1882 ; and P. H. Carpenter, Quart. 
JouHh-Geoli-Soc., vol. xxxviii. p. 29. - - 

•f Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol; xxxix. p, 170. 

White Limestone 



Marly Beds 


Stonesfield Beds 

FuUonian (Fuller's 

Ft. In. 

G-rey shaly and marly oolitic beds : 

Ost^-ea Sowerhyi - - - - 3 

Grey earthy and oolitic limestone : 
G-asteropod-bed, with Gasteropoda 
and Lamellibranchs - ' - - 1 

Grey earthy limestones more or less 
oolitic : many Lamellibranchs - 3 

Yellow and grey rubbly oolitic bed, 
with Trigonia costata ?, &c. - - 1 3 

Bluish-grey oolitic marl, indurated in 
places : Ostrea Sowerhyi abundant, 
and forms like 0. acuminata - 2 

Fissile and rubbly bluish-grey and 
yellow oolite, with marly and shaly 
bands ; and curious tracks of animals, 
like those of the Forest Marble : 
Modiola imbrieata, Trigonia, &c. 
These bods merge into those below - 10 . 

fPale fine-grained oolite, false-bedded, 
J with shelly and marly layers here 
<( and there, coarser oolite in places, 
f- and occasionally fissile beds (=Tayn- 
L ton stone) - - - about 30 

"Yellowish marl, passing down into 
brown and blue shaly beds ; with in- 
durated and more or less concre- 
tionary layers of calcareous and mi- 
caceous sandstone (slaty beds) : of 
which there are two prominent 
though impersistent bands. Buff 
and grey sands occur irregularly, 
and -tracks of animals may be ob- 
served on some of the thin, flaggy 
layers. The slaty beds are more 
pronounced further east - - 10 

Bluish marly shales, with micaceous 

gritty layers : slaty at base - - 9 

Shaly beds - - - -2-0 

Band of bluish-grey obscurely oolitic 

and shelly limestone - - - 4 

Bluish-grey marly shales, with bands 

of hard pale marl, seen to depth of - 10 

A better section (D.) of the lower beds of the Great Oolite 
was shown, west of the railway -bridge, in the cutting north-west 
of Salperton. The Stonesfield Beds comprise layers of a very 
inconstant and variable character, the details being different on 
the eastern side of the bridge. The section was as follows (see 
Fig. 43, p. 131) :~ 

Freestone (13). 

Irregular flaggy, false-bedded, and 

coarse-grained white and brown 

•i shelly oolites ; with marly layers 

here and there (becoming thicker in 

places towards the base) 

"Shaly and marly beds, with indurated 

sandy and calcareous bands - 
Fissile grey and yellow calcareous 
sandstone, more or less concretionary. 

Ft. In. 




Ft. In. 

Stonesfield Beds 

witli pot-lid structure, slightly oolitic 
in. places, and -with here and there 
lenticular masses of soft sand 2 to 3 


FuUonian (Fuller's 
Earth) (11). 


Irregular bed of grey sand 

Yellow and white micaceous sandy 
shales, and fissile sandy beds 

Shelly and oolitic limestone, with Ostrea 
acuminata ; passing down into fissile 
micaceous and calcareous sandstone 
with Gervillia, Ostrea acuminata, 0. 
Sowerbyi, Placunopsis socialis, Pleu- 
ronvya, Trigonia impressa (= Slaty 
beds of Sevenhampton, &c.) - 

"Tellowish-grey marl and micaceous 
shales, with ferruginous sandy and 
ochreous layers near top. 

Again towards Aylworth, in the second cutting (H.) east of Notgrove 
Station, and in the eastern end of the first cutting (G-.), there were sections 
showing the lower beds of Great Oolite and Stonesfield Beds, and at one 
point the whole of the Fuller's Earth (about 25 or 30 feet) down to the 
Inferior Oolite. Still further east other sections were to be seen, the most 
important being that south-east of Eoundhill Farm (N.), where the whole 
of the Fuller's Earth was again shown. 

Stonesfield Slate has been extensively worked on Sevenhampton 
Common, north-west of Sevenhampton, principally to the east of 
Puckham Woods. The beds exposed in 1 887, were as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
Bubble and soil - - - - 1 

fBrown clay - - - - 1 

] Bubbly oolitic marl, the surface of which 
< is piped : Ostrea acuminata - - 3 

1 Compact pinkish concretionary lime- 
L rock (see p. 290) - - - 1 

(Fissile and false-bedded shelly oolite ; a 
variable series of stone-beds, more or 
less oolitic, much coated in places with 
carbonate of lime derived from the 
rubbly marl above. [Bagstone] about 





The " Slates " were formerly worked below these beds, and 
are not now exposed, the workings having been given^up about 
40 years ago on account of the thickness of overlying material — 
the " slates " readily obtained having been exhausted. 

Some details of the old quarries were published by Murchison, 
J. Buckman, and Strickland. Their records agree generally with 
the above account, and further note the occurrence of the Stones- 
field Slate (4 feet thick) immediately beneath the Ragstone ; 
while at the bottom of all, yellow clay (Fuller's Earth) was 
proved.* Lima cardiiformis, Pecten, and Ammonites were noted 
in the Ragstone by these authorities : the last-named form (rare 
indeed in this series) was however obtained by myself at BIsley. 
Plant-remains have also been recorded.t 

* Murchison, Geol. Cheltenham, ed. 2, 1845, p. 18; eee also Lonsdale, Froc. 
Geol. Soc. vol. i. p. 413 ; and Hull, Explan. Hor. Sec. Sheet 59, p. 4. 

t See Brodie and Buckman, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. i. p. 223 ; Hull, Geol. 
Cheltenham, p. 54 ; Phillips, Geol. Oxford, p. 168. 



Slates were worked 
south-west of Whitall 
exposed : — 

(in 1887) about one-third of a mile 
Farm, and the following section was 


Brown clay with weathered fragments 
of limestone . . - 

Fissile blue limestone 

Fissile sandy limestone or calcareous 
sandstone ; 3 or 4 inches at base solid 
" Slate,'' the upper beds rotten 

Greenish-yellow marl, with shaly bands 

Fetid greyish-brown sandy limestone, 
with Oetrea and Gasteropoda. 

Ft. Ih; 






The " slates " here were greyish-brown and not distinctly 
oolitic. Ostrea, Placunopsis socialis, and Trigorda impressa, 
occur on the surfaces of the slaty beds. 

The variable nature of the Stonesfield Slate Series, in this and 
other districts, is a characteristic feature — for the beds become of 
economic value at somewhat different horizons here and there, 
even in the same quarry. 

At Kyneton Thorns between Oondicote and Naunton, there 
were formerly many quarries, and it is recorded that at one of 
these, no less than 120,000 roofing slates were made in the course 
of a season. The stone was raised about December and spread 
over the surface of the ground, and when " weathered " (or frosted) 
the blocks were capable of being splii; into thin layers.* The 
following section was shown in one of the quarriest : — 

Great Oolite 
Lower Division). 

[Rubble, &c. 

i. Ragstone 

L Stonesfield Slate 

Ft. In. 

3 or 4 

- 13 

- 5 

Among the fossils, a new species o£ " Asterias " or Astropecten 
cotteswoldicB,% Belemnites, Fish-remains, a tooth of Megalosaurus, 
and Plant-remains were obtained. 

Slates have been quarried over a large area north and north- 
east of Naunton. The following section at Summer Hill, Eyeford, 
to the north-east of Naunton, was recorded by Prof. Hull : — 

Brown sandy slate ... 

Thin-bedded limestone ... 

Brown fissile sandstone - - . 

Thin-bedded limestone - 

Brown fine-grained sandstone, splitting 
into flags and slates - 

Thin irregular limestone 

Brown finely-grained sandstone, split- 
ting into slates 

Olay (probably Fuller's Earth). 













* See Mnrchison, Geol. Cheltenham, ed. 2, p. 22. 

t Brodie and Bnckmao, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. i. p. 223. 

J Adopted for the « Great Seal " of the Cotteswold Club. 


Many fossils from the beds in this neighbourhood were collected 
by the Eev. E. Witts, of Slaughter.* 

Prof. Hull mentions that the lower beds near Aston Blank,, 
have yielded good " slates " and flagstones, but the higher beds 
beconie oolitic ; .ind such is also the case at Salperton and 
Hawling.f Slaty beds have also been obtained at Pewsdown, 
w<*8t of Hasleton, and to the north of Ohedworth. 

The following fossils have been recorded from the Stonesfield 
Slate of Sevenhampton (S.), Kyneton (K.), Salperton (Sp.),, 
Naunton, and Kyeford (E.) : — , 

Ehamphocephalus PrestwiohiJ 

Ischyodus emarginatus. 
Mesodon (Pycnodus) 
Belemnites bessinus 

, Ostrea acuminata 
■ Sowerbyi 
Placunopsis socialis 
Trigonia impressa 
Pacbynereis corrugatus§ 
Astropecten ootteswoldise 


B. K. 





E. K. 



S. Sp. 

E. Sp. 

S. Sp. 





At Wagboro Bush, near Stow-on-the-Wold, some Mollusca 
were obtained from the Great Oolite by Messrs. Brodie and 
Buckman ; and the species were considered to indicate an horizon 
corresponding with the beds at Ancliff, near Bradford-on-Avon.|i 
(See p. 261.) They include Gylindrites (Actceon) mispidatus, 
Neridomiis (^Nerita) mbiutus, Corbula, and Leda {Nucula), 

Prof. Hull notes that at Oddington, Icombe, and Stow, the 
Great Oolite consists of compact oolite, showing much false- 
bedding, and splitting up into coarse slates and flags. He f urther - 
remarks that " On the east side of Stow a bed of conglomerate 
may be observed in a quarry. The pebbles, which are well 
rounded, and not larger than a pigeon's egg, consist of white 
limestone, unfossiliferous and slightly oolitic."1[ This bed is 
probably the same as that noted further east, marking the base of 
the Great Oolite, where it rests on the Chipping Norton Limestone. 

Fairford, Northleach, Burford, and Wychwood Forests 

An interesting fossil-bed in the Great Oolite is the Fairford 
Coral-Bed. The occurrence of this bed was noticed by John 
Woodward in 1'728, for he then recorded " Branched coralloid 

* See also Proo. Cotteswold Club, vol. x. p. 5., 

t Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, p. 55, 60. 

J Seeley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, toI. xxxti. p. 27. 

§ Etheridge, Proo. Cotteswold Club, vol. ix. p. 2'. 

II Brodie and Buckman, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. i. p. 224, 

T Geol. Cheltenham, p. 60. 

GREAT oolite: I'AIRFoKD, 297 

Bodies, from a Quarry in Fairford-Field, North-east of the, 

It is remarkable that here as well as ia other localities of th& 
Great Oolite, and in the famous Corallian locality of Steeple 
Ashton in Wiltshire, the Corals have been obtained from the 
ploughed fields. The explanation may be that while no stone 
worth quarrying is to be obtained, yet the number of Corals has 
naturally attracted attention. Mr. E. F. Tomes mentions that a 
lai'ge number of Corals were collected near Fairford by Miss 
Slatter, " whose attention was first directed to them by the 
appearance of numerous corals scattered over the surface of a 
ploughed field. Subsequently a great many unworn and beautiful 
examples were obtained, from excavations made for the purpose of 
collecting specimens. "f 

The position of the Coral-Bed was thus stated by Dr. Lycett :. 
"At the base of the Corn brash, near Fairford, is a stratum of 
marl which has also yielded a profusion of Corals in a fine state 
of preservation " ; ancl_ he adds (in a footnote) " The position of 
this coralline stratum has been determined by my friend Mr. 
[John] Jones, of Gloucester."t Writing in 1858, the Rev. P. B. 
Brodie referred to the bed as probably connected with the Forest 
Marble or perhaps the Cornbrash, but he added " the locality has 
been kept secret, and few collectors are acquainted with it,"§ 

In 1888 Mr. T. J. Slatter kindly directed me to the famed 
spot. He described the bed as a lenticular deposit, almost as- 
white as chalk-marl ; and varying in thickness from a few inches to 
about 2 feet. He regards it as the base of the Forest Marble and 
as probably on the horizon of the Bradford Clay : and therefore 
somewhat later in date thai the Coral-bed of Caps Lodge, near 
Burford. I regard it as belonging to the Great Oolite. The 
Fairford Corals include the following species : — 

Bathycoenia Slatteri. 
Cryptocoenia microphylla. 


Isastraea explanulata. 


^ limitata. 

Microsolena excelsa. 
Montlivaltia fairfordensis. 
Stylina solida. 
ThamTjastrEBa Lyelli. 


Theoosmilia Slatteri. 

Anabacia complanata is so rare that only one example from, 
this locality had come under the notice of Mr. Tomes. 

The Fairford Corals occur in a ploughed field about ^ mile east 
of Honeycomb Leaze, and a little west of an old Barn. A shallow 
pit (now filled up) at one time exposed the Coral-bed, but most 
of the specimens have been obtained from the soil ploughed up iu 
the field. Judging by the Geological Survey Map (published in 
1857) the bed occurs at about the junction of the Cornbrash and 
Forest Marble, but this view is not confirmed by an examination 
of the ground. The Cornbrash is exposed to the south, about 

=« Nat. Hist. Eoss. England, Tome ii. p. 75. 
% Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxix. p. 170. 
X The Cotteswold Hills, 1857, p. 54. 
§ Geologist, vol. i. p. 43. 



i mile east of Blackford Barn, and north of the road ; and it is 
again exposed on the east, by the bend of the road or field-track 
near the main road between Quenington and Milton End. Clayey 
ground immediately beneath the Oornbrash indicates the presence 
of the Forest Marble clays. The ground immediately around the 
Barn yields slabs of Forest Marble, and not Combrash ; bat I 
was informed that trial-holes had shown there was no good stone 
there, a fact that receives some confirmation from the thickening 
of the Forest Marble clays towards the west, in the quarry south 
of Pilham Lodge. The northern slope of the ploughed field in 
which we find the Coral-bed, yields fragments of rock like Great 
Oolite ; and I obtained specimens of Isastraa limitata and 

The most important evidence of the age of the Coral-bed is 
obtained from the quarry immediately west of Honeycomb Leaze, 
where on top of the Great Oolite, and beneath the Forest Marble, 
there is a rubbly bed, that yields Corals. The following is the 
section at Honeycomb Leaze, about 2 miles north-west of 
Fairford : — 

Brown loamy soil, with bits of limestone 

Forest Marble - Flaggy oolite with bluish tinges 

Great Oolite f ^^il^bly bed with Ost,-ea, Bhynchonella, 

nTiinpr ■< ' "' Corals, Btylina, &c. 

- \ .P.P , j Pale oolites, much split up : some beds 

L Tery fine-grained - - 4 6 to 





In addition to Stylina. there were also calcitic Corals like those 
found in the field where the Fairford Corals have been obtained ; 
but most of my specimens were poorly preserved. 

The top beds of flaggy oolite are seen again in the road south 
of Honeycomb Leaze. A quarry north of Honeycomb Leaze 
copse showed the following beds : — 

Forest Marble 

Ft. In. 

Great Oolite 



> Z 

/ Blue shelly limestone like Forest Marble. 
\ Peeten ammlatris ... 

Oyster-bed, with Ostrea, Sowerhyi, 
Lima cardiiformis, Bhynchonella, 
Terebratwla maxiTlata,vaa,Bses ofcalc- 
spar (P calcitic corals) 

Rubbly beds of oolitic and shelly lime-~ 
stone ..... 

Hard white oolitic limestone and com- 
pact limestone with scattered oolitic 
grains - - . - . 

Fine and pale oolite like Minchin- 
hamptou Stone, passing down into 
tough shelly oolitic limestone 

Grey sandy and oolitic rock (like" 
Stonesfield Series) - - - 1 6 

A third quarry, to the W.N.W. of the last, and on the north 
side of the road, showed about 5 feet of grey sandy and feebly 
oolitic limestones, overlaid by oolitic beds with lignite. The 
Burface-beds were much disturbed, presenting appearances like 
" Trail." The stone itself reminded me of the Great Oolite 



ba8ement-beds (Stonesfield Series) of the neighbourhood of 

Between Northleach and Shipton-under-Wychwood the Great 
Oolite has yielded important beds of freestone in its lower 
division. The general sequence of the beds is difficult to deter- 
mine in many places, but it is as follows : — 

Ft. In. 



White Lime- 

Marly Beds 



rWhite limestones, shelly and more or 
l less oolitic, with occasional beds of 
; marl and brown limestone ; with two 
or more fossil-beds with Corals, Gas- 
teropods, Lima cardiiform/is, Tere- 
hratula maxillata, &c. - - 12 

■ Marls with bands of oolite and clays ; 
with Osirea, T. maicillata, Serpula, 
&c. - - - -^ 18 to 25 

Pale flaggy and shelly"" 
oolite, and current- 
bedded white oolitic lime- 
stone and marl 
Obliquely bedded oolite > 12 to 20 
(freestone) ; coarse and 
shelly in places, with 
Glypeus Millleri, Isastrcea, 

y. &c. " " "J 

P Fissile sandy limestone and marl 

1 about 4 

The general section compares well with that seen in the 
Hampen Cutting (p. 292;, although there is a considerable diminu- 
tion in the thickness of the White Limestone and of the Free- 
stone. Near Northleach many Corals have been obtained from 
the ploughed fields. 

It is not improbable that in this neighbourhood the Forest 
Marble rests on different portions of -the Great Oolite. The 
quarry at Hensgrove in Wychwood Forest, showed (at the base 
of the Forest Marble) an irregular white oolitic and marly lime- 
stone with pebbly portions, that appears to be a remani4 bed of 
Great OoKte ; and a section west of Burford noted by Prof. Hull, 
affijrds similar evidence, with also waterworn fossils.* 

Prof. Hull has stated that in the neighbourhood of North- 
leach, " the greater portion of the Stonesfield slate, or lower zone, 
passes into an oolitic freestone."t That the series is to a certain 
extent an interchangeable one, is borne out by the evidence 
afforded by the railway-cuttings between Chipping Norton and 
Hook Norton, where beds resembling Stonesfield Slate overlie 
beds of oolite ; but over great part of the Gloucestershire area, 
beds of a slaty character occur at the base of the freestone. 

Prof. Hull notes a quarry east of Leygore Farm, north-east of 
Northleach, which showed slaty beds at the base of the Great 
Oolite, as follows J J — 

* Geol. Cheltenham, p. 63. 
t Tbid., p. 55. 
% Ibid., p. 56. 


LOW'ER oolitic rocks of ENGLAND I 

Fi. In. 

["Coarse shelly oolite, obliquely lami- 

J nated - - - - -2,2 

I White oolitic marl - - - 4 

L White argillaceous oolite - - 0'i6 

r Grey calcareous slaty sandstone - 1 Q 

■i Brown and white sandy marl - - 0- ■ 6 

L Grrey sandy limestone - - - 2 

South-east of Sherborne, and north of the fifth milestone on the 
high road between Northleach and Burford, the following beds 
were shown : — 




Great Oolite 



Coarse flaggy and shelly oolite, with 
marly layers, slightly false-bedded - 

•i Obliquely bedded freestone, coarse and 
fine ■ oolite in pale-buff and brown 

[_ bands ; seen to a depth of - 

Ft. In. 


Placunopsis socialis was the only fossil which I obtained here. 
A quarry in Sherborne Park was described by Prof. Hull.* 

Fig. 86. 

Section at the Windrush Quarries, Gloucestershire. 
(.Prof. E. Hull.) 

Great Oolite . 

1. Loose white argillaceous limestone 

2. Parting of marly shale 

3. Thin-bedded , brown calcareous 

sandstone '- - ■ . 

4. Yellow slaty marl - . . 

5. Brown calcareous sandstone, very 

Yellow, brown, and whi,te sandy 

marl, with a parting of stone 
Hard sandy limestone, slightly 

oolitic - - 

Soft sandy oolite 

Marls and shales - . i 

10. Fine white oolite (freestone) coming 

out in large blocks 















* Geol. Cheltenham, p. 57. 



North of Barrington Park a quarry showed about 7 feet of 
false-bedded freestone, somewhat shattered in places, with softer 
marly beds on top. Very fine and coarse white oolitic grains 
run in irregular bands through the stone. Good squared building- 
blocks are here obtained. The only fossils I found were Ceromya 
striata (J), lAma gibbosa, and Rhynchonella concinna. 

The once famou3 Windrush quarry is situated' to the south- 
west of the village, and the stone has been obtained by mining. 
The distance from the railway, has no doubt affected the working 
of the stone, for comparatively little was being obtained at the 
period of my visit. The following section of the beds was given 
by Lonsdale* : — 

f Bubbly limestone 





J Brownish marlstone 
J Biubbly limestone 
"S Pale sandy marl 
I Biubbly marlstone 
LLigbt-ooloured clay 
r Rag and freestone 
l Sandy laminated grit (Stonesfield Beds) 










The above section differs a good deal in detail from the general 
one given by Prof. Hull (Fig. 86). The thickness of the workable 
stone at Windrash does not exceed 11 feet: but there is an 
alternation of shelly rock (Rag) and freestone. The freestone is 
of good quality. The White Limestone has been quarried on 
the south side of the high road, near the old freestone quarry. 

At Little Barrington, half a mile east of the New Inn, south- 
east of the village, tlie following section was seen : — 


Brown brasby clay-soil. 

Eubbly oolite - . - . 

Tellowish marly clay - 

Wbite oolitic limestone, coarse and 
fine-grained. Shelly oolite in 4 
layers - - - - - 

Brown oolite, closely-packed grains 

Ft. In. 

1 6 

Faulted against these beds were the following strata : — 


f Reddish brown clay - - abont 

I Brown, pale grey and bluish-grey fissile 
■{ shelly oolite, with clay- galls : thin- 
I bedded and false-b'edded with layers 
[_ of marly clay ; Ostrea, &c. - 




The Great Oolite above described, presents some characters 
akin to the White Limestone division : possibly there may be a 
blending of the two divisions, as I have noted to be the case at 
Hampen, and some of the beds in that case may belong to the 
Marly beds of the Upper Division. (See p. 293.) 

On the Oxford and Burford road, about a mile east of Burford, 
the following section was to be seen : — 

* Proc. Geo]. See. vol. i. p. 415 ; see also Hull, Geol. Cheltenham, p. 57. 







Eubble . - - 

Thin beds of white limestone more or 

less oolitic .... 
Rubbly marl and limestone 
Hard white shelly limestone 
White limestone ... 

Ditto (browner at base) : full of uni- 

Talves, Natica, Ac. - 
Pale brown limestone, very oolitic 

Fi. In. 






A quarry to the north-west of this, "at the meetrng of the 
Oxford and Shilton Roads above Burford," yielded a number of 
fossils, recorded by Prof. Hull, including Natica, Nerinaia, 
Ceromya concentrica, Corbis, Isocardia, Lucina, Myacites, JPecten 
annulatus, Pholadomya Heraulti, Thracia, Trigonia, Terebratula 
maxillata (abundant), Echinohrissus, &c.* 

A little east of Westwell, near Burford, the following section 
was exposed : t — 

Tt. In. 
Great Oolite r™le and gjey marly clay, more or 
r^T n -I less disturbed. 

Divwionl 1 ^'^**^ limestone, very finely oolitic in 
;. ^ places: Corals - > - - 

North-east of Westwell and south of 
following section showed beds on a lower horizon i 

Mount Pleasant, the 



Ft. In. 
Dark brown or black clay - "1 

Bubble of marly oolitic lime- ^2 to 3 

stone and marl- - - J 

Yellowish marly clay, full of oysters - "] 
Black clay, with large flattened specimens I « n 
of Terebratula mawUlata ■ - [ 

Upper Marly clay, full of oysters - -J 

Division — < Bluish-grey limestone, very shelly and 
Marly Beds. slightly oolitic, with T. maasillata 

(flattened) - - - - 10 

Impure marly clay with T. maxillata, 

Serpula, and many oysters - ■ - 1 
Pink and grey current-bedded oolitic 
marly limestone, with shelly layers at 
base - - - , - -11 

Division — 

Pale shelly oolite - - - - 

" Tough, pale, and somewhat flaggy oolite 

It will be interesting, aa well as important, to give the full 
details of the strata jiaased through in the Burford boriijg, for 
reference has already been made to the subject in the volume 
dealing with the Lias (p. 221). The grouping of' the beds differs 
from that published elsewhere ; but it is possible that too great 
a thickness is assigned to the Inferior Oolite. There may, as at 
Swinbrook, be no partings of clay between Great and Inferior 
Oolite. The boring was commenced about 350 feet above sea- 

* iieol. Cheltenham, pp. 63, 67. 

t Sea also section by Hull, G«ol. Cheltenham, p. 64. 



Details of Strata passed through in a boring at Burford Signett, 
south of Burford. 

[Boring north of stream ; west of the plantation to the west of Sturt 
Farm j and east of the bend in the road south of Signett.] 1875-77. 

Thickness. Depth. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

f Surface soil and rubble - 9 10 — 

j Yellow and blue clay - 3 9 13 7 

Blue clay with bands of 

yellow stone - - 13 1 26 8 

Blue clay and pebbles - 2 28 8 

Blue clay - - 9 4 38 

White Lias - - - 2 6 40 6 

Blue Lias - - - 1 41 6 

White Lias - 8 8 50 2 

Yellow freestone - - 6 4 56 6 

Lias - - - - 4 60 6 

Freestone - - - 6 61 

Lias - - - - 1 6 62 6 

Great Oolite. 
62 ft. 6 in. 


Oolite ? 

27 ft. in. 

Upper Lias. 
82 ft. 2. in. 

Middle Lias. 
98 ft. 1 in. 

Limestone - - - 27 8 90 2 

56 10 

Lower Lias. 
447 ft. 4 in. 

rBlueclay - - - 33 4 

J Do. with fossils and metal - 26 1 
I Clay without fossils - - 13 2 

L Clay with crystals [P selenite] 9 11 
"Soft green lias with fossils 

and shells, large Belemnite 3 
Lias with fossils - - 6 

Olay ... - 

Clay with bed of stone 
Clay with two bands of irony 

sandstone - - - 87 

'Clay wich shells. At 280 feet, 

AmmottUes owpricornus, 

Oardivm- truneatum, Avi- 

ciila, Peeten, Sfo. 
Clay with band of shelly 

limestone . - - 

Harder elay - 

Stiff clay with metal - - 1 

Harder clay - - - / 

Clay with shells and metal - 
Olay with shells, Cardinia 

attenuata at 373 
Clay with two stone-beds 
Stone and clay with fossils, 

GrgphpBa>, Hippopodium 

poriderfiiuin, Lima pectin' 

aides < • - - 

Clay with pebbles [r nodules] 

Cafdinia ovalis 
Clay with b.ind of septarian 

limestone, Lima pectinoides 
Very soft clay, Fenta^rinus, 

&c. - - - - 

Clay - - - - 

Clay with occasional bands of 

limestone - 
Jointed limestone 
Clay . - - - 

Limestone . . - 

Shale - - - - 





30 9 300 6 





- 9 



































Thickness. Depth. 

EliEetio Beds 
and New 
Bed Sand- 
Stone Series. 


Soft shale and clay • 
Black shale 
G-reen Marl - 
G-reen gritty marl 
Variegated marls 
L gypsum 






























The details of the Burford section are given partly from a record in the 
Museum of Practical Geology, comm.unicated by Lieut.-Ool. F. Bolton, 
H.E., and partly from another MS. The fossils were identified by 
Mr. Etheridge. Particulars have also been published by Mr. 0. E. 
De Ranee,* and by Mr. Etheridge :t the details varying in each case. 
In the Warwick Museum there is a core of "Coal shale" from a depth 
marked 1,174 feet. 

The beds of Great Oolite to a depth of about 50 feet, no doubt 
belong to the Marly beds of the Upper Division. Prof. Hull has 
remarked that the total thickness of this upper portion is probably 
little siiort of 100 feet :{ it is quite 75 feet, and the full thickness 
of the Great Oolite may not be less than 100 feet. 

North-west of Burford Signett, the Upper Division of the 
Great Oolite was shown in the following section : — 



r Close-grained rubbly oolite 
< White oolitic limestone -"t 

L Do. more earthy J 

rirregular bed of grey and^ 


1 O-VP, 


greenish carbonaceous I 

0<( Marly Beds < 


■3 or 

\ Hard white and pinkish ( " 
I limestone slightly ooli- | 

L tic - . -J 

Brown more or less shelly oolite : 
passing down probably into Free- 
stone - - -30 or 40 

The lower beds are hard and are employed for building-pur- 
poses. The beds on the whole are much fissured and tumbled, as 
if faulted. 

The upper beds of Great Oolite, togetlier with clays that 
present some of the characters of the Great Oolite Clay, and 
some of the fossils of the Bradford Clay, were shown, as follows, 
in a quarry about half-a-mile south-west of Bui-ford church : — 

Ft. In. 

Forest Marble 

(= Bradford 

Clay P) 

Brown clayey and stony soil 

"Grey, greenish-grey and brown clay, 
with thin layers of gritty and shelly 
limestone : Avicula, Osirea acumi- 
nata, 0. lingulata, 0. gregaria, 0. 
Sowerhyi, Rhynchonella, iSerjmla, &c. 

Ferruginous marly and racy bed, with 
interrupted masses of hard brown 
shelly oolite at base - - , 

* Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1878, p. 384 ; Ti-ans. Manchester Geol. See, vol. xiv, 
p. 43V. 
t Pop. Science Review, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 290. 
j Geol. Cheltenham, p. 64. 

GKEAT oolite: buhfokd. 


Oreat Oolite 



["Hard brown oolites . . - 

J White fine-grained oolite 
j Brown fine-grained and rather earthy 
L oolites. 

Ft. In. 
2 6 
1 7 

An excellent section of the Great Oolite Series was exposed to 
the south-west of Hoi well, near Burford, in a large excavation for 
trick-clays. It was as follows : — 

Brown clayey soil. Ft. in. 

'Blue and brown shelly oolite. 

Fissile limestone, smooth beds, imper- 
fectly oolitic - - 2 Oto 5 

(Sharp line.) 

Pale grey marly clay - - 1 to 1 6 

Fissile false-bedded pale bluish and 
brown oolite, with marly seams in 
places - - -20 to 26 

Pale grey marly clay (ased for marling 
land), with thin beds of blue marly 
and shelly limestone - - - 8 6 

Great Oolite j Blue and brown shelly oolite with~| 

(Upper -^ ochreous galls - - " L l rt 

Division). False-bedded flaggy marly and shelly ( 

oolite ■ - . - -J 

Grey marly clay - - - 8 

Bluish shelly and marly oolite with~l 
Rhynchoiiella, Ostrea, &c. 

Thick bed of pale false-bedded and \ 
current-bedded shelly oolite, blue at 
base - . - - -J 

Blue marly clay; used for bricks, &c. 
for estate purposes only (pale buff or 
whitish bricks and draiu-pipes are 
manufactured) - . - 5 6 

The lowest thick beJs have much the appearance of Great 
Oolite freestone, especially at a short distance, but the lower part 
of the rock is very blue and shelly like Forest Marble. At first 
I was inclined to group all the strata with the Forest Marble, 
but on further consideration I think they belong mainly to the 
Marly beds beneath the White LimestOT)e, as seen at Milton, and 
elsewhere, and which have been proved in the upper part of the 
Burford boring, and in a boring at Witney. The basement 
portion of the White Limestone occurs on top. 

North-west of Swinbrook, east of Burford, a quarry showed the 
following section : — 

Clay and rubble . - . - 

Hard grey earthy and gritty limestone - 
Bluish oolitic marly bed - - - 

Brown and yellow oolitic marl 
Oolite with Rhynchonella concinna 
Brown and grey oolitic marl 
Brown oolitic limestone (irregular) 
FissUe current-bedded oolite 
"W hite oolite - - - - 

Pale oolite, with large scattered grains 
of oolite - - , - . 

Thin clayey seam - - - - 

False-bedded oolitic freestone : in thick 
beds, much jointed in places (inclina- 
tion of bedding as in Fig. 87) - 9 
Z ; 5928. Tj 























Fig. 87. 

Section in the Great Oolite, Swinbr.ook, Burford. 
(Prof. E. Hull). 







Ft. Ik. 
Soil - ^..04 

[a. White rubbly limestone- 3 

b. Soft yellow and white marl and shale, 

with thin partings of stone - 8 

y c. White shelly oolitic freestone - 9 

Here we find it difficult to mark any real plane of separation 
between the Upper and Lower divisions, for we might well take 
it immediately above the remarkably false-bedded oolitic freestone. 
A section at this locality, differing in the record of the thickness 
and character of the upper beds, was described by Prof. Hull 
(Fig. 87), who marked the junction of the Upper and Lower 
"Zones" of the Great Oolite as noted above.* This junction 
probably corresponds with that which I have taken in the section 
at Milton (p. 307). Prof Hull observes that the lowest beds of 
the Great Oolite at Swinbrook, consist of " Yellow sandy oolite, 
full of oblique lamination, and splitting into slabs;" and these 
rest on the Olypeus Grit of the Inferior Oolite. f 

The Freestone near the base of the Great Oolite, has been 
extensively worked on Taynton (or Tainton) Down, about a mile 
N.N.W. of the village, and lialf a mile west of the second mile- 
stone on the Burford and Stow road. The stone has attained a 
considerable reputation. Numerous old pits are to be found, like 
the " hills and hollows " of other famous stone-districts, and these 
are now obscured by talus or overgrown by the plantations. The 
etone indeed is now but little quarried, and in 1887 the refuse 
only was being worked in places. In the openings which I saw 
the stone was exposed to depths of from 5 to 12 feet. It some- 
times "pitches" at high angles of from 10° to 40° as in the 
section at -Swinbrook, and this, though mainly the result of false- 
bedding, is perhaps partly due to disturbance, for the beds (so 
far as could be determined) lie very irregularly, and they are 
shattered and probably faulted in places. Further remarks on 
the Taynton Stone will be given in the Chapter on Economic 
Products (p. 479). 

* See Geol. Cheltenham, p. 56. 
t Ibid., p. 53. 



were not 

What may be termed Taynton or Milton Stone, is now largely 
quarried in the same neighbourhood, to the north-east of the 
old Taynton quarries, at Milton in the parish of Shipton-under- 
Wychwood. The following is the section in Grove's quarry, 
Milton ; but the upper beds down to the " small land-stones," are 
noted on the authority of Mr. R. F. Tomes, as they 
clearly exposed at the time of my visit : — 

Surface-soil and shattered stone 

White fine-grained, slightly oolitic 

stone, with fragments of Corals and 

Nerincea - - - . 

Bluish marly clay ... 

Coral-bed: hard fine-grained and pale 

limestone .... 

Marly clay . . ., . 

Oolite ; rubbly where near surface 

(" small land-stones ' ) 
Marl - - . . . 

Upper Diyision Brown shelly oolite (' ' White Rag ": 
(White Lime- J yielding good lime) ... 
stone and ] Grey and brown clay ... 
Marly Beds.) Fissile oolite . . . - 

Brown marly clay - . - 1 

White rubbly marl - . - J 

Pale grey slightly oolitic limestones 

(" Blue Rag ": road-stone) - 
G-rey clayey and oolitic marl 
Indurated oolitic marly beds ('' Bastard 
White Rags ") - ^^ 

Marly clay • - - - | 

Blue clay - - - - ^10 

Brown clay with Ostrea Sowerbyi and | 
Rhynchonella concinna (abundant) -J 
'Fissile and false-bedded oolite with 
marly patches, Ostrejh, and RhyncJio- 
nella - ■• - , . - 3 

Lower Division J Rubbly beds of oolite and marl - 2 6 

(Freestone), i Fissile oolite (1 ft., passing down into 

pale oolite (freestone) much jointed - 6 
Poor freestone - - - -20 

Marl. — 

49 & 

The measuren;ent3 given by Mr. Tomes amount to 54^ feet, 
but the thickness assigned to the freestone-beds was about 5 feet 
more than that recorded by myself. The fossils that have been 
noted are as follows :* — 












t Natica formosa. 

t Nerinsea. 

f Geromya undalata ? 



Pecten vagans; 
t Terebratnla maxillata. 
t Clypeus Miilleri. 

Solaster Moretonis. 

Anabacia com-planata. 
Chorisastrsea obtusa. 
t IsastrEea gibbosa. 


Microsolena excelsa. 
Montlivaltia caryophyllata. 
ThamnastraBa Lyelli. 

* Tomes, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xli. p. 171 ; see also Hull, Geol. Chelten- 
ham, p. 58. 

t The species so marked were obtained by myself, and identified by Messrs. 
Sharman and Newton ; the remaining species have b»en -recorded by Mr. Tomes an:l 

U 2 



Ou ShiptoD Down, north-west of Widley Wood, on the 
borders of Wychwood Forest, I noted the t'ollow'mg section : — 

Ft. In. 


Great Oolite 



Brown clay. 

Eubbly marl with Bhynehonella 

Irregular false-bedded oolitic limestone 
<(' 10 to 

Clay . . . - 

Bands of oolitic limestone 
^Stifi" dark grey racy and ferruginous clay 

Eotten oolitic marly bed 

Brown oolitic and shelly limestone 

Nodular marly parting 
■i White imperfectly oolitic limestones 

Oolitic marly stone : Fossil-bed, with 
Corals, &c. ... 

Hard brown shelly limestone - 


I obtained the following fossih ; 

Lima cardiiformis. 
Modiola imbricata. 

Pecten annulatus. 
Isastrsea limitata. 

An adjoining pit showed the following section : — 

Great Oolite 



Hubble, tumbled stone and brown clay 

''Rubble and hard oolitic shelly marl: 

with fine specimens of Terebratula 

maxillata . - . . 

Hard grey arid white, somewhat com- 
pact, oolite . - - . 

Brown oolitic stone ... 





A section by Caps Lodge, about 1^ miles north-east of Burford, 
is noted by Mr. Tomes : this also shows the position of the Coral- 
bed. He remarks that " The general facies of the corals at 
*his place much resembles that of the Fairford Corals."* (See 
,p. 297.) ' 

The following section was shown in a quarry at Hensgrove, 
Wychwood Forest: — 


Great, Oolite 



TFalse-bedded grey and pale buff shelly 
I and oolitic limestone with galls of clay 
J Blue and grey marly clay ; with base of 
^ irregular white oolitic and marly 
limestone with nodular (? pebbly) 
stones. Strophodus - . - 

'White oolite : very shelly bed, with 
Gasteropods - . - - 

Hard white more or less oolitic rock, the 
1 grains here and there more prominent 
{_ and scattered in finer oolitic base 

Ft. In. 

The clay is irregular, so thnt in places the limestone of the 
Forest Marble rests directly on the Great Ojlite. The irregular 

* Quart, .lourn. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxix. p. 170. 

(JREAT oolite: AVi'CHWOOD. 







• r-4 



3 ^^ 

o 9 


.*» o 

« Z 







'5 ^ 


§■•3 t3 

marly bed seems to be part of 
the Great Oolite, in a some- 
wliat remanie coDdition. 

The accompanying section 
(Fig. 88) will Kerye to show 
the general relations of the 
strata in the Wychwood area. 

The White Limestone lias 
also been quarried near Min- 
ster Lovel, but the beds are 
not very well shown. They 
are much fissured and shat- 
tered near the surface. Some 
Fish-remains have been found 
in the top beds.* 

* See W. S. HortOD, Geologist, v«L 
iii. p. 252. 


i o OS 
-S S S.2 


•o -« "» < 


.so -a., 2 



Geeat Oolfte and Stonesfield Slate— 
(Local Details continued). 
Stonesfield Slate. 

No place is richer in geological associations than Stonesfield. 
Its very name savours of the earth's crust, and indeed the ground 
has yielded, since the Roman occupation at any rate, the shelly 
and oolitic tilestones known as Stonesfield Slates, while the fossils 
have attracted attention for 200 years or more. Plot speaks of 
the " Flat-stone " of Stunsfleld, and the beds have been worked 
along the sides of the valleys to the south, south-west, and west 
of the village (south of Hillburn Farm). The open works, with 
levels driven into the hill-sides, having for the most part exhausted 
the accessible material, shafts have been sunk in and about the 
village to various depths, ranging from 20 to nearly 70 feet, 
according to the thickness of the overlying strata. The village 
itself, and the lands to the south and west, are therefore riddled 
with shafts and levels, and great heaps of waste material remain 
to attest the work that has been done. 

The "slates" are of three kinds ; brown calcareous sandstone, 
grey and slightly oolitic calcareous sandstone, and blue and grey 
oolitic limestone. The strata yielding these materials are of 
variable nature, usually from 2 to 3 feet in thickness, and not 
exceeding 6 feet; and from one to three layers, in different 
places, yield suitable stone. 

The only partially open working that I have seen, was situated 
at Red Hill, on the eastern side of the valley between Fawler 
and Hillburn Farm. Here the " slate " was exposed, although 
worked underground in the hill-side. The following section was 
shown :— 

o o 

Alternations of oolitic limestone and marl , - 

Marl with, thin films of sandy limestone : Pecten vagans 

and Rhynehonella concinna . - 
Roof Bed : grey oolitic and sandy limestone (that does . 
not split, and is of no use) .... 
rShalybed - . . . 

Stonesfield J Stone worked for ". slate " — grey sandy 
Beds. 1 and oolitic limestone 
LShaly bed. 






The slate-mine (belonging to Mr. Barrett) on the eastern side 
of the village of Stonesfield is one of the deeper pits. The shaft is 
sunk 66 feet, and blocks of stone are raised with the aid of a wind- 
lass and of a stout rope, to which a plain wooden stage is affixed 


by means of a hook and a curved irou rod. The workmen usually 
descend into the pit by sliding down the rope, pick in hand. 1 
found it impossible to study the characters of the strata in 
descending the shaft by means of the stage, for one hand must 
be employed in holding the rope, and the other in holding a candle. 
The rocks passed through were beds of limestone with here and 
there layers of marl. At least two layers of marl, each about 
'S feet thick, were penetrated ; and at one time after much rain, 
such copious streams were thrown out by these marl-beds, that it 
was impossible to make use of the shaft. The water was even- 
tually shut out by cutting away the limestones for some distance 
above the springs, and filling up the spaces around the shaft with 
clay.* From the bottom of the shaft the stone is worked in levels, 
3 to 5 feet in height, driven in for some distance, and widened as 
the stone is taken away : then the roof is supported by walls built 
up of the waste stone. 

The roof of the mine is formed of hard and somewhat false- 
bedded oolite, known as Rag, and the following is the sequence 
of beds : — 

Ft. In. 

Top Son : marly bed about - - 5 

Pot Lid and Ovek Head : blue-bearted 
sandy limestone with few oolitic 

Stonesfield Beds -<( -^ S^^^^ : ' jy \ j, -1. - 9 

-1 p^^pj, . ^-aloareous sandy bed with some 

pot-lids - - - 7to 8 

Lower Head : bine-hearted sandy lime- 
stone with oolitic seams » - 9 
[ Block : soft sandy bed, " no good." 

The Pot-Lid bed ia a concretionary and impersistent formation, being 
mainly a flaggy calcareous sandstone, that comes out in rounded and oval 
or irregular shaped m.asseB of different dimensions. Its place is taken by 
the Over Head bed, which is not so concretionary in nature, and consists 
of grey calcareous sandstone with seams of oolite. 

The Bace contains some " pot-lids," and these may be found at the 
base adhering to the Lower Head. 

The Lower Head is a fairly regular bed, but not so good a stone for 
" slate " as the Pot-Lid bed. 

The general characters of the Great Oolite at Stonesfield, may 
best be learnt from the old section given by Fitton. The Upper 
and Lower Divisions shade into one another, as they do at Swin- 
brook, near Burford, and at Milton ; but we no longer find any 
important bed of freestone, like that of Taynton and Milton. 
Freestone has been obtained at Pudlecote, near Oharlbury, but 
nowhere in the region north and north-east of Stonesfield, do we 
find any freestone in the Great Oolite that has attained the 
repute of the Bath stone, the Minchinhamptoii stone, or the 
Taynton stone. The Stonesfield Beds appear to be overlapped 
in a north-easterly direction, and locally the lower beds of the 
Great Oolite consist largely of marls. The higher beds of the 
Great Oolite near Stonesfield, consist of white limestones and 

* A well at Mr. Barrett's house, adjoining the pit, is said to be 30 feet deep, and 
is rarely short of water. 



marls, which are veiy fossillferous in places ; yielding Nerincea 
Eudesi, Astarte angulata, Ostrea Sowerbyi, Terebratula maxillata 
and Corals. Further reference will be made to these beds. 

The following is the section of a shaft a,t Stonesfield, recorded 
in 1827 by Fitton :— * 

-~ fR'nbbly limestone - - - -1 

% _g I Clay with Terebratula maxillata, Bhynahonella oheo- \ 

'•% % I leta, Peeten fibrpsus - - - - - | 

' ^ J " Bock ": limestone - - - - -/ 

\ Bine Clay . - . . . 

"Rock": oolite - - - - -J 



Ft. In. 





Blue or greenisli clay ; it effervesces slightly with 
. acids, and falls to pieces in water like fuller's earth 5 
'Rag": oolitic limestone, fine-grained, with casts of 
spiral univalves and bivalves ; and coarse soft calca- 
reous stone, more or less oolitic [forming the roof 
of the drift or horizontal gallery where the slate 
is dug] - - - - - ■ - 25 a 

'" SoM-sTDFr,'' yellowish very sandy 
clay, including thin courses of fibrous 
gypsum - - - - 6' 

" Upi'ER Head," composed of sand, of 
various consistency and fineness of 
grain, containing towards the lower 
part large flat spheroidal concretions 
(called "i'ot-lids "), of calcareous 
grit, pervaded by oolitic particles, 
these pot-lids furnish the best stone; 
the rock, with all the other useful 
stone of the pits, bears the common 
name of " Pendle." It includes 
pebbles of hard sparry oolitic stonef 

1 3 to 1 ft 
"Manure" or "Race," slaty friable 
■{ sand -rock, calcareous and micaceous 1 
■Cap" and "Lower Head"; the 
upper portion having a concretional 
form like that of the Pot-lids. The 
rock in botli cases varies, from a 
very compact and fine-grained grit, 
. effervescing strongly with acids, to a 
stone of which the larger portion 
consists of oolitic particles. The 
greater number of fossils, including 
Mammalian remains, Trigonia im- 
pressa, Bhynchonella dbsoleta, ' &c. 
appear to have been procured from 
these beds - - 1 6 to 2 

' BoTTOM-STUEP." — Coarser calcareous 
grit, with oolitic particles [base not 
seen] - - - - - 1 

The Stonesfield Slate has yielded a rich and interesting suite of 
fossils, and specimens may now be obtained from the spoil-heaps, 
or from the " slatters " who keep at their 
specimens for sale. 



5 ft. 3 in. to 

6 ft. 



* Zool. Journal, toI. iii. 1828, p. .412 ; Owen's Palseontology, p. 30?, and ed. 2, 
p. 844. See also Conybeare and Phillips, Geol. Eng. and Wales, pp. 203, &c. 

t In the Museum of Practical Geology there is a small slab of oolitic Stonesfield 
Slate, with a vein of calc-spar that traverses the rock, and also an included pebble. 


Many references to the strata anl their fossils will be found in 
the writings of Buckland,* Phillip?,t J. F. Whiteaves.J W. S. 
Horton,§ Prof. Hnll,|| and others. 

Of the fossils of the Stonesfield Slate, exceptional interest will 
be found in the remains of Mammalia ; and these were first 
recognized by Cuvier in 1818, from a specimen obtained by W. 
J. Broderip. This at the time was referred to the genus Didel- 
phys.^ So startling was the discovery that a long controversy 
was stirred up- on the subject. The geological age of the 
stratum was questioned by Constant Prevost, and when this was 
settled by Fitton, the zoological affinities of the fossils were 
disputed by Agassiz, De Blainville, and R. E. Grant. De Blain- 
ville indeed proposed the name Amphitheriufn on account of the 
" ambiguou.^ nature '' of the specimens, but he thought they most 
likely belonged to Sauriaus ; while in the " Athenaeum " the name 
Botheraliotherium BucMandi was suggested, by Edward Charles- 
worth, for the supposed Didelphys. Although the true nature of 
the fossils was pointed out by Cuvier, Buckland, and Valen* 
ciennes, yet the matter was not finally set at rest until after 1838, 
when Owen published his observations on the original specimens, 
and on others that had since been obtained.** 

Mammalian remains are indeed exceedingly rare in the Stones- 
field Slate, about one specimen on tne avernge being obtained in the 
course of ten years. 'Jhe supposed bones of birds, noted by the 
Rev. J. Dennisjf f are now regarded us belonging to Ornitho- 

Of the more abundant Saurian remains, bones and teeth of 
Megalosaurus are occasionally obtnined, and Chelonian scutes are 
also found from time to time. Phillips notes the occurrence of 
Teleosaiirus, but observes that the reujains are more abundant in 
higher strata of the Great Oalite. He also states that egg-like 
bodies, which may be Reptilian, occur at Stonesfield. Jf Examples 
of these have been named Oolithes sphcericus, by Mr. Carruthers. 

Fish-remains are abundant, and some of them were known to 
the early geologists as " Bufonitce " or Toad-stones.§§ The occur- 
rence of Ceratodus is most interesting, for the genus now exists 
in the rivers of Queensland; and, as remarked by Mr. Smith 
Woodward, it is " the sole undoubted record of the occurrence of 
the genus in the Jurassic rocks of Europe," || || although it appeared 
on the scenes in Rhsetic times. 

* Traas. Geol. Soc, ser. 2. vol. i. p. 390. 

t Geo]. Oxford, &c., p. 167. 

J Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1E60, p. 104. 

§ Geologist vol. iii. p. 351. 

II Hull, Ibid., p. 304 ; Geol. Woodstock, p. 18. 

H" Buckland, Trans. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. i. p. 391. 

** [bid., vol. vi. p. 47 j Brit. Fossil Mammals and Birds, pp. 30, &c. ; Athenaeum, 
5"ov. 24, 1838, p. 841. See also E. S. Goodrich, Quart. Journ. Micros. Sci.. 
vol. XXXV. p. 407. 

tt Geologist, vol. vi. p. 109 ; see also Bowerhank, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. 
iv. p. 2; and Phillips, Geol. Oxford, &c., p. 229. 

XX Phillips, op. cit., p. 194 ; Carruthers, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxvii. 
p. 447. 

§§ J. Woodward, Nat. Hist. Foss. England, tome 2, p. 108. See also H. 
Woodward, Geol. Mag. 1893, p. 247. 

III! Proc, Geol. Assoc, vol. xi. p. 291. 



The more abundant MoUusca are Gervillia acuta, Lima 
(several species), Modiola imhricata, Pecten annulatus, P. lem, 
P. vagam, and Trigonia impressa. Of Brachiopoda, Rhyn- 
chonella concinna is common. Plant-remains and Insect-remains 
also occur. The accompanying list will best show the nature of 
the Fauna and Flora. 

Stonesfield Slate Mammals. 
Fig. 89. 

Fig. 90. 

Fig. 89. Pkascolotlierium Bucklandi, Broderip. 
Lower jaw and teett. 

Fig. 90. AmpMlestes Broderipi, Owen. X 2. 
Lower jaw and teeth. 

List of Fossils from the Stonesfielb Slate of 

Araphilestes Broderipi.j 
Amphitherium Prevosti. 



An;phitylu3 Oweni. 
Phascolotherium Bucklandi. 

* Specimens thus marked ( x ) were obtained by myself and identified by Messrs. 
Sharman and Newton. The majority of species recorded are those given by autho- 
rities previously mentioned, or described in the volumes of the Palieontographical 
Society, or preserved in the Museum of Practical Geology. See also Hull, Geol. 
Woodstock, p. 19 ; Green, Geol. Banbnry, p. 14. 

t Phillips mentions that the original specimen of AmpMlestes {Amphitherium) 
broderipi, Tvas found by Joshua Piatt, an able collector, abontthe year 1764, and it 
came into the possession of Sir Christopher Sykes during his residence at Oxford. 
It was afterwards brought into notice by Phillips, and described by Owen. See Geol. 
Oxford, &c., p. 230. 



Insectivora. _ 
Stereognathus ooHticus. 


Ehamphocephalus Bucklandi. 


Megalosaurus Bucklandi. 


Steneosaurus brevidens. I Teleosaurus Geoffroyi. 
-: ? Geoffroyi. | subulidens. 

Cimoliosaurus erraticus. 

Protochelys (Testudo) Stricklandi. 


Acrodus leiodus. 
Aspidorhynchus crassus. 
Asteracanthus acutus. 


Belonostomus 1 leptosteus. 
Oaturus ? pleiodus. 
Ceratodus Phillipsi. 
Ctenolepis cyclus. 
Ganodus Bucklandi. 







Hybodus apicalie. 






Ischyodus Oolei. 

Ischyodus emarginatus. 
Lepidotus tuberculatus. 


Leptacanthus semistriatus. 
— 7- serratus. 
Leptolepis disjectus. 
Macrosemius brevirostris. 
Mesodon ( Pycnodus) 


? oblongus. 



Nemacanthus brevis. 
Pholidophorus ? minor. 
Pristacanthus securis. 
Scaphodus heteromorphus. 
Strophodus lingualis. 



Undina ? 


Ammonites discus. (Fig. 

-^ — gracilis. 


Belemnites aripislillura. 


Nautilus Baberi. 




Inoceramus Fittoni. 

Amberleya nodosa. 

Lima cardiiformis. (Fig. 75.) 

Dealongchampsia Eugenei. 


Fibula eulimoides. 


Natica intermedia. 



Modiola compressa. 


X imbricata. 

Neri'lomus hemisphsericus. 



sowerbjtena. (Fig. 10.) 

Nerinaea Strioklandi. 


Nerita liuvignieri. 

Myacites calceiformis 


Mytilus sublaevis. 


Opis lunulatus. 

Neritopaia striata. 

Ostreaacuminata. (Fig. 65.) 

Patella lata. 

X flabelloides. 




Sowerbyi. (Fig. 95.) 

• rugosa. 

Pecten annulatijs. 

Pseudomelania (Eulima) 



lens. (Fig. 123.) 

Trochus obsoletiis. 

X michelensis. 



^natina plicatella. 

vagans. (Fig. 122.) 

Astarte angulata. 

Perna rugosa. 


Pholadomya acuticosta. 




Pinna ampla. 

Cardium Strickland!. 

' cuneata. 


Placunopsis socialis. 

Corbis ? 

Pteroperna pygmaea. 

Corbula involuta. 

Quenstedtia oblita. 

Exogyra auriformis. 

Tancredia brevis. 

Gervillia acuta. 







Thracia amygdaloidea. 


X Trigonia impressa. 

Gresslya peregrina, var. 




Hinhites ahjectus. 

X Unicardium. 



Rhynchonella conclnna. (Fig. 77.) 


Terebratula maxillata, (Fig. 78.) 

Eryon Stoddarti. 
Giyphea rostrata. 


Prosopon mammillatum. 
Pollicipes ooliticus. 

sxokesfield slate. 317 



Blapsidium Egertoni. I Ourculioides. 

Buprestis Bucklandi. | Prionus ooliticus. 

Heinerobioides giganteus. | Libellula Westwoodi. 

Palseontina oolitica.* - 

Vermilia quinqxiangularis. 


Acrosaleaia spinosa. 
Astropecten cotteswoldise. 

var. stones- 



Clypeus Plot). (Fig. 30.) 

Echinobrissua clunicularis. 

(Fig. 128.) 
Hemicidaris Stokesi. 
Polycyphus normannus. 
Pseudodiadema Parkinson! 

Anabacia complanata. ] Thamnastraea Lyelli. 



Pandanocarpum (Kaidacarpum) ooliticum, 
Yuccites (Palaeozamia) megaphylla. 


Araucarites Brodiei. 
Thuytea divaricatui. 

X Walchia Williamsoni?. 


X Cycadinocarpiis (Carpolithes) lindleyanus. 
Ptilopbyllum acutifolium (Palaeozamia taxina). 


Pachypteris lanceolata. 
Pecopteris approximata 

Pecopteris incisa. 
Spbenopteris plumosa. 
Tffiniopteris angustata 

* Eegarded as a butterfly by Mr. A. G. Butler, Geol. Mag., 1873, p. 2, 1874, 
p. 446. See also S. H. Scudder. Mem. Amer. Assoc., vol. i. p. 99, 1875. 



Upper Division 

Lower Division 

The beds seen in the cutting near Ashford Bridge on the Great 
Western railway (Worcester brcanch), are as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
Rubble of oolite, marl, Ac. 
Fissile and false-bedded oolites and' 

marls • - - - r 15 

Oolitic limestone, witb Corals 
Marly and carbonaceous oolite 
Clay and sandy shales, with Ostrea 

Bowerhyi ... 
Pale-grey limestone with Nerincea 

Eudesi, Astarie angulata, &o. - 1 

Fissile and shelly oolite, with Nerincea 

at top - - - 6 to 8 

The section has been described by John Phillips and others* ; 
and more recently by Mr. R. F. Tomesf who obtained from the 
Coral Bed, Astroccenia Pliillipsi, Gryptocmnia Pratti, Isastrcea 
gibbosa, I, limitata, Montlivaltia, Thamnastraa Lyelli, &c. 
He also obtained Cycdhophora Bourgueti from the bed above 
the iVen'/KBa-limestone. A number of Gasteropoda and other 
fossils have also been obtained, by Mr. T, J. Slatter, from the 
Great Oolite in this cutting : they include Fibula variola, F. 
euUmoides , Natica Michelini, TSeridomus minutus, Ataphnis dis- 
coideus, Delphinula alta, and Solarium varicosum. Many other 
fossils, together with Cypricardia nuculiformis, and C, rostrata 
have been recorded by Mr. Whiteaves, who placed the fossili- 
ferous beds in the Lower Division of the Great Oolite, (See 
p. 250.) The stratigraphical evidence does not enable me to 
correlate the beds definitely with those of Milton. The bed with 
Astarte angulata may be the top of the Lower Division ; but the 
species is found elsewhere at higher horizons, and I am inclined 
to include the bed in the Upper Division. The lowest bed of 
oolite may perhaps represent the Tayntou freestone, for as 
remarked by Mr. Tomes, all the beds " overlie the Stonesfield 
Slate, which is under the line of railway." On the Geological 
Survey Maps the beds are shown to be faulted on the west, against 
the Inferior Oolite and Lias. 

The Upper Division of the Great Oolite has been exposed in 
railway-cuttings eastwards towards Handborough station ; and 
again in a quarry by Whitehill Wood, north of North Leigh. In 
the quarry, the uppermost beds were not accessible, but I saw the 
following sequence : — 

Forest Marble ? 


L Dark clay. 

'G-reenish and white rubbly marl. 

Pale earthy limestone. 

Grey marly clay 

Hard pale earthy limestone 

Fl. In. 

* Phillips, Quart. Journ. Geol. Eoc, vol. xvi. p. 116; A. Gaudry, Bull. See. 
Geol. France, ser. 2. tome x. p. 594. (I am indebted to Mr. Walford for calling 
my attention to M. Gaudry 's paper) ; J. F. Whiteaves, Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1860, 
p. 105. 

t Tomes, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxix. p. 171 ; T. Beesley, Banburyshire 
Nat, Hist. Soc, Excursion to Stonesfield, 1882. 



Great Oolite 
(Upper Division). 

Sandy marls with bands of es^rthy and 
shelly limestone - ' . 

Oolitic limestone 

Blue and brown clay - 

Hard brown oolitic and shelly stone 

Oolite .... 

Greenish marl ... 

Hard brown oolitic stone 

White and pinkish shelly and oolitic 
limestones - . . . 

Ft. In, 

This section includes higher beds than those noted at Ashford 
Bridge, and they evidently belong to the series of White Lime- 
stones and Marly beds above the Freestone of Taynton : such as 
may be seen at Milton, and to some extent in the quarries west 
of Burford, north-west of Burford Signett, and again at Swin- 

The mass of the Great Oolite between Milton and Woodstock 
appears to be of a very variable character, and the Lower Divi- 
sion is probably much attenuated.* A well at Clinch's Brewery, 
Witney, was dug for 32 ft. 6 in., and a boring afterwards was 
carried to a further depth of 19 feet through alternate bands of 
clay and rock. (See also p. 372.) 


The following section was shown in a quarry north-east of the 
railway-station at Handborough :— 

Forest Marble 

Great Oolite 
(Upper Division). 

Bubble of Cornbrash (perhaps slipped 

over higher beds of Forest Marble) - 

/ Hard shelly limestone . . . 

' 1 Grey clay with " race " - _ - 

rCompact brown limestone 

False-bedded and fissile oolite, with 

J thin partings of clay, and layers ^ 

"^ of hard shelly and bine-hearted ( 

I limestone in places. Fish-remains 

(_ (palatal teeth) - . -J 

Ft. In. 





The beds here assigned to the Great Oolite appear to corre- 
spond with those referred to the same formation in the quarry 
north-east of Bladont (p. 373). 

In this area near Woodstock and to the north of the town, in 
the valleys of the Glyme and Dome, the upper beds of the Great 
Oolite (which form the plateau north of Woodstock), consist 
mainly of limestone?, more or less shattered and fissured, and 
with only occasional thin layers of marl : they may be about 
30 feet thick. A section south of W cotton showed the following 
beds : — 

* See also Green, Geol. Banbury, p. 23. 

t Some fossils from Bladon are recorded by Prof. Green, Geol. Banbury, p. 25. 





''Bubble - - - 2 Oor 




Limestone ... 





Limescone with Nerincea-hed at base - 





JRubbly limestone, seen to depth of 


Great Oolite 
(Upper Division). 

Similar beds were exposed by the I'heasantry on the road from 
Wootton to Glyrapton, and also to the east of Wootton. 

Beneath these upper limestones there is a series of alternating 
limestones and marls, which are shown in the road-cutting north 
of the stream, between Wootton and Woottondown Farm : these 
intermediate beds may be about 25 feet thick. The lower beds 
of Great Oolite from near Linch Farm to Purgatory, consist 
mainly of marl with only an occasional band of Jimestone : and 
these are probably not less than 25 feet thick. (See p. 324.) 

The railway-cuttings on the branch railway to Woodstock 
showed the following succession of beds beneath the Forest 
Marble (See Fig. 108, p. 374):— 

I'orest Marble 

Great Oolite 
(Upper Division). 

Ft. In. 

/ Blue clays, with impersistent beds of 
1. flaggy, shelly, and oolitic limestone. 

Oolites, presenting a somewhat mottled 
appearance (like some beds of Oorn- 
brash), with pale-grey, blue, and 
greenish tinges,due to irregular stain- 
ing and weathering : tJermcea (abun- 
dant), Ostrea and Corals - 1 d to '2 

Limestone - - 1 to 1 6 

Shelly limestone, with Astarte, Ger- 
villia, and some Gasteropods (resem- 
bling shelly bed near Akeley, Bucks) 1 

Pale grey esirthy limestone (blueO 
hearted) - - - " L 4. ft 

Compact limestones with scattered r * " 
grains of oolite - - -J 

«( Green and grey racy clay, passing 
down into black carbonaceous and 
racy clay with much lignite 3 6 to 6 

Earthy oolitic limestone, with Cyprina, 
Ostr-ea Sowerbyi; and gritty oolitic 
clay - - . - 

Clay, Ostrea abundant - - - 

Slightly oolitic limestone, compact and 
shelly - . - 1 8 to 

Oolitic limestones - 4 to 

Fossil bed : Marly limestone, occasion- 
ally oolitic, with Terehratula maxil- 
lata very abundant (all sizes and con- 
ditions), Lima cardiiformis, &.c. 

3 Oto 4 







The section, which I had the advantaa;e of studying on one 
■occasion with Prof. Green, comp.ires very well with that seen to 
the south-west of Enslow Bridge. The Fossil Bed merges up 
irregularly into the beil above. The green and black c!ay recalls 
some beds of the Great Oolite Clay oi the country to the north- 
east. It is difficult however to correlate the beds with those of 



Forest Marble 




the Bladon quarry (p. 373) : indeed we can only consider that the 
limestones of the Great Oolite vary much in character, and that 
there may be some evidence of overlap and reconstruction at the 
base of the Forest Marble, suggesting local unconformity. This 
may be the case, at Enslow Bridge near Kirtlington and Bletch- 
ington, where there are several fine sections, which have been 
rendered famous by the descriptions of Phillips* and others. 

The section south-west of Enslow Bridge, on the western side 
of the River Oherwoll, is as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
'Flaggy oolitic limestone. 
Bajids of soft pale marl and darker 
grey marly clay witli "race" and 
lignite. Lumps of marly oolitic lime- 
stone (? remanie Great Oolite) occur 
near the base - - 7 

"Hard brown oolitic limestone, fissile in 

places - - - 1 to 1 

Fine-grained compact and earthy oolite, 
blue-hearted fgood building-stone) " 

1 Oto 1 
Marly layer (impersistent) - 

Compact earthy limestone, slightly 
oolitic, containing Terebratula maml- 
lata in shelly layer, and Corals 

1 8 to 1 4 
Greenish-grey and dark blue racy clay 
and ferruginous oolitic marly clay, 
with lignite : Ostrea, &c. at base, also 
Selenite - - 3 to 3 6 

<( Hard rubbly-looking and slightly 
oolitic stone (with markings like the 
Great Oolite Dagham Stone) - - - 1 6 

(Upper Division). Marly' and slightly oolitic stone, much 

jointed : merging into bed below - 4 d 
White marly limestone : Terebratula- 
bed with T. maxillata ; Lima cardU- 
formis, Ostrea, Trigonia, not so abun- 
dant - - - - 4 to 5 
Marly and ferruginous layer - - 
White oolitic limestone, with occasional 

Terebratula maxillata - - - 1 

Buff finely oolitic sandy limestone - 2 
Ferruginous shelly and slightly oolitic 

stone — (base not seen), about - 6 

The Stone extends down to the river-level, and the lower beds were: 
formerly worked. Since I noted the above section, the quarry has been 

The Forest Marble was said to burn to a stronger lime, but to require 
more fuel than the Great Oolite. 

Phillips has noted a further series of beds beneath ; including 
16 feet of limestones and clays. He remarks that " several of 
these oolitic [limestone] beds occasionally become marl in this 
and other quarries. Beneath is a marly and sandy series, the 


* Phillips, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xvi. p. 118 ; Geol. Oxford, &c., p. 152 i 
and Hull, Geol. Woodstock, p. 21. 

E 75928. 



supposed equivalent of the Stonesfield beds." This general 
succession agrees with that I have previously noted (p. 320). 

Soutli of Bletchington station, and on the western side of the 
railway, there is a succession of quarries, where the lower beds 
of the Forest Marble and the Great Oolite are well shown. It 
will be useful to record tlie general section to show the variable 
nature of the beds, and the difficulty in fixing any uniform plane 
of division between the Forest Marble and the Great Oolite : it 
is as follows : — 

Ft. In. 

Forest Marble •< 

Great Oolite 
(Dpper Division). 


■Rubble. n 

Blue-hearted shelly and oolitic lime- I 
stone, with lignite and clay-seams > 

False-bedded oolitic and shelly lime- ( 
stone, with clay-galls - -J 

Hard white finely oolitic, shelly and 
compact limestone (blue-hearted) : 
Building- stone - 1 6 to 

Dark green and greenish-grey clay 
with "race," and lignite; and bands 
of ferruginous and shelly oolite : 
Ostrea Sowerhyi - 4 6 to 

Pale and iron-stained shelly and oolitic 
marly limestone, harder and more 
compact at top . . . 

Hard white marly limestone : Fossil 
Bed* : with Natiea intermedia. 
Fibula va/riata, Gypricardia, Unicar- 
diimi, Terebratula maxillaia,, Tham- 
nastrcea, &c. - - - - 

Grey marl . - . 

Pale oolitic limestone - 

Limestone, partially oolitic 

Pale shelly oolite ... 

Oolite ..... 

Phillips at one time took the greenish clay with Ostrea, as the 
base of the Forest Marble.f A similar bed however occurs in 
the section on the Woodstock branch railway, well below beds of 
Great Oolite ; and again south-west of Enslow Bridge, below 
one of the fossil-beds yielding Terebratula maxillata, &c. It 
will be noticed that we have a greater thickness of beds assigned 
to the Great Oolite at Enslow Bridge, and there near the base of 
the Forest Marble we find lumps of marly oolitic limestone, as 
at Hensgrove, Wychwood Forest, suggesting some local erosion 
of the strata. 

Tracing the beds to the quarry on the eastern side of the 
railway (see p. 373), the Forest Marble there rests on hard grey 
and iron-stained oolite, exposed to a depth of 4 feet, which may 
be the bed below the green clay in the section west of the railway. 
If this be the case we have further evidence of the discordancy 









* This hed may be compared with Beds 15 or 23 in the section near Hook Norton, 
p. 330; and the fossils may be compared with those recorded from the cutting at 
ABhford Bridge (p. 318). 

t Quart. Journ. Geol. See, vol. xvi. p. 118; see also Geol. Oxford, &o,, pp. 152, 


between Forest Marble and Great Oolite. The section was not 
deep enough to prove the point ; and it is quite possible that the 
top bed of Great Oolite, west of the railway, has expanded in 
thickness ; greenish marly and racy clay was, however, shown 
above the an old quarry a little east of Bletchin^ton 
railway-station, and the evidence thus tends to prove that ihe 
Forest Marble rests on diflferent members of the Great Oolite. 

Near Islip the Great Oolite has been exposed at the base of 
the Forest Marble in several faulted and inlying tracts* (see p. 376). 
The beds consist of pale and more or less oolitic limestones and 
marls, and are much false-bedded in places. 

The first specimens of Getiosaurus from near Enslow Bridge, 
were obtained from the railway-cuttings, in 1848, by Stricklandf : 
and these included a femur 4 ft. 3 in. long. Twenty years later 
Phillips obtained other remains of this huge saurian, to which 
the name Cetiosaurus oxoniensis was given ; and among the 
remains, a femur measuring 5 ft. 4 in. in length, was familiarly 
known as the "magnum bonum" of Phillips. He has fully 
described these, and also other specimens from Glympton and 
Ohipping Norton. In reference to the remains from Kirtlingtori, 
Phillips notes that the bones "have been drifted, yet not so 
much as to have suffered by attrition." He adds, that "they lie 
in, or rather appear to constitute, a bone-bed, whose basis is clay, 
with abundance of carbonaceous matter and small masses of wood. ' 
The bed is evidently, that noted as greenish-grey clay, in the 
sections at Enslow Bridge and Bletchington (Kirtlington) ; and it 
has yielded also Avicula, Astarte, Ostrea Sowerbyi, and Terebra- 
tula maxillata. 

Prof. Prestwich remarks that bones are found at different 
levels. He obtained a bone of Cetiosaurus within two feet of the 
Oombrash, and he thinks that the immense femur (before men- 
tioned) should be assigned to the base of the Forest Marble. 

Bemains of Teleosaurus were obtained at Enslow Bridge (south 
of Kirtlington) a little below the Terehratula-heA; and also at 
KIdlington. As remarked by Phillips, the heads of this Saurian 
are found in beds below those containing the large bones of 
Cetiosaurus. Many other fossils have been obtained from the 
Great Oolite of this area. Including Ammonites subcontractus ; and 
a list, on the autlwrity of J. F. Whiteaves, has been published. J 

To the north-west of Woodstock, a large area is occupied by 
the Great Oolite, as previously mentioned (p. 319). There are 
•sections here and there to the south of Ditchley Park, at Wootton, 
. Kiddington, west of Steeple Barton and Maiden Bower ; and the 
jjpits show white limestones, oolites and marls, which in placea.are 
very fossiliferou8.§ (See Fig. 91, and p. 163.) 

* Green, Geol. Banbury, pp. 35, 36. ^--f 

t Proc. Ashmolean Soc, 184S, p. 19 ; Memoirs of Strickland, p. 185j^EMJJiES, 
"Geol. Oxford, pp. 6, 249, 251, &c. ; Prestwich, Geology, vol. ii. pp. 208, 211. 

J Green, Geol. Banbury, p. 23 ; Whiteaves, Eep. Brit. Assoc, for 1860, pp. 105, 
§ Hull, Geol. Woodstock, pp. 21, 22. • 

X 2 



At Glympton and Steeple Barton, Corals have been obtained 
from the ploughed fields : they include Cryptoccenia Pratti, 
Isastraa limitata, &c.* Their occurrence at Steeple Barton was 
noticed by Plot, while Charles Faulkner of Deddington obtained 
many specimens from Glympton. Specimens of Cetiosaurvs have 
also been obtained from Glympton, and named C. glymptonensis. 

Prof. Hull notes that at Tackley the upper beds of the Great 
Oolite consist of white limestone, resting upon about 20 feet of 
shales and marls : and these beds have been exposed in the rail- 
way cuttings to the east of the village, and in quarries at Berring's 
Wood, south of Over Kiddington. Allusion has already been 
made to the argillaceous beds that in this district occur beneath 
the main mass of Great Oolite limestones (p. 320 ) : these shales 
and marls contain the following fossilsf : — 

Ostrea Sowerbyi. 
Pecten annulatus. 

Ehynchonella concinna. 

Other fossils from the Upper Division of the Great Oolite in 
this area have also been obtained by the Geological Survey.J 

Fig. 91. 

Section across the Dome, Steeple Barton, Oxfordshire. 
(Prof. E. Hull). 


Great Oolite. 


Upper Lias 
Middle Lias 


Thick-bedded white limestone. 
a^. Beds of shale and stony marl, 
f a'. Slaty ferruginous sandstone. 
1 a*. Yellow sandstone and sands. 
- b. Blue shales, 
c. Marlstoue. 

Chadlington, Chipping Norton, Tadmarton, and Banbury. 

In the western portion of this area at Chadlington Down, and 
towards Lyneham Barrow, the Great Oolite on the Geological 
Survey Map, has not been properly separated from the Inferior 
Oolite, as it is for the most part in the tract to the north em- 
braced by Quarter Sheet 45 N.W. Nor is this in all cases an 
easy task. (See p. 146.) 

The Great Oolite, as before mentioned, rests indifferently on 
Tarious members of the Inferior Oolite, and we have evidence ia 

* Tomes, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxix. p. 171. 
t Hull, op. cit., Green, Geol. Banbury, p. 17. 
j Green, op. cit, p. 23. 


that formation of important beds of limestone (Chipping Norton 
Limestone), that mark a higher horizon than the Clypeus Grit of 
the Ootteswolds. This Chipping Norton Limestone is far from 
fo^siliferous, it is variable in character, and becomes very sandy 
in places, and we cannot always, in the small quarry-sections, 
determine with certainty the precise age of some of the oolites, 
Detailefl mapping on the 6-inch scale can alone settle some of 
the uncertainties. 

The basement-beds of the Great Oolite Series consist, in many 
places, of flaggy and shelly oolite, with Nerinma, overlying dark 
grey or black clay with " race " and marl (a few feet thick). 
Lumps (apparently rolled) of limestone, form at the base a 
remanie bed, not unlike that which is here and there seen on top 
of the Great Oolite, at its junction with the Forest Marble. 
The name " Eift Bed " lias been locally applied by Mr. E. A. 
Walford, to this bottom layer, which rests irregularly on different 
members of the Inferior Oolite. Miich tufaceous rubble some- 
times accompanies it, and the clay fills riffs or hollows of the 
underlying strata. In part, this Rift Bed may be due to dissolu- 
tion of the underlying beds, as the infiUings sometimes occur in 
irregular pipes, as well as in joints of the stone-beds. 

Mr. Tomes and Mr. Walford have noted the occurrence of the 
Coral, Cyathophora Bourgueti, in the " rifted " bed on top of the 
Inferior Oolite in the Hook Norton railway-cutting.* This 
species has also been found by them in the Great Oolite (above 
the Stonesfield Slate-beds) in the Ashford Bridge railway-cutting, 
near Stonesfield. (See p. 318.) 

At Chipping Norton, remains of Cetiosaurus have been obtained 
from the local basement-bed of the Great Oolite Series ; and it 
was probably in the flaggy and shelly oolite in " Smith's quarry," 
at Sarsden, that a humerus of Cetiosaurus was obtained by Earl 
Ducie, for it was "imbedded in the rock"; the beds in that 
quarry have also yielded remains of the Omithosaurian, Rhampko- 
cephalus depressirostris.lf 

At Enslow Bridge, the remains of Cetiosaurus come from the 
higher beds of the Great Oolite, while Ornithosaurians elsewhere 
occur in the Stonesfield Slate. Palaeontological evidence is not a 
certain guide for fixing horizons in the Great Oolite. At the 
same time, I cannot help thinking, on stratigraphical grounds, 
that from the area of Stonesfield, northwards to Chipping Norton, 
and Hook Norton, the basement-beds of the Great Oolite itself, 
are not everywhere on the same horizon, and that some layers are 
impersistent and overlapped by higher stages. 

The section at the old lime-kiln, north of Castle Barn, and 
south-east of Sarsden, was as followsf : — 

* Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxix. pp. 172, 230. 

t Phillips, Geol. Oxford, p. 274 ; Huxley, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xiv. p. 
+ See p. 153 of this Memoir; also Hull, Geol. Woodstock, p. 16. 


Ft. In. 
„ .,-,,., r Flaffffy and shelly oolite with Pecteji - 2 

Great Oolite ■{ Marly bed. 

'Hard brown false-bedded sandy oolite 

(used for dry -walling) - - 5 6 

Soft grey oolitic marl, merging into 
bed above, but impersistent : Gas- 
Inferior Oolite ? teropods {Natica ? &o.) poorly pre- 
(Ohipping Norton •( served - ' . ' . ' ^ ^ 
Limestone ?). Brown ferruginous oolite, passing 
down into fine-grained sandy oolite, 
and fine and coarse-grained oolitic 
" freestone " : some of the lower beds 
are burnt for lime - - - 15 

The general sequence of beds between Sarsden quarry and the 
Camp on the south, is probably as follows, but the sections on 
which it is based are small nnd isolated : — 

Ft. Lv. 

f Greenish clays, marls, and white oolitic 

I limestone, with Ostrea Sowerbyi, 

I Bhynchonella concirma, TerehraMct, 

r* ' i^ n T^ J maxillata, and Corals {IsastrcBa) - 5 

ureat uonte -<^ gheiiy and flaggy oolite, with Pecten, 

I and lignite '- - - - 7 

I Oolitic marly bed, and racy clay with 
[ Ostrea acwmmata, and 0. Sowerbyi - 4 6 
r\ ■ r\ Ti. of Brown oolitic and sandy limestone 
Inferior Oolite? I (Chipping Norton Limestone P) - 22 

The thicknesses given are those actually noted in the several 

A section south-west of Chadlington Down Farm has already 
been described. (See Fig. 47, p. 152.) There the basement- 
clay of the Great Oolite rests unconformably on the Chipping 
Norton Limestone, for higher beds of that rock were shown beneath 
the clay on the eastern side of the quarry. From the overlying 
beds of Great Oolite, Mr. Hudleston, Mr. Walford, and Mr. J. 
Windoes have obtained many fossils. These higher beds of 
Great Oolite have also been exposed to the south of Chadlington 
Down Farm, and in quarries on either side of the road to the 
north-west of the Farm. The disused quarry on the western side 
of the road was known as " Keek's quarry " ; another quarry is 
situated about two miles east of the Farm ; and there are others 
along the road to the south of Glime Farm. The beds comprise 
nearly 20 feet of shelly oolitic limestones and marls, overlying 
false-bedded oolites, and they yield Nerinaa Eudesi, and other 
Gasteropods, Gardium Sti-ichlandi, Homomya, Lima cardiiformis, 
Myacites, Ostrea acuminata, O. Sowerbyi, Pecten, Rhynclionella 
condnna, Terehratula .maxillata, Cidaris, Acrosalenia, Anabaciay 

South of Enstone, and again to the north-west, we find the 
local basement-beds of the Great Oolite to consist of oolitic 
rubble, dark clay, and marl, and flaggy oolite and compact lirae- 

* Hudleston, Proe. Geol. Assoc, vol. v. p. 385 ; and E. A. Walford, Warwicksh- 
Nat. Club, March 14, 1882, pp. 20-27. 



stone with Nerincea, resting on false-bedded sandy and oolitic 
limestones (Chipping Norton Limestone). Dark clay occurs here 
and there in crevices of the oolite, and owing probably to the 
effects of dissolution on these sandy limestones, they appear in 
places much broken up and tumbled like some of the " broken " 
Purbeck Beds. These basement-beds yield Ostrea acuminata and 
O. Sowerbyi ; and in the quarry near the 70th milestone on the 
road from Enstone to Chipping Norton, I obtained from them, 
Amberleya nodosa, Nerincea Eudesi, Astarte, Unicardium, and a 
Crocodilian tooth. A good section of the local basement-beds o£ 
the Great Oolite, with the Eift-Bed, was exposed in one of the 
quarries west of Swerford, as pointed out to me by Mr. Walford, 
(See p. 159.) 

He has also obtained evidence of slaty beds (like those in the 
railway-cutting at Langton Bridge), about 20 feet beneath the 
surface at Fulwell, south of Enstone. 

We now come to the somewhat complex region of Chipping 
Norton, to which reference has already been made in a chapter 
on the Inferior Oolite (p. 146). This locality, like Enslow 
Bridge and Glympton, has been noted as a place of sepulture of 
some of the giant-bones of Cetiosaurus. Caudal vertebrae of 
this Saurian were for the first time discovered at Chapelhouse, 
about a mile north-east of Chipping Norton, as early as 1825, by 
John Kingdon;* but the genus was not named and described 
imtil 1841, by Owen. 

One of the more noteworthy sections at Chipping Norton is 
tliat known as the Cetiosaurus Quarry, and Padley's Quarry, 
where the section which I saw was as follows : — 

Great Oolite 

Inferior Oolite 

(Chipping Norton 


Soil with pebbles of quartz and 

False-bedded and current-beddedl 
oolite, pale and close-grained : Tri- j 
gonia, &c. - - - - 1 

Brown oolitic limestone, with f 
Modiola, Ostrea acuminata, Pecten, \ 
and Trigonia, „ - - -J 

Grey shelly clay and yellowish marl, 
fiill of 0. acwminaia and 0. Sowerbyi 

Greenish grey and brown shelly clay 
with much " race " and marly layers : 
0. acuminata and 0. Sowerbyi (abun- 
dant) and Modiola - - - 

Ferruginous marly bed in which re- 
mains of Oetiosaurus have been ob- 
tainedf .... 

'Brown and pale oolite : sharply jointed 
false-bedded and current-bedded, the 
the lower beds tougher and siliceous 
I [Mr. Hudleston notes rolled spines 
(_ of Acrosalenia, flsh-teeth, &c.] about 

Ft. In. 


* Phillips, Geol. Oxford, p. 245 ; Ann. Phil. ser. 2. vol. x. p. 229. 

t Owen, Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. iii. p. 457._ Mr. Hudleston says that bones have 
been found in blue clay at a higher horizon in this series. Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. v. 
p. 384. 


According to Mr. Hudleston, the surface here is 715 feet 
above sea-level, and about 60 feet above the Upper Lias. Some 
of the specimens of Ostrea acuminata reminded me of the forms 
that occur in the Fuller's Earth near "Weymouth. 

The junction between the clays, and the Chipping Norton 
Limestone, is irregular and apparently unconformable. This is 
partly due to disintegration of the surface of the limestone, partly 
perhaps to irregular upheaval ; but the top of the limestone is 
capped ill places with rubbly and partly rounded masses of brown 
oolitic limestone, that might have been so shaped by subaerial 
weathering. As Mr. Hudleston remarks, " Here there is a definite 
line and a thorough physical break," In the argillaceous series, 
" we may bave the representative of the Black Clay of Langton 
Bridge." He adds that the Chipping Norton Limestone below, 
may represent rather higher beds than those exposed at Langton 
Bridge, " the argillaceous series being transgressive over different 
beds of the Inferior Oolite."* The dark clay of Langton Bridge 
■occurs at the base of the Stonesfield series. (See p. 331.) 

West of Chipping Norton a somewhat similar section was to 
be seen, agreeing also with that on Chastleton Hill. A quarry 
near Handbrake on Chastleton Hill, showed the following 
section : — 

Ft. In. 
Brown clay, flaggy beds and rubble of 
oolitic limestone, with Nerincea, 
Terehratula maxillata, &c. - - 1 6 

Flaggy oolitic limestone - - 1 

Brown and bluish-grey marly clay and 
tufaceous marly and oolitic rubble : 
Ostrea acuminata, 0. Sowerbyi, Bhyn- 
chonella, Terehratula - - - 3 

Tnfflrior Oolitp / Oolitic and sandy limestones (Chipping 
Interior Uolite -^ j^-Qrton Limestone) - - - 10 

The stone-beds of the Inferior Oolite are much shattered, and 
the " rifts " or " swillies " are filled with clay. 

A somewhat similar section near Oakham, to the north-east, was 
described by Prof. Hull, the basement-limestone, there quarried 
for building-stone, being however referred to the Great Oolite.f 
He mentions that in a quarry near the gate of Daylesford Park, 
the basement-clay "is associated with thin bands of sand and 
gravel," probably like tlie oolitic rubble in the above section.J 

The railway- cuttings between Chipping Norton and Hook 
Norton have opened up a number of interesting sections, including 
Combrash, Forest Marble, Great and Inferior Oolites and Lias : 
and the beds have been described by Mr. T. Beesley, Mr. 
Hudleston, and Mr. E. A. Walford. The cuttings in the Great 
Oolite, aided by adjoining quarries, give the following sequence : 
the details being those noted by myself, and the species which I 

* Proo. Geol. Assoc, vol. v. p. 385. 
t Geol. Cheltenliam, p. 59. 
X Ibid., p. 60, 

Great Oolite -< 














• tH 











' S> 














6 M 


:r* . 


1=1 Si 



















































td ^ 






« .9 




3 o 



a &• 


.2 o ,2 

fe p. 

l> W lO •<* CO « I— 

o =5 

o -^ 

■ a 



s « ^ 

n 3 S 
.a § a 

° a 

■1-1 ^W ^ ID 

^ =r»'r sa 

.a « Sja'^f fe.^-a 

fl « a ® >4 ^ w © "2 

^M tH (H I-H f-H ^H 



collected having been determined by Messrs. Sharman and 
Newton : — 

Forest Marble 

3 ft. 6 in. 

(See also p. 375.) 


Great Oolite 
56 ft. 7 in. 

27. Brown clay and debris of slielly 
oolitic limestone (Forest Marble) 

26. Yellowish-marly clays with hard 
marly lumps : Ostrea Sowerbyi, 
, Oervillia (? remanie bed) - 

'25. Grey earthy marl and hard white 
marly limestone, oolitic in 
places ; with some Gasteropods, 
and Asiarte, Oervillia Wattoni, 
Lricina, Modiola, Myacites, Ostrea, 
Unicardium varicosum, Serpula, 
Acrosalenia Wiltoni, &c. 

24. Greenish and bluish-black clay 

23. Creamy white and blue-hearted 
marly and shelly limestones, in- 
distinctly oolitic : with Gastero- 
pods, Astarte, Gardimn siAtrigo- 
num, Gyprvna, Nexra ? Unicar- 
dium, and occasional Saurian 
Bones (seen in cutting west of 
Hook Norton tunnel) about 

22. Hard brown shelly oolitic limestone 
with spines of Echini 

21. Bubbly more or, less oolitic marls 
and marly clays, in harder and 
softer bands : Ostrea 

20. Hard greenish and bluish-grey 
oolitic limestone : Geromya, Ho- 
momya gibhosa - - - 

19. Brown and greenish calcareous 
sand with lignite : Crocodilian 

18. Marl with Ostrea-, Terebratula maxil- 
lata (crushed) ... 

17. Tough impure grey and blue- 
hearted oolitic limestone, marly 
and less oolitic at base : Lima 
cardiiformis, Pecten, T. maxil- 
lata, Sihynchonella concinna: (fos- 
sils more abundant in upper 
part) - - - 

16. Greenish-grey marly clay - 

15. Hard grey marly bed full of 
bivalves, and with some Gastero- 
pods and Echini : Natica, Ga/r- 
dium cognatam, G. subtrigommi, 
Gyprina, Geromya concemtrica, 
Homomya gibbosa, Isocardia 
minima, Modiola imbrieata, 
Lucina bellond, Ostrea acumi- 
nata, 0. Sowerhyi, Pecten vagans, 
Pholadomya HerauUi, Thracia 
curtansata P UnicardiMm,, Kh/yn- 
chonella concinna, Acrosalenia, 
Echinobrissus and Holeetypus 
(seen in second cutting east of 
Langton Bridge) - 

14. Hard oolitic limestone with many 
Gasteropods, Nerinma, &c. 

13. Grey marl fossiliferous in places - 

Ft. In. 


2 6 

3 6 

4 » 

8 6. 

1 a 


2 & 



2 6- 

2 9 

3 6 



Stonesfield Slate 


17 ft. 5 in. 

(Fuller's Earth). 

Inferior Oolite 

- Ft. In. 
12. Pale earthy limestone - - 1 ' 8 

11. Marl with Ostrea aeum/inaia and~| 

0. subrugulosa - - ' L 1 

10. Fissile sandy limestone : Ostrea, C 
Rhynchonella - - -J 

9. Eubbiy and fossiliferous oolitic 
marl with " race " : Modiola 
imbricata, Ostrea Sowerhyi, 0. 
gregaria, RJiynckonella concinna, 
Terebratula mamllata (fine and 
large examples) - - - 5 O" 

8. Earthy oolitic limestone - - 8 

7. Fissile calcareous and slightly 

micaceous sandstone - - 1 2 

6. Flaggy and more or less fissile 
oolite and calcareous sandstone, 
current-bedded, in ijale grey and 
whitish bands - - - 6 0' 

5. Current-bedded shelly oolitic lime- 
stones and marly beds, with 
"race" and Ostrea: ripple- 
marked on surface of top-bed - 4 

4. Grey marly clay with Itliynchonella 

concinna - - - 2 3- 

3. Ha;;d shelly and current-bedded 

oolites, wilh marly band - 5 0' 

2. Dark bluish-black clay, with Ostrea 
acuminata and 0. Sowerhyi 

about 6 to 20 (?) 

1. Chipping Norton Limestone. See p. 151.) 

For the guidance of those who may be interested in studying the- 
sections, the following detailed notes are given. 

Beds 1 to 10 were exposed in the railway-cutting east of Langton 
Bridge, and beds 3 to 6 again in an adjoining quarry south of the railway. 

The second cutting east of Langton Bridge showed beds 12 to 15, 
resting on clay possibly the same as bed 11. 

A quarry east of the road, south of the railway and south of the Lime- 
kiln, showed beds 6 to 9, highly inclined towards the north ; bed 9 
here being rich in specimens of Terehratula maxillata, &c. They were 
overlaid by beds seen in the road-ontting immediately north, consisting^ 
of creamy limestones and marls, from which I obtained Ostrea acuminata 
and 0. sihrugulosa. Still, higher, there were fine oolitic limestones, to- 
gether representing beds 11 to 14, the actual thickness of which was not 
clearly determinable. 

Beds 23 and 24 were shown in the Lime-kiln quarry, where they dip 
towards the S.S.B., suggesting a synclinal arrangement, if indeed the beds 
be not faulted on the south. 

The long cutting, west of the Hook Norton tunnel-cutting, showed a 
clear sequence of beds 14 to 23, resting on clayey strata ; the top beds 
represent the mass of the White Limestone. 

Beds 20 to 23 were shown in Jhe cutting east of the lane south of Eoll- 
right Heath Farm, and beds 23 to 27, &c. were shown in the cutting on 
the west side of the same lane, and in that near the Pest House. 

The cutting adjoining the western end of Hook Norton tunnel, showed 
Upper Lias, &c. faulted against the Great Oolite. These latter beds 
were much obscured, bnt there were marly clays with bands of earthy 
shelly and oolitic limestone, and an oyster-bed with Ostrea acuminata, 0. 
Sowerhyi, Gyprina, Bhynchmiella concinna, &c. These beds, I believe, 
represent those numbered 10 to 14, and perhaps as low as No: 8. Details 
were noted by Mr. Beesley, who, however, regarded the beds as belonging 


to the base of the series, with the Inferior Oolite below them.* This 
Tiew, however, was Topposed by Mr. Hudleston,t whose grouping coincides 
with that now adopted. 

The total thickness of the beds here assigned to the Great 
Oolite (Nos. 3 to 25), measures 74 feet. It is remarkable that 
this agrees within one foot with the measurement (73 feet) made 
by Mr. T. Beesley and Mr. E. B. Tawney4 because in one or 
two instances definite measurements were not to be made when I 
saw the sections. 

It will be noticed that there is a considerable proportion of marl 
in the Great Oolite, amounting indeed to about half of its mass. 

It should be nienticmed that the thickress assigned by Mr. 
Hudleston, to the " Black Clay," and underlying marly clay is 
only 5 ft. 7 in. : Mr. Beesley notes this as 6 ft. 9 in., but it is 
mentioned that the thicknesses vary within short distances. I 
certainly saw a greater thickness on the east side of Langton Bridge, 
but have queried the amount as the beds may have been partlaUy 
slipped. Referring to this " argillaceous series," Mr. Hudleston 
remarks that, it seems " almost unconformable to the underlying 
beds." This indication of unconformity, which is afforded by the 
irregular character of the junction between the clay and under- 
lying limestone, may be compared with that seen in the section at 
the Cetiosaurus quarry at Chipping Norton. Mr. Hudleston 
adds that "It may be doubted whether this dividing Clay can 
be exactly referred either to the Upper Estuarine or to the 
Fuller's Earth. "§ Considering that it is overlaid by beds of 
Stonesfield Slate character, as in the cuttings noted along the 
railway between Bourton-on-the-Water and Andoversford (see 
p. 293), we cannot but group the clay with the Fullonian. At 
no other locality to the east or north-east do we find any beds 
that we can definitely assign either to the Stonesfield Slate or 
Fuller's Earth — if represented in point of time they are included 
in the Upper Estuarine Series. 

There can be no doubt that the beds grouped as Stonesfield 
Slate Series occupy the position of the beds at Stonesfield; but 
it is noteworthy that we have current-bedded shelly oolites below 
the slaty beds instead of above them as in other localities near 
Burford and Notgrove. It is not unlikely therefore, as suggested 
by Mr. Walford, that the slaty beds here are developed at a 
somewhat higher horizon in the series than elsewhere ; but at all 
places the development of " slate " is uncertain and irregular. 

Lignite and obscure plant-remains occur in some of the beds. A 
large Clypeus was noted by Mr. Hudleston, and Mr. Walford 
obtained from the higher beds a number of Polyzoa {Diasiopora 
ventricosd) which were found around a piece of water-logged 
coniferous wood. Mr. G. E. Vine, who described the Polyzoa, 
counted from 20 to 30 layers of them, representing successive 

* Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. v. p. 172. 

t Ibid., p. 388. 

j Ihid., p. 179. 

§ Ibid., pp. 381, 385. See also Beesley, Ibid., p. 172. 


growths of colonies of the organism.* A band with Thamnastraa 
Lyelli waa noted by Mr. Beesley, about the horizon of beds 15 
to 17, and he has collected many other fossils, including Cypri- 
cardia bathonica, Pecten annulaius, Trigonia, &c.t 

The upper beds are of considerable interest. We may take 
bed 25 as the top of the Great Oolite. It is noteworthy as 
yielding Gervillia Waltoni somewhat abundantly, as well as an 
Astarte, identified as A. angulatn by Mr. Hudieston, who refers to 
the bed as the " Angulata-ted^'' and compares it with a band in 
the section at KirtlingtoaJ This species occurs also at Ashford 
Bridge and Minchinhampton. Mr. Beesley has recorded a number 
of fossils from this Astarte-hei^, including species of Cerithium, 
Natica, Nerincea, Cardium, Corbula, Cyprina, Cypricardia, 
Macrodon Mrsonensis, Pteroperna, &c.§ 

Fossil-beds here as elsewhere occur at varying horizons in the 
Great Oolite, and it appears impossible to mark any limits for the 
Upper and Lower Divisions of the formation, to compare with 
those noted in Gloucestershire. 

A section at the lime-kiln, Trp.itor's Ford, about 2^ miles North- 
west of Hook Norton, showed the following section : — 

Ft. In. 


Marly limestone, with casts of lamelli- 

Pale shelly oolite (the lower part yields 
the best Utae, employed for white- 
washing, &c.) - - - - 4 

Hard blue-hearted oolitic limestones - 3 

Marly beds. 

The only fossils I obtained were Lima cardiiformis, and 
Echinobrissus Griesbachi, ? 

The beds may be about the horizon of those numbered 17 and 18 in the 
raUway-cuttings (p. 330) ; and higher beds (=18 to 21) were shown east 
of the lane, where clayey beds of considerable thickness are associated 
with the limestone. 

A quarry about three-quarters of a mile S.S.E. of Hook 
Norton Leys Farm, showed the junction of the Forest Marble 
and Great Oolite. The beds, which undulate considerably and 
are much broken up at the surface, were as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
Flaggy and shelly limestones with 

lignite- - - - - 1 8 

Marl and grey clay, with Ostrea Sower- 
Forest Marble -^ lyi, &c. - - - - 1 6 

Hard blue and grey shelly limestones, 
and gritty limestone with marly 
patches ; current-bedded in places - 1 9 

* Walford, Warwicksh. Nat. Club, March U, 1882 ; Vine, Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc, vol. xxxvii. p. 385. 

t Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. v. p. 175. See also Tomes, Quart. Jonrn. Geol. Soc, 
■vol. xxxix. p. 173. 

t Proc Geol. Assoc, vol. v. pp. 386, 387. 

§ Ibid., pp. 177, 178. 

Great Oolite - ■( 



Ft. In.. 

Pale grey and white soft, limestones 
and marls; shelly in places - - 3 6 

Tough pale-grey gritty and shelly lime- 
stone - - - G 6to 1 10 
Great Oolite -^ Brown and greenish clay, with Ostrea 
Sowerhyi, and ferruginous gritty 

Pale marl passing down into pale oolitic 
limestone, the lower part ferruginous 7 

These beds of Great Oolite may be compared with those numbered 23 
to 25 in the railway-section (p. 330). 

In a quarry north-west of Bacon Farm, south of Swaloliffe, 
the beds were highly inclined, dipping towards the south, and the 
following section was shown, (Fig. 93) : — 


Forest Marble 

Great Oolite 

9. Brown clay, with a few stones 

8. Bubble of oolite 

7. Greenish clay with " race " - 

6. Blue shelly alid slightly oolitic lime- 
stone (like Forest Marble) - 

5. Shaly clay, with Ostrea at base 
"4. Compact pale-grey limestone, be- 
coming marly and shelly, blue and 
oolitic towards the base, where it 
resembles Forest Marble 2 2 to 

3. Fossil Bed: Clay with indurated 
raarly layers, Ga/rdium, OervilUa, 
Modiola, Ostrea Sowerbyi, Unicar- 
dium varicosv/m, Terelratwla maxil- 
lata, and Lignite ... 

2. Pale compact limestone, with ferru. 
ginous stains, and some Gastero- 
pods - - - 

1. Marly oolitic and shelly lime- 
stones ... 










Fig. 93. 

Section at Swalcliffe, south-west 
of Banbury. 

hill Fanu. The section was as follows : — 

I take these beds to belong 
to the upper part of the Great 
Oolite, and the Forest Marble ; 
but absolute confidence in 
correlation is not, in my 
opinion, possible, A little to 
the east of this quarry, a 
small excavation showed pale 
limestone with brown oolitic 
grains, yielding Nerincea and 
other Gasteropods also Mya- 
cites, Nucula, Pholadomya, 
and Corals. . _ 

The upper beds of the 
Great Oolite were also shown 
in a quarry to the norih-west 
of Epwell, and east of Broom- 



6oil, &c. 

Great Oolite 

Ft. In. 
[■ Brashy clay with bits of Ostrea, and re- 
-i manie greenish and brcwn clay 
L 2 Oto 

(White marl with Echini 
Pale marly oolite. Coral Bed with 
Thecosmilia? - 
Eubbly marl 
Pale oolite .... 

Marly layer, impure earthy and oolitic 

Hard grey oolite ... 

A quarry known to local geologists as the Forest Marble Pit, 
on the lilll north of Lower Tadmarton, affords evidence of the 
junc^on of Great Oolite and Forest Marble with a very irregular 
line of demarcation. The section was as follows : — ' 






Forest Marble 


Great Oolite 

'Stiff brown and stony clay, resting in 

" pipes " on bed below 
Thin reddish-brown shelly limestones - 
Grey shelly marl - - \ - 

Fissile shelly oolite (blue-hearted) 
Hard compact grey limestone, with 
Modiola .... 

Brown and pale-grey flaggy shelly and 
earthy limestone, with Ostrea, &c. - 
Grey marly and shelly clay, with Ger- 
mllia, Ostrea Sowerbyi, <&o. : of irre- 
gular thickness 
Blue-black clay, with lignite ; tapering 
away northward - - 1 to 

Greenish-grey and ferruginous marly 
and nodular (remanie) bed - 6 to 
Compact pale pink and grey limestone, 
obscurely oolitic, with worn and 
bored surface - . - - 

I Pale oolitic limestones ... 
(_Shelly oolite (used for building-stone). 

Ft. In. 



According to.. Mr. Beesley the ooHte at the base has been 
quarried to a depth of 10 feet. He notes that remains of 
Teleosaurus were obtained from the Great Oolite of this 
quarry.* The coinpact grey limestone here taken as the tpp 
of the Great Oolite, appears to correspond with that at Swal- 
clifFe (p. 334) ; but correlation is hazardous. 

A somewhat similar section was exposed at the lime-kiln north 
of the Fulling Mill, west of Brovghton. There I obtained Ostrea 
costata and O. subrugulosa from the clays overlying the Great 
Oolite; and froifi the Great Oolite, Natica, Cardium, and 
Pholadomya; Mr. Beesley notes other fossils. 

At the Tadmarton Limcrkiln, lower beds of Great Oolite affi 
worked to the depth of about 12 feet. They comprise pale earthy 
and slightly oolitic limestones, and hard and soft marls, resting 
on a hard blue-hearted shelly oolitic limestone, and covered by a 

* Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. iii. p. 203, and Proo. WarwioksMre Field Clnbj 1872, 

p. 31. ,: 



rubble of oolite. The beds occur below the oolite (freestone) of 
the " Forest Marble pit " (p. 335). Fossils are veiy abundant in 
the soft limestones and marls, and I obtained the following 
species : — 

Nalica globosa. 



Anatina siliqua. 


Ceromya concentrica. 

Oorbula involuta ? 


Isocardia minima. 

Leda lachryma. 



Ostrea costata. 

' Sowerbyi. . 

Ostrea subrugulosa. 
Pecten amiulatus. 



Pholadomya deltoidea ? 



Thraoia ourtansata. 
Terebratiila maxillata. 
Acrosalenia Wiltoni. 
Echinobrissus clnnionlaris. 




The assemblage may be compared with that found in bed 15, of the 
railway- cutting west of Hook Norton (p. 330). 

Many fossils have also been collected by Mr. Beesley, including besides 
many of the species mentioned, Astarte, Gyprina, Modiola, and Crustacean 
remains {Qlyphea).* 

These beds occur approximately on the horizon of beds 11 to 16 in the 
section near Hook Norton. 

Beds of Great Oolite have been observed on Constitution Hill, 
to the W.S. W. of Banbury. They comprise alternations of marl 
and limestone with Ostrea and Rhynchonella concinna, resting on 
oolite and marl, together little more than 12 or 15 feet thick; 
beneath which come the sandy beds of the Inferior Oolite. 
Sections have been recorded by Mr. Beesley, on whose authority 
the above notes are given, f 

Southwest of Dane Hill, south of Deddington, the road- 
cutting showed the following beds : — 

Great Oolite 

Inferior Oolite ? 

Oolitic and shelly marls. 
Kubbly limestone, oolitic : Modiola im- 
Iricata, Myadtes, and Ter^ratnla 
_Tellowish marl and clay 
Sandy limestone, ■with. Ostrea. 

Ft. In. 


At the Lime-kiln, west o£ the road, higher beds were shown 
as follows : — 

Great Oolite 

Rubble and clay (disturbed). 

Eubbly marl and yellowish sand. 

Pale earthy and oolitic limestone (Coral 
Bed) - . - - 

Hard shelly oolitic limestone ; Nerincea, 
Trigonia? .... 

Blue-hearted earthy and oolitic lime- 
stone ..... 

Ft. In. 

1 2 



* Proo. Geol. Assoc, vol. iii. pp. 201, 202. 

t Proc. Warwickshire Field Club, 1872, pp. 26, 30; see also Green, Geol. Ban- 
bury, p- 25. 



These beds recall the White Limestones, which are so well 
seen in the countiy near Glympton to the south-west. 

The lower beds of the Great Oolite in this region, were shown 
in a quarry at North Aston, east of the " Fox and Crown." The 
section was as follows : — 

Ft. In. 

Great Oolite 


Hard imperfectly oolitic and sandy 
limestone ; even-bedded and Bome- 
whal shelly - - - - 6 

False-bedded rotten marly and 
slightly oolitic limestone and 
marls : with Gasteropods and 
Lamellibranchs, Ostrea 8owerhyi, 
&c. - .--50 

Hard brown shelly and oolitic lime- 
stones (like Forest Marble) 

Marly bed with nnmerons Lamelli- 
branchs, Trigonia, &o. - - 1 

Tough impnre and very shelly lime- 
stone merging into beds below - 1 

Massive beds of tough brown oolitic 
and shelly limestone (blue-hearted), 
with an impersistent bed of soft 
white or cream-coloured earthy lime- 
stone - - - - - 4 

False-bedded hard brown ferruginous 
sandy and oolitic limestone - - 1 6 

Below these beds there occur a layer of black clay, and then sand and 
ironstone of Inferior Oolite age, according to Mr. Beesley, and Mr. E. A. 

The general aspect of these beds, and especially of the lower 
strata, is not unlite beds of the Inferior Oolite (Chipping Norton 
Limestone); but the evidence tends to show that only Great 
Oolite is exposed. From the lowest beds of limestone seen in the 
quarry Mr. Walford obtained Nei-incea Eudesi, Ceritella parvula, 
Cerithium costigerum and other fossils of Great Oolite character. 
From the upper beds he obtained Cyprina loweana, Trigonia 
costata, Modiola gibhosa, &c.* ; and I have found Cypricardia 
caudata and Thracia curtansata ? It is possible that some of the 
fossils recorded by Mr. T. R. Polwhele from near Deddington, 
may have been obtained from this locality.t 

The further consideration of the Great Oolite is postponed 
until after the Forest Marble has been described ; for in the area 
to the north-east other subdivisions of the Great Oolite Series are 
recognized, and they are best treated together. 

* "Warwicksh. Nat. Club, March 14, 1882. 
t See Green, Geol. Banbury, p. 12. 

E 75928. 




FoEBST Marble and Bradford Clay. 

General Account of the Strata. 

In the old Forest of Wychwood (or Whichwood) to the north- 
east of Burfbrd in Oxfordshire, certain beds of shelly oolitic 
limestone are quarried here and there, for road-metal and for 
building walls. A centmy ago' the stone was employed locally 
for chimney-pieces in farm-houses and cottages, and being 
polished for the purpose, it was known in thei country round as 
the Forest Marble. This name was adopted in 1799 by Williaiia 
Smith, as a geological term for the strata, which he found to rest 
on the Great Oolite and to be overlaid by the Oornbrash : but 
like other of Smitb's terms, it was,. I believe, first published in 
1813 by the Rev. Joseph Towneend. 

No formation witli which we have to deal is more variable in 
its particular characters than the Forest Marble, though taken as 
a whole it forms a fairly well-marked division, extending from the 
Dorsetshire . coast near Bridport and Weymouth inland to the 
neighbourhood of Buckingham. 

The beds consist i of shelly oolitic limestones, and thin flaggy 
limestones generally much false-bedded, and they comprise also 
clays and shales with thin layers of gritty limestone. In some 
places thicker beds of gritty or sandy limestone are intercalated 
with the limestones, especially in the upper part J and in others, con- 
siderable beds qf buff or brown sand appear, with layers and, large 
concretionary masses or doggers of calcareous sandstone. 

More often the mass of blue shelly and oolitic limestones con- 
stitutes a middle divisionj being overlaid and underlaid by shales 
and 9lays. The lower clays near Bradford-pn-Avon and other 
places contain, at their base an abundance of fossils ; and this 
division, though nowhere of great thickness, constitutes what is 
known as the Bradford Clay. 

The thickness of the Forest Marble near Bridport and Wey- 
mouth is about 80 or 90 feet ; near Sherborne, in Dorsetshire, 
130 feet; near Bath and Cirencester, about 100 feet; while in 
Oxfordshire it is rarely so much as 50 feet thick, and in some 
places not more than 12 or 15 feet._ Further to the north and 
north-east, we find occasional beds that may represent the strata, as 
near Blisvvorth ; but ehelly limestones of similar character occur 
apparently at different horizons in the Great Oolite Series, as at 
Alwalton near Peterborough, so that different straligraphical 
divisions become needful in that area. 

Organic Remains. 

Among the fossils of the Forest Marble (including the Bradford 
Clay) Lamellibranchs and Brachiopods are the more abundant. 



Some of the shelly limestones are mainly composed of Oyster -shells, 
while layers largely made up of Rhynchonella, Terehratula, and 
other Brachiopods are met with. Occasionally we find thin layers 
crowded with minute Gasteropods. Insects have only been very 
rarely noticed, although the proximity of land is indicated by 
the common occurrence of lignite, by worm-burrows and the 
tracks of invertebrate animals. Some masses of lignite are bored 
by Pholas and Lithodomus. Saurian remains are but rarely 
met with; but bones of Cetiosaurus, &c. have been obtained. 
Fish-remains in the form of palatal teeth are abundant, the 
more common forms belonging to Strophodus. Among the 
Cephalopoda, Ammonites discus (Fig. 119, p. 432) and one species of 
Nautilus have been obtained, though rarely. The Gasteropoda 
are represented by Actaonina, Monodonta, Nerita, Trochus, 
Turbo, &c., but they seldom occur in profusion. Polyzoa are by 
no means rare. The Crustacea include the old Crab Palceinachus, 
and a number of Ostracoda. Annelida are met with here and 
there. Of Echinodermata, Apiocrinus, Acrosalenia, and Cidaris 
are most frequentty found. Corals and Sponges are rare ; 
Foraminifera are fairly abundant in some localities, and will 
probably be found in most places when pains are taken to look 
for them. There are however few species peculiar to the Forest 
Marble, and of the characteristic and common forms none are 
confined to the strata. 

Forest Marble (Bradfobdian) Fossils 
Fig. 94. Fig. 95. 

Fig. 96. 

Fig. 97. 

Fig, 98. 

Pig. 94. Pecten annulatus, Sow. ^. 

,, 95. Ostrea Sowerbyi, Lyo. f. 

„ 96. Terehratula ooarctata, Fork. X 

„ 97. Waldheimia digona, Sow. X" 2. 

, , 98. Apiocrinus Parkinsoni, Schloth. 

Y 2 



Reference has been made (p. 254 ) to the zones adopted by 
Oppel. We cannot follow him in separating the Bradford 
Clay from the Forest Marble : broadly speaking if we take a 
Brachiopod, the zone of Waldheimia digona would best apply to 
the Forest Marble and Bradford Clay ; and if an Ammonite be 
taken, we might adopt the zone of Ammonites discus, although the 
species Is too rare to be of service in the identification of the 
strata. It is better, from a zonal point of view, to include the 
Forest Marble with the Great Oolite and FuUonian formation 
As a stratigraphical term the name Bradfordian may be 
employed generally for the Forest Marble and Bradford Clay * 

The following may be regarded as the common and charac- 
teristic fossils of the Bradfordian or Forest Marble seriesf : — 

Strophodus magnus. 
Avicula costata. 
Cyprina islipensis. 


Lima cardiiformis. 


Modiola furcata. 


Nucula Menkei. 
Ostrea gregaria. 



Pecten annulatus. 
lens. (Fig 

(Fig. 75.) 

(Fig. 95.) 

(Fig. 94.) 

Trigonia puUus. 
Unicardium varicosum. 
Rhynchonella concinna. (Fig. 


varian?. (Fig. 67.) 

Terebratula coarctata. (Fig. 


maxillata. (Fig. 78.) 

Waldheimia cardium. 

digona. (Fig. 97.) 

TerebeUaria ramosissima. 
Apiocrinus Parkinsoni. 


vagans. (Fig. 122.) 

The surfaces of many of the thin bands of sandy limestone that 
occur in the upper and lower clayey divisions of the Forest 
Marble, are often traversed by remarkable tracks, evidently due 
in some cases to animals, such as Crustacea, that must have 
crossed the sandy and calcareous mud before it had time to 
Bolidify.J Worm-thiows and burrows have also been noted. 

Ripple-marks are abundant on some of the calcareous sand- 
stones. In the limestone and also in the sandstones, there are many 
ochreous clayey inclusions or clay-galls, as they are sometimes 
called. These perhaps originate from clay-pebbles formed con- 
temporaneously b}' the breaking up of some argillaceous stratum. 

The shells in the limestones, both Lamellibranchs and Bra- 
chiopods, often exhibit a purplish tinge. Of the comminuted 
shells that form a large part of the limestone, Ostrea is the main 
constituent, Pecten also occurs ; showing in this as in other cases 

* The name Bradfordian was used by Lycett in 1863, Supp. to Great Oolite 
MoUusca, Falseontograph. Soc, p. 64. 

f A list of fossils from the Bradford Clay in particular, is given on p. 353. 

I Some of these tracks are like the " Zopfplatten " (Fig-tail plaits) figured and 
described in Queustedt's Jura, Tah. 46, fig. 1, and p. 334. See also G. P. Scrope, 
Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. i. p. 317 ; and Jonrn. Roj;. Inst., vol. i. p. 538, and Plate V. ; 
Figure 1 of Scrope's Plate may be compared witJi that of a Crustacean track given 
by Sir J. W. Dawson, Quart. Journ. Gaol. Soc, vol. xlvi. p. 598 ; see also p. 612 } 
and Preitwich's Geology, vol ii. p. 210. 


the preservation in current-bedded deposits of shells composed 
mainly of calcite. 

The formation generally bears evidence of its deposition in 
shallow waters, under marins conditions ;* indications of estuarine 
characters, if we may judge by the presence o£ variegated clays, 
are more distinctly met with when we pass beyond the limits of 
the Forest Marble, and reach its approximately equivalent strata 
of Great Oolite Clay. 

Local Details. 
Weymouth to Bridport. 

We first meet with the Forest Marble along the centre of 
the Weymouth anticline, in a somewhat faulted tract extending 
from Kadipole to Langton Herring. The oldest strata exposed 
here belong to the Fullonian (Fuller's Earth), which is shown on 
the banks of the Fleet south of the last-named village. The 
upper part of that formation consists of about 6 feet of clay, with^ 
bands of pale earthy and flaggy limestone ; and this is overlaid 
by a very fossiliferous band of earthy marl about 2 feet thick, 
which constitutes the base of the Forest Marble series, and repre- 
sents the horizon of the Bradford Clay of Wiltshire. This 
fossiliferous band contains in such abundance Rhynchonella Boueti 
and R. varians, that it may be spoken of ns a Rhynchonella-hedi. 
It is best exposed on the margin of the Fleet at a spot known as 
Herbyleigh (or Herbury), where it is overlaid by clays and shaly 
limestones ; and it may also be seen on the borders of the West 
Fleet, south-west of JLnngtpn Herring. I examined this portion 
of the coast in 1884, when I was accompanied by Mr. Henry 
Keeping, who had previously visited this very rich collecting 
ground, although its importance had not been generally recognized. 
Some species of Brachiopoda had however been formerly col- 
lected from the neighbourhood by Mr. J. F. Walker and Mr. 
Darell Stephens, and from Badipule by R. Damon ; and the 
species were regarded as suggestive of the presence of the Bradford 
Clay.t Later on in the same year, I traced this Rhynchonella- 
bed, westwards near Burton Bradstock and Eype, and the fossils 
collected are tabulated in the list given on p. 344. 

We have no clear section, in this most southern region, of the 
entire series of beds composing the Forest Marble, but the 
sequence at Radipole and Langton Herring appears to be the 
same as that exhibited in the cliffs near Bridport Harbour. We 
find an upper division (beneath the Cornbrash) of blue, brown, 
and greenish-grey clay with thin leaves of limestone and occasional 
bands or lenticular beds of shelly limestone and nodules of " race " 
(shown in places to a depth of 8 feet, but doubtlciss much thicker). 
Then there is a central division, of hard shelly limestone- and 
false-bedded flaggy and sandy oolite, with occasional ochreous 

Is and lignite ; beds which are quarried for local building- 

t See also De le Beohe, Mem. Geol. Survey, vol. i. p. 285. 

J T. Davidson, Supp. to Jurassic Brachiopoda (Pal. Soc.), p. 156 ; Damon, GeoL 
Weymouth, 1884, p. 15 ; and H. B. W., Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. ix. p. 20/. 


purposes and roftd-meta!, and occasionally for lime-burning 
(shown to a depth of 10 feet, but probably nearly 20 feet thick).' 
At the base there is a considerable thickness o£ clays and lime- 
stone-shales with thin bands of shell-limestone, resting on the 
Rhi/ncJioneUa-heih With the exception of Ostrea and Rhyrir' 
chonella, fossils are abundant onlyMn this basement-bed. The' 
stone-beds are well shown in a scarp that extends above West' 
Bexington towards Swyre, and there are quarries at Cogdon, 
Bredy, North Hill, and Bothenhnmpton. , 

At Bothenhampton the shelly limestones have been largely 
worked for a long period, and the hill-side to the south of the 
village is scarred with old pits. Here the stone has been pro- 
cured, along the dip-slope : for the beds are inclined northwards 
towards the village, where they are faulted against the Middle 
Lias. This fault is a continuation of that seen in the clifB east of 
Eype mouth, where the downthrow must he at least 425 feet» 
(See Fig. 41, p. 52, of the Memoir on the Lias.) 

The quarries at Bothenhampton afford some of the best sections 
of the Forest Ma'rble in this country. Tiie sections show the 

follo'wing beds : — 

Ft. In. 
'Brown clay aad soil - - 6 to 6 

Bluisli-grey iron-stained and marly 
clays, with " race," laminae of sandy 
limestone, and thin flags of bl'ae 
shelly limestone - - - 14 

Bluish-grey oolitic shell-limestone ; 
false-bedded and with oohreons 
nodules, lignite, and impersistent 
clay-s6ams. Fossils with purplish 
tinges, including Gyprina lowedna, 
Lima dwplioata, L. cardiiformis, 
Peeten anmulatus, P. lens, P. vagans, 
Ostrea Bowerhyi, and fragments of 
Apioarinus Pa/rkinsoni - - 6 

Alternations of blue marly clay and 

shell-limestone, with lignite - - 5 

The clays above the mass of limestones are somewhat disturbed 
in places, owing to their slipping along the dip-slope. 

The junction with the basement beds of the Oornbrash was to 
be seen in a lane-cutting south of Bothenhampton church, where 
grey earthy limestones and marls with Avicula echinata, &c., rest 
on a thin series of flaggy sbell-limestones and clays that form the 
upper part of the Forest Marble. 

The Forest Marble is well shown in the West Olitf* between 
Bridport Harbour and Eype mouth, overlying the Fulioniau for- 
mation or Fuller's Earth, and occupying a basin-shaped depression 
in that deposit. The junction with the Fuller's Earth is here 
marked by a band of hard fissile white marl, 2 ft. 6 in. to 3 feet 
in thtekness, which forms a prominent band in the cliff. Above 
come 8 to 10 feet of bluish-yellow marl, with a layer of hard 
fissile white marl in places : these beds may be included with the 
Fuller's Earth. The next bed is a hard sandy marl, stained 

* Called Watton Hill bv BucWand and De la Beche, Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, 
vol. iv. p. 29. 

Forest Marble • 



reddish-brown, and contnining many fossils. It forms a dark 
band in the cliff, at the base of the Forest Marble, and is the 
Rhynchmiella-h&A previously noticed near Langton Herring. It 
is again found in the cliffs above the Fuller's Earth at Cliff End 
east of Burton Bradstock. 

At West Cliff the Forest Marble is about 80 feet in thickness. 
No traces of Cornbrash are now observable, although a small 
outlier was indicated on the Geological Survey Map (see p. 437) : 
but its former presence denotes that the total thickness of the 
Forest Marble does not exceed 90 feet, and this accords with 
measurements made at Bothenhampton. 

Fig. 99. 
Section at West Cliff, near Eype, Bridport. 

Forest Marble -< 

The divisions of the Forest Marble on the Dorsetshire coast are 
I follows (see Fig. 99) : — 

Cornbrash. Ft. In. 

10. i^laggy blue limestone, sbowing 
ripple-marks, and clay or stales, 
with "race " : the limestone, pre- 
ponderating - - - 10 

9. Clays with " race," shaly lime- 
stone, thin shelly limestone and 
thin leaves of sandy limestone, 
ferruginous in places : the clay 
preponderating - - - 20 

8. False-bedded shell - limestones, 
sandy and oolitic in places, with 
irregular clay-seams, many 
ochreouB galls, lignite : and with 
Pecten, Ostrea, and fragments of 
A'piocrinus - - 10 t'o 15 

7. Grey clay (not persistent) - 3 

6. Hard white or grey marl, with thin 

seams of bluish shelly limestone - 6 

5. Blue flaggy limestone-shales, and 
blue and yellow clays, with thin 
layers of calcareous grit covered 
with curious markings - - 30 

4. Hard sandy marl stained reddish- 

. brown : Bhynchonella-hed, with 

Pecten vagans, Terehratula maxil- 

lata, Bhynchonella varians, JR. 

Boueti, Serpnla, &c. - - 1 2 

3. Bluish-yellow marl, with imper- 
sistent band of hard fissile white 
marl .... 

2. Hard fissile white marl 

1. Grey marls, seen to thickness of - 

(Fuller's Earth). 







List of Fossils from the Forest Marble of South 

E. Eype. 

B Botherihampton (collected by J. Ehodes). 

0. Cliff End, Burton Bradstock ; Bredy Hill ; and PuncknoU. 

H. Herbyleigh and Langton Herring. 

E. Eadipole. 

Lower Shale 


Shale and 

Saurian remains - 


Hybodus .... 


Lepidotus . . . - 


Strophodus - . - - 




Amberleya oapitanea 


Ceritella .... 


Cerithium coatigenim 




"Nerita Buvignieri 



Pleurotomaria bnrtonensis 



Turbo burtonensis - 






Astarte flmbriata - 




Avicula costata 




Corbnla attenuata - 




Cyprina loweana 




Oervillia acuta 





Leda lachryma 


Lima cardiiformis - 










Lucina burtonensis 


Modiola furcata . 





Mytilus peotinatua 



Ostrea costata 


flabelloides - 








* See also list by Wright, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xii. p. 310. A few 
specimens noted in that list may have come from the Cornbrash. The species above 
enumerated were collected mostly by myself. 

rorest marble : south dorset. 345 

Fossils from Forest Marble op South Dorset. 

Lower Shale 



Shale and 



Ostrea Sowerbyi - 






Pecten annulatus - 











rushdenensis - 


Tagans - 






Trigonia Moretoni - 



pnllus .... 






sp. - 


Unicardium varicosum - 





Ehynchonella Boueti 













spinosa, var. bradfordensis - 






TerebratuU ooarotata 








■Waldheimia digona 










Diastopora diluviana 




Entalophora straminea - 



Stomatopora dicTiotomoides 


Serpula intestinalis 












Aorosalenia spinosa 


sp. ... 



Cidaris bradfordensis 


Apioorlnns T'arkinsoni 





Pentacrinus Milleri 









Peronellapistilliformis - 



Beaminster to Sherborne, 

Leaving the neighbourhood of Bridport and Weymouth, where 
the strike of the Forest Marble is east and west, we find the out- 
crop concealed for some distance by the Cretaceous rocks. About 
a mile north of Beaminster a small area of Forest Marble was 
mapped by H. W. Bristow, and he also observed an inlying mass 
by the village of Rampisham. A specimen of lignite from 
Rampisham, now in the Museum of Practical Geology, shows 
borings of Lithodomus. 

North of this tract we come upon the main outcrop of the 
Forest Marble, and this although displaced and interrupted here 
and there by faults, forms the most prominent of the well-marked 
escarpments in the Jurassic rocks of Dorset and south-east 
Somerset. (See Fig. 134, p. 460.) 

The general section of the strata does not differ materially from 
that exhibited at Eype and Bothenhampton, but nowhere until we 
approach Bradford-on-Avon, has any exposure been observed of 
the Mhynchonella-hed, though it is probable that a careful search 
in some of tiie lane-cuttings may reveal its presence. Birts Hill 
and Abbots Hill, south of Pendomer, and the ridge on which 
Hardington stands, form the westerly portion of. the. main escarp- 
ment. Quarries may be seen here and there in the stone-beds, 
but they exhibit few features that call for special remark. Near 
East Field, Hardington, the stone includes occasional lenticular or 
spheroidal masses of sandy and oolitic limestone. The stone is 
quarried south of Yetminster, but some of the best material has 
been obtained from openings to the north of Long Burton villatre, 
south of Sherborne. Here we find from 12 to ] 5 feet of false- 
bedded shelly limestones, in layers from 2- to 9 inches thick, and 
overlaid by clay. The stone is much jointed iind -separated by 
partings of clay. The joints in places have been enlarged by 
meteoric agencies, and th,e spaces, are filled with clay. Ostrea 
Soioerhyi is abundant, and species of Pecten, Rhynchonella, and a 
good deal of lignite occur. 

The thickness of the Forest Marble of Dorsetshire has been 
stated by Bristow to be as much as 450 feet, but this was 
probably based on an estimate given by Buckland and De la Beche, 
who included the Fuller's Earth.* There is 'reason to believe 
that the formation attains its greatest thickness near Sherborne, 
where it forms the high grounds of Lillington and Gainsborough 
Hills. The following section in the road-cutting at West Hill, 
south of that town, indicates a thickness of about 130 feet. The 
upper portion was measured by H. W. Bristow, and the lower 
portion (subsequently) by myself: — 

* Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv. p. 29 ; Bristow, in Report Coal Commission, 
vol. ii. p. 456. 

FOEEST marble: SHERBORNE. 347 

Ft. In. 
fnrnh h fKubbly limestone, with Avicula 

' \ eehinata. 

(Pale clay passing down into blue marl - 50 
Hard grey gritty limestone - - 1 6 

Sandy clay with tbin beds of shale - 9 
. Calcareous grit embedded in foxy 
sand : v^ry hard band, splitting into 
flags, wliich have a blue core - 9 

Forest Marble J Clay with thin bands of stone - - 12 

» u c -., Hard calcareous grit - ■> ■ - 1 .0 

Fissile shelly and oolitic limestone 

10 Oto 12 
Bluish-grey and yellow mottled clays, 
with thin layers of gritty limestone, 
showing tracks of invertebrata - 30 

Hard blue-hearted limestone - - 9 

relay 6 

Fullonian J Shelly layer with Ostrea. 
(Fuller's Earth). | Hard earthy marl, 
LShaly clays. 

The lowest beds grouped with the Fuller's Earth were not very 
clearly exposed. The beds of calcareous grit and gritty limestone 
(noticed by Bcistow) are of interest, as indicating the local develop- 
ment of beds of this character, which are of importance at 
Charterhouse Hiuton and other places. 

Sherborne to Wiiicanton. 

The escarpment of the Forest Marble, which is displaced by a 
fault to the east of Sherborne Park, continues from Holt Hill, 
north of Bishops Caundle by Bullstake Hill to Bowden. Here 
the shelly and oolitic limestones have been quarried for ages-^the 
" Bowden Marble " having had a local repute ; and beneath 
about 10 feet of clays, with thin beds of limestone, we find about 
20 feet of very shelly and slightly oolitic limestones, the upper 
beds of which are reckoned the best. 

The limestones at Bowden are shown in greater thickness than 
elsewhere, and yet in the railway -cutting (L. c8; S.W.R.) less than 
one mile to the north, no prominent mass of limestones is ap- 
parent. The junction with the Oornbrash is shown west of 
Templecombe station, and thence we pass (westwards) through 
upwards of 50 feet of shales and marly clays with thin bands of 
shelly limestone and fissile earthy limestone. Some of these lime- 
stone-bands, which are false-bedded, expand in thickness west- 
wards, but they appear to be of an inconstant character and to be 
developed on slightly diflferent horizons. 

The cuttings in the lower beds are so much obscured that no 
details can, be made out. It is however remarkable that the mass 
of limestones seen at Bowden, does not irianifest itself, for the beds 
could hardly be concealed beneath the top-soil of the cuttings. 
Moreover further north at Windmill and Oharleton Hills, near 
Charleton Horethorne, the limestones appear in force: so that 
although the Forest Marble is an uncertain formation, subject to 
abrupt changes,-it may be thatihe ~l1mestone^15e3s"' along "theline 
of the railway, ai-e cut out by a fault that runs obliquely across 


the strike. Some of the thin layers of limestone in this cutting 
were crowded with minute Gasteropods, but the species were not 

The following fossils were collected by Mr. J. Rhodes and 
myself at Templecombe junction : — 




Ayicnla costata P 


Leda lachryma. 

Lima duplicata. 




Pecten annulatus. 



Placunopsis socialis. 
Trigonia pullus P 
Ehynchonella obfsoleta. 
"Waldheimia digona. 
Serpula tetragona. 

Wincanton to Frame. 

The Forest Marble has in old times been quarried to the west 
of Wincanton, by JBratton church ; and in recent years it has 
been worked near Holebrook House, where soft sandy beds and 
clay-seams occur among the shelly and oolitic limestones. 
Quarries again are met with at Higher Knoll, south of Kedlinch, 
where the shelly and oolitic limestones are shown to a depth 'of 
15 feet. Little or no clay occui's here between the stone-beds, 
but they are rough and irregular, much fissured and coated with 
lime-wash and stalactitic deposits. The lower clayey beds were 
exposed in the lane leading towards Shepton Montague. 

Continuing along the outcrop, through Redlinch Park, we find 
occasional quarries; those situated to the north of Scale Hill, 
south-east of Batcombe, exhibiting about 12 feet of false-bedded 
oolitic and shelly limestone with horizontal bands of clay, separating 
these obliquely bedded masses of stone, as seen in sections 
near Cirencester. The thickness of the Forest Marble here was 
estimated at 42 feet by De la Beciie, but it is probably more than 
twice as great.* 

West of Lineham's Barn, to the south of Wanstrow, and again 
to the south-east of the village, near Studley Farm, there are 
quarries showing from 7 to 12 feet of false-bedded shelly and 
oolitic limestone, and decomposed shelly and sandy limestone. 
South-east of West Cranmore the beds rise in a bold escarpment, 
and this extends by Cloford and Marston Bigot to Frome. At 
Cloford the thickness of the Forest Marble was estimated to be 
130 feet by Bristow. 

It will be noticed that in this neighbourhood as we approach 
the Mendip Hills, and onwards towards Cirencester, the occurrence 
of sandy beds in the Forest Marble is a marked feature. 

At Bull's Quarry, Marston Bigot, the stone has been worked 
along the dip-slope, but although the openings are now aban- 
doned, we may observe clay and thin stone, resting on thick and 
thin false-bedded oolitic and shelly limestone, with beds of yellow 
sand and streaks of laminated clay. 

* Mem. Geol. Survey, vol. i. pp. 280, 285. 

FOREST marble: frome. 3-1<9 

The Forest Marble forms the high ground on which the town 
of. Frome is built. The shelly limestones, which are of a durable 
nature, form an escai'pment that extends from Innox Hill, by the 
railway-station, through the town, and westwards from Gibbet 
Hill towards Marstoa : thus forming a sort of amphitheatre, 
which overlooks the vale of Fuller's Earth clay and rock, &c. 

Both south and north of Phoenix Hall, Frome, the stone 
(locally called Frome Stone), has been dug to depths of from 12 
to 15 feet or more: it consists of false-bedded oolitic limestone, 
with clayey and sandy layers. The stone, from a few inches to 
1 foot in thickness, is employed for building walls, for flagstone, 
&c. ; and many houses in Frome are built of it, for it stands the 
weather well. 

South of Frome Station we find, in a quarry and in the rail- 
way-cutting, about 20 feet of false-bedded oolitic and shelly lime- 
stone with clay-seams, overlaid by greenish clay and stone-beds; 
and in the cutting south of Southfield Farm, shelly and oolitic 
limestone and the overlying clays are exposed, but no traces of 
Combrash were to be seen. East of Frome Station, the railway- 
cutting showed the upper Forest Marble clays, with thin films of 
calcareous grit. 

Frome to Charterhouse Hinton. 

In the area between Frome and Bradford-on-Avon we find 
the most interesting development of the Forest Marble, including 
the fossiliferous beds at the base, known as the Bradford Clay, 
and also the sands and hard calcareous sandstones of Charterhouse 
Hinton and other places. 

So variable are the beds seen in difi'erent sections, that it 
is exceedingly difficult to correlate them and draw up a general 
table of sequence. This was attempted by Lonsdale, but the 
sections he gives in support of his subdivisions, tend to prove 
rather the variable character of the strata than any regular or 
persistent sequence. The following may be taken to be the 
general assemblage of beds : — 

Tt. In. 

f5. Clays with, bands of false-bedded 

i limestone - - - - 15 

4. Sands and concretionary masses of"] 
calcareous sandstone (Hinton Sand- 1-30 
Porest Marble -^ stone) - - - -J 

3. Shelly and oolitic limestone - - 12 

2. Clays and shelly limestones - - 20 

1. Clay with fossiliferotiB bed at base 

(Bradford Clay) - - - 10 

Great Oolite. 

The above table dops not differ essentially from the succession 
wiven (about the year 1800) by "William Smith,* nor from that 
more elaborately stated by Lonsdale.f The beds however are 

* Memoirs of W. Smith, by J. Phillips, p. 59. 
t Trans. Geol. Ssc, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 255. 


not so largely worked as was the case 40 and more years ago, 
and we have to rely on fewer sections to build up our sequence. 

The lowest beds are rarely exposed, but clays with Waldheimia 
digona were proved in the Coal-boring south-west of Buckland 
Denham and north of Barrow Hill. In quarries in this neigh- 
bourhood we may see flaggy calcareous sandstones with ochreous 
dayey gallsj separated by beds ofLiminated clay and sand. Slabs 
of the rock show ripple-marks and tracks of invertebrate animals. 
These beds were exposed to a depth of 10 fefer, in a quarry one 
mile south-west of Buckland Denham ; and they occur above 
layers of thin shelly and oolitic limestone, that were exposed in a 
deep lane north of the village. Lonsdale placed these sandy beds 
in the lowest part of the Forest Marble, but they appear to me 
to be approximately on the horizon of the Hinton Sandstone. 
Shells have been noticed in the sands of this neighbourhood.* 

Two shafts were sunk near Buckland Denham about a mile 
apart, by Mr. James Oxiey of Frome. After passing through' the 
Bradford Clay, Fuller's Earth Series, and Inferior Oolite (of 
which no details are preserved), the Lias was reached at depths 
of 160 to 240 feet, and from 60 to 80 feet of Lower Lias, &c. was 
penetrated before the Khsetic Beds were touched.f 

Old quarries along the scarp by Kingsdown north of Melis, 
indicate about 10 feet of good stone ; shelly oolitic limestone, 
capped by 2 feet of rubbly beds. On the exposed faces of the 
stone the beds have become much decomposed. 

Further north, near Ammerdown Cottages, we find about _6 
feet of fissile false-bedded shelly, oolitic, and sandy; limestones, 
alternating with yellow sands. Again to the north-west of King- 
lands Farm, between Kilmersdon and Faulkland, a large pit had 
been excavated lo a depth of about 40 feet, through false-bedded 
flaggy limestone with clay bands, into a series of hard stone beds 
alteri)ating with sands. These beds yield few fossils, but Ostrea 
Sowerbyi, Terebratula maxillata (occasionally), Hhifnchonella, and 
ii good deal of lignite may be obtained. In tBis region the 
shelly and oolitic limestones appear to blend with sandy strata^ 
the latter becoming more distinct and the former less pro- 
minent, between Norton St. Philip and Charterhouse Hinton. 
That the more sandy strata occur above the mass of the shelly 
and oolitic limestones, is indicated by a pit between Cock road and 
Port way, to the south-west of Laverton. Nearer to Laverton a 
quarry showed 8 feet of strata, comprising alternations of shelly 
and oolitic limestone and shelly and, sandy limestone, with buff 
Eands streaked with clay. ; 

To the south-east of Hinton Field Farm, south of Charterhouse 
Hinton, there is a pit to which I was' conducted in 1886 by the 
Kev. H. H. Winwood. The following beds were exposed: — 

* A. C. Crutwell, Geology of J"rome, 4to S'rotoe, 1881, p. 16. 
t Ibid., p. 14, aiidGebl.Ma^. 1874, p'. 96: " 



'Buff sands with large concretionary 
masses or "doggers" of Balcareous 
sandstone. Some of the beds are 
very fissile. Lenticular masses and 
Forest Marble -■( thin seams of loam occur here and 
there, in which some Foraminifera 
and an Ostracod were found* 
Sand and another layer of stone (not 
worked) - - - 8 or 

Ft. Ik. 

24 6 

These beds are the " Hinton sand and sandstone" of William 
Smith, the name being employed by him about tlie year 1800, 
and being published in 1813 by the -Rev. Joseph Townsend.f 

Lonsdale who lias given a particular account of these beds, 
remarks that "Patches or small almond-shaped nodules of soft 
clay are often imbedded in the stone; and on being removed, by 
exposure to the weather, the emptied cells give it a vesicular 
appearance. Organic remains are not universally disseminated 
through the grit, but in some localities they are sufficiently 
numerous to compose the principal part of the block or stratum 
and convert it into an impure shelly limestone."J 

At Ridge or Rudge near Westbury, in Vf iitshire, a pit showed 
the following section : — 

Forest Marble -< 

"Claye, flaggy, sandy and shelly lime-" 
stones, and marls 

Thick bed of shelly limestone - 

Clay and sand - 

Fine white and buff calcareous sand 
with large "doggers" of concre- 
tionary sandstone. Clayey streaks 
occur near the top 

(Water at base of pit.) 

Ft. In. 


The upper beds are somewhat tumbled and irregular. The 
sandy beds evidently represent the Hinton Sandstone, and some 
of the concretionary masses, as remarked by Lonsdale, assume the 
form of " pot-Hda." 

East of Telisford, just above Vaggs Hill Farm, we find hard 
compact and rather gritty limestone, surmounted by clays, which 
underlie the Cornbrash. A quarry east of Farleigh showed the 
same succession, as follows : — 

Forest Marble < 

Clay with " race " and- thin bands and 
films of sandy limestone 

Sandy and slightly oolitic limestone 
with calcareous sandy layers ; false- 
bedded towards the base 

Blue and grey shelly^oolitic limestone - 

Soft rotten shelly oolite, with clay- 
galls ..-.,. 

Ft. In. 

* See T. E. Jones, and C. D. Sheiliorn, Geo]. Mag., 1886, p. 273. 

•f Memoirs of W. Smith, p. 59 ; and Townsend's Character of Moses, p. 15. 

J Trans. Geo!. Sec, ser. 2, ■vol. iii. p. 256. 


A number of fossils were obtained by W. Walton of Bath, 
from a shelly marl exposed in a " cutting opposite Wick Farm- 
house, made in forming the new Warminster Boad, west of 

Bradford-on-Avon to Corsham. 

Bbadford Olat. 

The Bradford Clay came into notice during the latter part of 
the 18th century, on account of the local abundance of the 
Crinoid, now known as Apiocrinus Parkinsoni. The fragments 
of the stalk and body of this fossil were called " Coach-wheels," 
by the quarrymen, and many of these being obtained by the Rev, 
Benjamin Richardson, from a quarry at Berfield (Burfield or 
Bearfield) on the north side of Bradford-on-Avon, the fossil came 
to be known as the " Berfield fossil " and " Bradford Encrinite."t 
The name " Pear Enorinite " was also given from the form of 
the calyx and upper stem-joints. The earliest reference to it 
appears to be in the work of Walcott, but it was first figured and 
described by Parkinson4 

The deposit was originally mentioned by William Smith as 
" Clay over Upper Oolite," and the term Bradford Clay, derived 
from Bradford-on-Avon in Wiltshire, seems to have been first 
used by J. De Carle Sowerby in 1823.§ 

As a formation the Bradford Clay (like the Stonesfield Slate) 
is local and insignificant : it consists of pale grey marly clay with 
thin layers of tough limestone and calcareous sandstone, and it 
usually includes a rich fossil-bed at the base. It may in fact be 
looked upon as the local basement-bed of the Forest Marble. It 
could not be separately laid down on the Geological Survey 
map, and was considered by Prof. Hull, || as by Lonsdale, to be 
simply a local division of the Forest Marble. 

Although the fossils that particularly characterize the bed, are 
not always present, yet we have evidence that the horizon extends 
southwards to the Dorsetshire coast, and northwards to the 
neighbourhood of Cirencester. 

In the district around Bradford-on-Avon, the most southerly 
evidence of the bed is that noticed in the Coal-boring at Buck- 
land Denham. It has been observed also at Farleigh and near 
Broadfield Farm, Charterhouse Hinton. Sections are now to be 
seen at Upper Westwood, by the lime-kilns south of Bradford- 
on-Avon, and by the Melksham road, east of the town ; those to 
the north of the town at Berfield, being closed. Nor are there 

* Supp. Monograph on the MoUusca from the Great Oolite, &c., by J. Lycett 

(Pal. Soo.), p. 118. 

t Townsend, Character of Moses, p. 268. 

J Organic Remains, vol. ii. 1808, p. 208 ; J. Walcott, Description and Figures o£ 
Petrifactions found in the Quarries, Gravel Fits, &c. near Bath. 8vo. London, 1779, 
p. 46. 

§ Mineral Conchology, vol. v. 1823. 

II Geol. Cheltenham, p. 69. 


to be seen any openings that show the Bradford Clay in the 
escarpment north of Winsley.* 

The thickness of the Bradford Olay does not exceed 10 feet at 
Bradford-on-Avon, but it has been estimated to be thicker near 
Farleigh, where however other portions of the Forest Marble 
have been doubtless included. 

It seems evident that locaUy there was some pause in deposition 
between the Oreat Oolite and the Bradford Clay, for the Crinoids 
or " stone-lilies " must have flourished in clear water on the floor 
of Great Oolite, before the muddy sediments of the Bradford Clay 
were laid down. Moreover it has been noticed that some of the 
Crinoids have been covered with Serpulae, and afterwards 
encrusted with Polyzoa.f 

In other localities, when we get no distinctive evidence of 
Bradford Olay, there was probably no pause in deposition, no 
growth of Crinoids, and no accumulation of organic remains to 
form a fossil-bed. Tlie Great Oolite and Forest Marble are 
then more or less interblended, and it is hard to say where the 
stratigraphical division should be made. 

The fossils of the Bradford Clay include the following 
species : — 

Rhynchonella concinna. 
— ■- — obsoleta. 


Terebratula coarctata. 


Waldheimia cardium. 


Apiocrinus Parkinsoni. 
Acrosalenia spinosa. 
Cidaris bradfordensis. 
Serpula grandis. 
Terebellaria ramosissima. 

Area minuta. 
Avicula costata. 
Corbicella subangulata. 
Cypriua islipensis. 
Lima duplicata. 
Modiola furcata. 


Nucula Waltoni. 
Ostrea gregaria. 



Pecten vagans. 

A very fine collection of fossils from the Bradford Clay was 
made by J. Chaning Pearce, who residing for a time at Bradford- 
on-Avon, obtained splendid specimens of the " Bradford Encrinite," 
when the clay was removed from the surface of the stone during 
the working of the quames.J Mr. William Cunnington also 
obtained many specimeiis.§ Some Foraminifera and Ostracoda 
have been procured from the marly clay above the fossil-bed. |i 

The best section I saw of the Bradford Olay, was shown to the 
south of Bradford-on-Avon, in a quarry north of the lane leading 
to Upper Westwood : it was as follows (see Fig. 1 00) : — 

* See William Smith, Strata Identified ; and LoDsdale, Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, 
vol. iii. p. 255. 

t Witchell, Geol. Stroud, p. 82. 

j See Proe. Geol. Assoc, vol. ix. p. 165 ; vol. xiii. p. 1S2. The Pearce Collection 
is now in the possession of Dr. J. O. Pearce at Eamsgate. 

§ Mag. Wilts Kat. Hist. Soc, vol. vi. p. 10. 

II T. E. Jones and C. D. Sherbom, Geol. Mag. 1886, p. 273. 

E 75928. 2' 



Ti i -nr -LI r 5. ' Clay and thin stone 

rorest Marble - 1 ^^ j^alse-bedded oolitic limestone 

'3. Grey marly clay much, like the" 

Fuller's Earth clay of Eype : 

few if any fossils - 


Ft. In. 

:} 6 0, 

Bradford Clay -^ 

Great Oolite 



and there ce 
mented into 
a tolerably 
hard bed by 
matter, and 
with an im- 
layer of 

shelly lime- 
stone (6 to 
8 in.) at the 

1 ft. 3 in. 
to 2 ft. 

i> about 10 

Shelly oolite and hard brown marly oolitic 

The Fossil-bed yields Apiocrinus Parkinsoni, Pentacrinus 
(fragments), JValdheimia digona, Terebratula maxillata, T. 
coarctata, Rhynchonella concinna, R. obsoleta, R. varians, Avicula 
costata, Corbicella suhangulata, Lima, Ostrea gregaria, O. 
Sowerbyi, Pecten vagans, Vermilia (Serpula) sulcata'?, &c. 

Fig. 100. 
Section near Upper Westioood, BradJord-on-Avon, 

Slabs of the shelly Forest Marble yield Serpula, Rhynchonella, 
Ostrea Sowerbyi, Pecten vagans, and Cerithium, 

A section very similar to that above noted, was exposed by the 
Lime-kilns to the south-east. Here the beds, as noticed by 
Townsend, are at a much lower level than the same strata at 
Berfield. Evidently the fault traced on the Geological Survey 


map through Westwood village, should be continued further to 
the north-east, probably traversing obliquely the tunnel east o£ 
the BraJford-on-Avon railway-station. 

Above the Bradford Clay near Bradford-on-Avon, we find beds 
of shelly and earthy limestone, with muoh clay and marl, and thin 
leaves of sandy limestone with curious tubicolar markings^ 
Locally I saw no evidence of any thick series of limestones, and 
no evidence of the Hinton sand and sandstone. The beds at 
Westwood, and again at Frankley north of Bradford-on-Avon, 
are mainly argillaceous, with occasional bands of stone : so that 
the shallow wells sunk into this formation obtain but limited and 
nncertain supplies of water. 

Further north, between Monkton Farley and Atford, the stone- 
beds are again of importance. Lonsdale noted 1 feet of " shelly 
limestone, split into thin layers obliquely to the plane of 
stratification," at the Wormwood quarry, on the high road from 
Bath to Devizes. Here there was no evidence of the Bradford 
Clay, for these beds rested directly on the Great Oolite 
freestone.* North of Atford, an old quarry showed the following 
strata : — 

Ft. In. 

pBrown sands with fissile concretioaary 
Forest Marble - -I masses of grey calcareous sandstone - 6 
" I Thin flaggy and sandy beds, and false - 

L bedded shelly oolitic limestones - 13 

Water being held up at the base of the pit, indicated a clay- 
foundation. In this neighbourhood some of the beds have, in old 
times, been used as stone-liles. 

The occasional absence of the Bradford day (as an argillaceous 
deposit) was shown also at the stone-quarry north-east of 
Monkton Farley church, where about 15 feet of false-bedded 
brown shelly and sandy oolite, with sandy layers and ochreous 
galls, rested immediately on the Great Oolite. These shelly 
basement-beds on Farley Down, yield Waldheimia digona, Ostrea 
Sowerbyi, and Rhynclwnella. On Bathampton Down, moreover, 
we find in the surface-strata of rubbly stone and marl, fragments 
of Apiocrinus Parkinsoni, spines of Echini, Terebratula coarctata,\ 
Hhynchonella, Lima duplicata, Ostrea Sowerbyi, &c., that indicate 
traces of the Bradford Clay, or of strata equivalent to it. Here- 
abouts and at Corsham there is evidence of a more intimate 
connection between the Bradford Clay and Great Oolite than we 
find to be the case at Bradford-oh-Avon. 

In the railway-cuttings near Corsham station, the Forest 
Marble and Bradford Clay may be seen resting on the Great 
Oolite. This is the locality known as Pound Pill, from which 
W. Walton obtained many fossils. The Forest Marble consists of 
grey clays and shales with thin flaggy and gritty limestones, 
together with false-bedded fla,ggy oolitic and shelly limestones. 

* Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iii. p.-258. 

f This species was figured by Walcott from specimens obtained from Kings 
Down and Hampton Down, near Bath. 

z 2 



These beds have been exposed in the cuttino; east of the station, 
and although now a good deal obscured, a thickness of about 50 
feet may be traced as we proceed westwards. The junction with 
the Great Oolite is seen west of the station, and tbere we find 
laminated shA'iy beds, and grey and yellow marl, that yield the 
characteristic fossils of the Bradford day, resting on the Great 
Oolite. These/ basement-claya of the Forest Marble are thus 
found to be variable and impersistent in character ; grey marly 
clays occurring in lenticular masses above the false-bedded Great 
Oolite, and becoming more and more interstratified with bands of 
dark grey limestone in their course westwards towards the tunnel. 
Hence it is difficult to follow the precise horizon of the Bradford 
Clay in this direction, and the band of fossiliferous clay appears 
to die out. In this way we can understand its absence at 
Monkton Farley. 

The Great Oolite itself contains a lenticular bed of bluish- 
grey mnrly and oolitic clay 18 inches thick in places; and the 
mass of the rock exposed here, occurs in obliquely-bedded layers 
alternating with bands of harder oolite. The details of the 
junction were more readily to be noted in a quarry not far 
distant, near Brickers Barn. 

Judging by well-sections the total thickness of the Forest 
Marble in this area is from 60 to 100 feet, the strata becoming 
thinner towards Chippenham, while they may be a little thicker 
near Atford. At Corsham the subdivisions proved in a boring 
for Messrs. Eandcll, Saunders, & Co., were as follows :- 

Forest Marble -< 

Great Oolite 

Brown and blue clay and shale - 

Clay witli bands of stone 

Hard blue stone - 

Hard dead sand ■ - - 

Stone and clay 

Hard and soft stone 

Ft. In. 
37 6 



84 6 

A pit north-west of Brickers Barn, Corsham, showed the 

following section* ; 

"Greenish raarly and racy clay - 
Very shelly and oolitic limestone (irre- 
gular and impersistent) : with Ostrea 
Sowerhyi, Cyprina islipensis - 
Forest Marble -i Oolitic and gritty limestone 
Shelly and oolitic limestone 
Grey marly and racy clay with thin 

layers of sandy limestone 
Hard blue oolitic and flaggy limestone 
'Clays, and thin flaggy layers of sandy" 
limestone with curious markings and 
perforations ; and a thin shelly layer 
with Apiocrinus Parhinsoni, Oidaris, 
&c. These beds pass down into 








* See also Lonsdale, section at Cross Keys, Sj miles from Bath towards Chippen- 
ham. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 258. 

roEEST marble: coesiiam. 


Bradford Clay-< 

Great Oolite 



Grey marly clays with bands of hard ^ 6 
grey marly and shelly limestone: 
with Ap. Parkinsoni, Terehratula 
eoarctata, T. maxillata, Waldheimia 
digona (variable), Bhynehonella con- 
cinna, R. ohsoleta, Ostrea, &c. 
"Hard brown oolitic lime-"] 

stone - - - ft At 

Buff shelly and oolitic lime- p " " *« 
stones - - -J 


the BradPord Clay and Forest Marble at Corsham, I 
obtained the foUowins fossils : — 

Saurian bone. 



Ataphrus Monodonta) Labad- 

Avicula costata. 
Cyprina islipensis. 
Modiola fnrcata. 


Ostrea costata. 




Pecten vagans. 

Unicardium varicosum. 
Ehynchonella concinna. 



Terebratula eoarctata. 



Waldheimia digona. 




Terebellaria ram^osissima. 

Apiocrinus Parkinsoni. 

Acrosalenia spinosa. 

Cidaris bradfordensis (spines). 



In the railway-cutting west of Laycock, a number of fossils 
were obtained by W. Walton, from tlie Forest Marble, " a cream- 
coloured clay, containing shells better preserved than usual."* 

Traces of Forest Marble were observed in the valley, and in 
the cutting east oP the railway-station at Trowbridge.t 

Corsham to Malmesbury. 

The quarries north-west of Corsham, near Upper and Middle 
Pickwick, have been long since abandoned, but others are worked 
here and there as we proceed towards Cirencester. 

The Bradford Clay has been noted near Giddy Hidl, north- 
west of Biddestone, and again near Yatton Keynell, but it was 
not clearly exposed at the time of my visit to these localities in 
1886 : I obtained fossils however that proved its presence at Yatton 
Keynell. (Seep.269.) Further evidence of it occurs in the lane 
below West Keynton Church, where resting on the false-bedded 
Great Oolite, there was a bed of marly clay 2 to 3 feet thick, 
yielding Waldheimia digona, Rhynchonella, and other fossils. The 
Great Oolite here, as at Corsham, contains marly layers in its 
upper part, and these become more prominent near Cirencester, 
where there is a greater difiSculty in separating the Great Oolite 

* Lyoett, Supp. Monograph on the MoUusoa from the Great Oolite, &c., p. 118. 
t K. N. Mantel], Quart. Joujn. Geol.]. vi. p. 312. 


from the Forest Marble. Above the Bradford Clay at West 
Keynton we find beds of fissile and false-bedded oolite, resembling 
Great Oolite, but on the west, aad north-west side of the village, 
there are shallow quarries showing, 4 or 5 feet of fissile shelly 
limestone and oolite; with 'Gohreous galls- and layers of grey clay. 
These beds yield crushed specimens'^of Rhynchonella, also Tere- 
hratula maxillata, Ostrea lingulata, Pecten vagans, spines of 
Echini, and joints of Apiocrinus. Northwards the Forest Marble 
occupies an extensive area around Badminton, on the dip-slope of 
the Cotteswold Hills. 

Near Castle Combe and Yatton Keynell the stone-beds are 
very variable in character. To the west of Giddy Hall, we find 
false-bedded sandy and oolitic beds, quarried to a depth of about 
16 feet, with 6 feet of grey clay at, the base ; and east of Castle 
Combe we find the oolitic and sandy beds surmounted by yellow 
sand and fissile calcareous sandstone, like the Hinton beds. 

The highest beds of the Forest Marble were exposed south of 
Lower Stanton, near Stanton St. Quintin, where beneath the 
Cornbrash there occur blue clays with thin gritty layers, exhi- 
biting the peculiar trails or tracks so characteristic of the Forest 
Marble. The- evidence of this succession is confirmed by a 
section at Kington Bottom, near Kington St. Michael, recorded 

as follow?, by Lonsdale* : — 

Ft. In. 


relay - - - - - 15 

T7I i nr 1,1 J Sand containing large masses of cal- 
Porest Marble -< ^^^^^^^ g^j^^ f^^^ °^f ^^^^-^ ^^^ p^^.. 

L tially oolitic and shelly - - 9 

Near Malmesbury we find a considerable development of the 
sandy beds. A cutting by the railway-station showed thick beds 
of flaggy and concretionary sandstone, together with oolitic shelly 
limestones and white sands, resting on about 20 feet of fiaggy 
calcareous grits and shales, the former showing ripple-marks and 
trails. On the road to Tetbury, north of Broken borough, there 
is a Lirge quarry showing the following beds : — 

Ft. In. 
f Blue and brown clay witb thin layers 
I of gritty limestone, and occasionally 
I thicker irregular bands of calcareous 
Forest Marble-'^ sandstone - - - 10 

I False-beddiid oolitic limestones, with 
I much lignite, rotten ochreous gallS, 
l_ and partings of ochreous clay - 12 

The beds appear to rest on clay, as shown by the water held up 
at the bottom of the quarry. Fossils may be obtained, including 
Pecten , annulatus, Ostrea Sowerbyi, Rhynchonella, &c. In this 
neighbourhood, and probably at this quarry, the Crab Palceinachus 
longipes was obtained by William Buy, and afterwards described 
by Dr, Henry Woodward.t 

* Trans. Geol. Sec, ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 257. 
t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soo., vol. xxii. p. 493. 



Ag^in in a quarry south of Newnton House, two miles S.E. 
of Tetbury, the following section was to be seen : — 

Forest Marble -« 

Grey clay . . - . 

Oalcareous sandstone with carbona- 
ceous specks, and oolite : the former 
passing into sand, with impersistent 
hard beds which are flaggy and 
ripple-marked, and sometimes con- 
cretionary ; the oolite at various 
horizons . . . . 

Ft. In. 
1 6 

The general section in this part oi Wiltshire may be stated to 
be as follows* : — 

'Olays with thin bands of gritty lime- 
stone ----- 
Sands and calcareous sandstone 
Forest Marble -^ Oolitic and sandy limestones, passing 
down into more shelly limestones 
and clays .... 
^Bradford Clay .... 


10 to 15 
5 to 10 

20 to 30 
2 to 6 

Total thickness about 60 

Swindon and the London area. 

Towards Swindon the Forest Marlile appears to be considerably 
reduced in thickness, as shown by the records of well-borings at 
Chippenham (see p, 507), and of a well-sinking made by the 
Great Western Railway Company at Swindon. 

The Great Oolite was not actually proved at Swindon, but 
the fossils from the Forest Marble indicated the basement-portion 
of that formation, and we have evidence of only 33 feet of the 
strata. (See p. 515.) In this sinking the beds penetrated at 
depths of from 703 feet to 736 feet, proved to be Forest Marble. 
The fossils were chiefly obtained from the lowest part, about 730 
feet, in the thin clay-partings of harder shelly rock : and the 
following species have been identified : — 




Lima duplicata. 

Modiola imbricata ? 

Ostrea gregaria. 

lingulata ? 


Pecten lens. 


Ehynchonella concinna. 
Terebratula coarctata. 

Waldheimia digona, 


Diastopora dilnviana.' 
Entalophora straminea. 
Terebellaria ramosissima. 
Acrosalenia (spines and plates;. 
Cidaris (spine). 
Pentacrinus scalaris. 
Serpula tetragona. 



I descended the shaft, in company with Mr. E, T. Newton, but it 
was not possible to note any details of the strata in situ. The 

* See also Lonsdale, Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. i. p. 415 ; and Hull, Geol. parts of 
Wiltshire, &c., p. 16. 



fossils indicate the presence of the Bradford Clay. A large 
amount of saline water was encountered in this sinking.* (See 
p. 515.) 

In 1882. a deep boring was commenced at Eichmond, and this 
was carried to a depth of 1,409 feet in 1884, At the depth of 
1,151 ft. 6 in. a bed of hard oolitic limestone was proved, and 
thence to a further depth of 87 ft. 6 in., beds belonging to the 
Great Oolite Series were penetrated. 

These beds rested on variegated marls and sandstones probably 
of Old Eed Sandstone or Devonian age (though grouped by some 
with the New Red Sandstone) ; and they were overlaid by 
Cretaceous deposits, the basement-beds of which contained some 
materials derived from the underlying beds of Great Oolite. 

The details of the Great Oolite Series have been recorded by 
Prof. Judd and CoUett Homersham as followsf : — 

Dark oolitic limestone - 

Pale marly limestones with scattered 
oolite grains, and many Foramini- 
fera - . . - - 

Dark oolitic limestones - - - 

Shelly limestone with fewer oolite 
grains, and many Foraminifera 

Compact limestone with scattered oolite 
grains, fragments of shells, &c. 

Blue clay with bands of limestone and 
many fossils . - - 

Oolitic and shelly limestone 

Band of fuller's earth - 

Fine-grained oolitic limestone with 
much pyrites, becoming sandy lower 
down ; and at its base a fissile cal- 
careous and micaceous sandstone re- 
sembling Stonesfield Slate ; Aerosa- 
Tenia, and other fossils 

Oolitic limestones with many frag- 
mentary shells, Ostrea Sowerbyi, &o. - 

Limestone with fragments of shells, a 
few grains of quartz and particles of 
anthracite - - 

[Forest Marble 

Bradford Clay.] 

[Great Oolite.]*^ 

















The age of these beds was recognized by Prof. Judd, who has 
given a full list of the fossils : many of these were obtained from 
the blue clay, which perhaps represents the Bradford Clay at the 
base of the Forest Marble. I have ventured to group the strata 
in accordance with this view. Among the fossils recorded are 
Terebratula coarctata, T. maxillata, Cidaris bradfordensis, 
numerous Polyzoa, &c. 

In his account of an Artesian Well-boring made at Messrs. 
Meux and Oo.'s brewery in the Tottenham Court Eoad, London, 

* Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xlii. pp. 293, 298. 
t Ibid., Tol. xl. pp. ; 41, &c. 


Prof. Prestwich noticed that at depths of from 1,000 to 1,064 feet 
the bore -hole "passed into a rock having the appearance of an 
oolite, beiug composed of a fine calcareous grit in a calcareous 
paste." Charles Moore also noticed " intercdated beds of oolitic 
limestone, which, but for their density, might have passed for 
great deposits of Oolite." Nevertheless the fossils were considered 
to indicate the Lower Green sand.* Moore likewise identified 
small grains of coal in the basement-beds. 

The details of this boring (1,000 to 1,064 feet) may be sum- 
marized as follows : — 

Forest Marble, 
Bradford Clay, 

Great Oolite. 

Light-coloured limestone 

Seam of quartzite pebbles 

Sandy limestone ... 

Light-coloured limestone, ■with traces 

of fossils 
Marly sand .... 

Light-grey limestone, with numerous 

fossils - - - - . 

Light-grey oolitic-looking rock 
Enbbly stone and clay - 













Prof. Judd (who subsequently examined the specimens) remarked 
that bands of marl apparently alternated with the more solid beds 
of oolitic limestone ; and among the fossils, he was able to identify 
Terehratula maxillata, Waldheimia digona, Cidaris bradfordensis, 
Acrosalenia, Polyzoa, and many other specimens, showing 
that the same beds met with at Richmond were present under 
London. f He thought that some of the coaly fragments might 
possibly have been derived from layers in the Jurassic beds; 
but he has noted the occurrence of anthracite and pebbles of 
Coal-measure sandstone, in the basement-beds of the Great Oolite 
at Richmond. 

In 1882 a deep boring for the Southwark and Vauxhall Water 
Company, was commenced near the railway- station on Streatham 
Common, Surrey. After passing through Tertiary and Cretaceous 
strata to a depth of 1,081 feet 6 inches (the lowest bed then 
reached being Gault), the bore-hole penetrated beds belonging to 
the Great Oolite Series : a fact announced by Mr. Whitaker, in 
1888.J After passing through 38 feet 6 inches of flat-bedded 
Oolitic strata, red rocks of tha character of Old Red Sandstone 
were entered, and these older rocks appeared to dip at angles of 
20° to 30°. 

V The following details of the Oolitic strata are abbreviated from 
those recorded by Mr. Whitaker, from information furnished by 
Mr. J. W. Restler, and from notes made by Mr. E. T. Newton : — 

* Quart. Journ. Gcol. Soc, vol. xxxiv. pp. 912, 915, 916. 

t Ibid., vol. xl. p. 745. 

j Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1888, p. 656 ; Geology of London, vol. ii. p. 226. 


Fi. In. 

Great Oolite 

"Hard grey and cream-colouredi linae- 
Btone,. mostlyi , crowded with oolite 
grains, and with bits of shells : Oatrfia 
acuminata, ? - - - about 

G-re6nish-grey safidy rock - ' - 
Hard grey calcareous sandstone • 

Limestone with Ostrea, and ? clay 
*Ser^a"^^ -K Grreenishrgrey sandy clay, with Ostrea 
'■ acuminata and Crustacean claw 

Rook and clay ■ 

Clay with occasional hard bands of 
limestone, &o.,and with.oolite grains 
in some layers : Astarte and other 
fossils (not determined) : oolitic lime- 
stone at base - - - - 13 










38 6 

I had the advantage of seeing the rock-sp^eimens, and noticed 
examples of oolite and also of calcareous sandstone with 
scattered grains of oolite, that closely resemble specimens of 
Forest Marble from Tetbury-. Mr. Whitaiker has doubtfully 
classed the beds with the Forest Marble. I may add that rocks 
of similar lithological character occur in the Stonesfield Series at 
Througham Field near Bisley ; and having regard to the occurrence 
of Ostrea acuminata I am disposed to group the strata with the 
Lower Division of the Great Oolite. It is interesting to note 
that the beds belonging to the Great Oolite Series under London, 
approximate in character rather to the beds exposed in Wiltshire, 
than to those that outcrop on the north in Bedfordshire. 

A general section taken from Chatham to the neighbourhood of 
Faringdon, leads to the conclusion that, beneath the Cretaceous 
covering there is a denuded anticline of Jurassic rocks, for the 
Great Oolite alone has been found under London, and it is followed 
both eastwards and westwards by higher Jurassic strata.* 

The occurrence of Lower Oolites has been notified in the 
deep, boring at Shakespeare Cliff", Dover : beds of Bathonian age 
being said to be penetrated, and to overlie Coal-measures at a depth 
of 1,157 feet from the surface : a shaft being sunk 44 feet and a 
boring carried 1,113 feet, before the older rocks were reached.f 
As full particulars of the evidence on which the record is based, 
have not at present been made public, and as Middle and Upper 
Oolites are also stated to occur at the locality, further remarks 
will be left for the volume dealing with those higher members of 
the Jurassic system. 

Cirencester and Tetbury. 

Attention was first drawn to the occurrence of the Bradford 
Clay near Cirencester, in 1847, by S. P. Woodward, then Pro- 

* H. B. W., Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xii. p. 329. 

t W. B. Dawkins, Nature, July 31, 1890, p. 320 ; Contemporary Eeview, vol. Ivii. 
April 1890, p. 475 ; Trans. Manchester Geol, Soc, vol. xx. p. .502, and vol. xxi. 
p. 458. E. Lorieux, Ann. des Mines, ser. 9, vol. ii. p. 227 ; and F. Brady, Dover 
Coal Boring, June, 1892 (privately printed, see Nat. Science, vol. ii. p. 230). 


fessor of Natural History at the Eoyal Agricultural College ; 
and many of the specimens he collected are preserved in the 
College Museum. These were obtained, some from excavations 
on the College Farm, but most of them from the cutting beneath 
the Great Western Railway on the high-road (Akeman Street) 
between Tetbury and Cirencester.* 

Similar evidence was obtained in the railway-banks at Kemble ; 
near the Mount, Trewsbury Castle ; at Ewen ; at Smerrill Quarry, 
north-east of Kemble ; and at Perry Moor, south of Oakley 

The section exhibited in the Tetbury road-cutting in 1886, was 
as follows : — 

Ft. In. 

■DT 4. Tv/r VI f Bubble and tumbled masses of fissile 
Forest Marble - 1 ^j^^^y ^^j-^.^^ ^j^,^ ^^^^^ 

-o je J m -fGrrey clay with thin rubbly beds of 
Bradford Clayj oolitic marly limestone - - 3 6 

rPale shelly oolite - - - 2 6 

\ Brown marly oolite, and hard compact 
Great Oolite J limestone witb scattered oolitic 
(Kemble Beds)."] grains - - - - - 3 

White and brown false-bedded shelly 
oolite - - - - - 6 

Fossils are fairly abundant in the Bradford Clay, and they 
indicate the same palseontological horizon as that at Bradford-on- 
Avon. The following species have been found in the Clay near 
Cirencestert : — 

Ammonites discus. 
Avicula costata. 
Cypricardia caudata ? 



Ostrea acuminata. 

Pecten vagans. 

Trigonia costata. 

Ehynchonella eoncinna. 

Bpinosa var. bradfordensis. 

Bihynchonella varians. 
Terebratula coarctata. 


"Waldheimia cardium. 


Serpula. •• 
Apiocrinus Parkinsoni. 
Cidaris (spines). 
Clad ophy Ilia. 

Remains of Fishes and Saurians have also been obtained. 

The greatest thickness of clay, that in this neighbourhood 
may be grouped as Bradford Clay, appears to be 8 feet. 

There is considerable difficulty near Cirencester and Minchin- 
hampton in fixing a definite boundary betweep the Great Oolite 
and Forest Marble. This arises from the fact that the Bradford 
Clay is not persistent, and when present it is not always fossili- 
ferous, while other clayey and marly beds occur at various 
horizons in the Great Oolite. We are however prepared for this 
state of things by the evidence afforded at Corsham ; and we must be 
content with the knowledge that no persistent plane of demarcation 

* See Proc. Cotteswold Club, vol. i. p. 6 ; and J. Buckman, Quart. Joum. Geol. 
Soc, vol. xiv. p. 114, vol. xvi. p. 107. The railway-station formerly situated by the 
high-road was replaced by that at Kemble. 

t See also Lycett, Cotteswold Hills, p. 106. 



separates the divisions. Here and there we have a good base- 
line for the Forest Marble, and it may be possible on the 6-inch 
maps to separate the beds in a more systematic way than has been 
the case on the present Geological Survey Map. (See p. 271.) 

The general section of the Forest Marble beds near Oiuencester 
is as follows : — 


Grey and greenish-grey clay -with thin 
gritty layers (showing curious trails 
of invertebrata) ; and occasional beds 
of sandy, oolitic, and shelly lime- 
stone - - - - - 30 to 40 

Here and there beds of sand and con- 
cretionary sandstone are met with 10 to 15 

False-bedded shelly and oolitic lime- 
stone with clay-galls - - - 8 to 10 

Grrey and blue marly clay and shale 
with " race," and thin layers and 
sometimes thicker inconstant beds 
of hard blue oolitic limestone and 
gritty limestone : at base, in places, 
the fossiliferous Bradford Clay - 30 to 45 

According to Prof. Hull the thickness of tlie Forest Marble at 
Coin Rogers is 40 feet, and at Tetbuiy about 60 feet; while in 
the well-boring at \he " Ootswold Brewery," Cirencester, it proved 
to be 108 feet. 

A small pit opened to a depth of about 8 feet by the road-side, 
north-east of Ewen, near Kemble, showed pale marly and racy 
clays with a band of shelly oolitic limestone, resting on pale shelly 
oolite (Great Oolite). From the clays I obtained the following 
species : — 

Forest Marble -•( 

Cypricardia caudata P 
Pecten vagans. 

Terebratula coarctata. 

Waldheimia cardium. 


Ehynchonella concinna. 

spinosa, var. bradfordensis. 


By the Blue House, near the Thames and Severn Canal, north 
of Furzen Leaze, clay lias been worked for repairing the Canal. 
The section, which I visited under the guidance of Prof. Allen 
Harker, was aa follows : — 

Ft. In. 

Forest Marble - { ^^f^nl"^ *^ 3''^"' °^ ^""^ ^'""^^ 1 6 
Bradford Clay - Grey racy clay - - - - 8 

Great Oolite - Grey earthy and oolitic limestone. 

Here we do not find many fossil.-'. Rhynchonella and spines of 
Echini may be obtained ; and Ostrea and Serpula have been 
recorded by Prof. Buckman.* Probably the same clay-bed is 
exposed in the Trewsbury quarry, although its thickness there is 

* Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xiv. p. 114. 









from 18 inches to 2 ft. 6 in., and, like the beds at Blue House, 
it yielded during my visit none of the distinctive species of the 
Bradford Clay. 

Again at the old quarry, known as Jarvis's quarry, on the 
Telbury road, 2 miles from Cirencester, we have the following 
section. (See p. 282) : — 

Ft. In. 
rSoil and rubbly beds of oolite - 
Forest Marble Pale grey marl - . - - 

and < Shelly oolite . - - . 

Bradford Clay. | Grey marl with band of marly lime- 
[_ stone - - - . - 

Great Oolite - Pale shelly current-bedded oolites 

Although the grey marl overlying the Great Oolite does not 
appear to be fossiliferous, there can be no doubt that it represents 
the Bradford Clay. At the quarry a short distance to the south- 
west we find only the Great Oolite to be represented ; and the 
same is the case at the Limerkiln by the College Farm. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Cirencester, and to the 
north and north-east, as remarked by Prof. Buckman, indications 
of the fauna of the Bradford Clay are rare. Waldheimia digona 
has been recorded by F. Bravender, frofti a quarry on the south 
side of the town (see p. 283), but elsewhere we find alternations of 
clays or marls with oolite.^, exhibiting a passage upwards from 
the Great Oolite. The clayey beds often yield Ostrea Sowerbyi 
in abundance, but they mark no constant horizon : some beds 
clearly belonging to the Great Oolite and others to the Forest 

While the lower portions of the Forest Marble are not always 
to be separated from the Great Oolite, the middle and upper 
divisions present the characteristic features of the formation, and 
may be readily identified. 

Along the new railway between Kemble and Tetbury, these 
beds were exposed in cuttings south-east and south-west of 
Trouble House, The sequence shown was as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
TBrown clay - - - V 1 fi 

I Thin beds of limestone - - - J 

T, ill.- 11 J Grey clay with thin layers of limestone 6 
^°^«s*^^^"«-S False-bedded shelly and oolitie- lime- 
I stone, with seams of clay and olay- 
[ galls - - - - - 12 

At Chavenage, near Tetburj-, roofing-tiles have been obtained 
from the Forest Marble. The beds here, as at Poulton, occur in 
thin layers, the surfaces of which abound with specimens of 
Ostrea, Pecten, Rhpiclionella, Lima, Sic. all much compressed and 

* Lycett, Cotteswold Hills, p. 106. 



Sections in the Forest Marble between Norcott and Wiggold, near 
Cirencester, on the Midland and South- Western Junction 

Fig. 101. 

5. Kcd clay ... 

4. False-bedded limestone and clay 

3-. False-bedded oolitic limestone 

2. Greenish clay with thin bands of limestone 

1. False-bedded oolitic and shelly limestone 

Ft. In. 

^1 G 

1 6 

1 4 


Fig. 102. 

6. Red and green clay, filling "pipe" 

5. False-bedded oolitic limestone 

4. Greenish clay 

3. False-bedded limestone 

2. Clay 

1. False-bedded limestone 



-1 - 


1 00 1 


3 to 4 


- 1 

3 to 4 

Fig. 103 


6. Reddish-brown clayey soil - 

5. False-bedded limestone 

4. Clay with layers of limestone 

3. Curved bids of shelly oolitic limestone 

2. Clay . . - . 

1. False-bedded limestone 







to 6 

The upper beds of the Forest Marble are shown in quarries at 
Ampnej Crucis and near Driffield Cross. A quarry south of 
Ampney Park showed the following strata : — 


;,, ,, Ft. In. 

■CornbraBh ./ Bubbly beds of marly and shelly lime- 

I. stone - - - - o u 

'Brown and greenish-grey clay, with 
thin : layers of sandy limestone and 
"race" - - - - 6 

Forest Marble •-{ Hard brown oolitic and shelly lime- 

I stone - - - . .30 

I Shaly bed (a few inches). 

l_False-bedded oolitic limestones. 

The above section, noted in 1886, differs considerably from one 
recorded in 1857 at the same locality by Prof. Buckman.* The 
evidence, however, afEorded by the quarries and railway-cuttings, 
shows how rapidly the beds change in character. 

In the railway-cutting west of the new Cirencester-town station, 
there was a considerable thickness of claj^^ with thin bands of 
gritty limestone, beneath the Corribrasli. (See Fig. 131, p. 444.) 
Towards the east in the Norcott cutting this clay rests on a mass 
of fissile shelly and oolitic limestones, seen to a depth of about 
8 feet. These stone-beds are false-bedded, and they contain 
lignite, Lima cardiiformis, Ostrea Soicerbyi, Pecten annulatus, 
P. lens, Fish-remains, &c. They rest on clays with beds of shelly 
oolite developed at inconstant horizons. Quarries south of 
Ampney Field Barn, west of Norcott, and south of Siddington 
St. Mary, showed 10 feet of these false-bedded oolitic and shelly 
limestones, with seams of clay and sandy layers. The stone itself 
contains marly and ochreous galls. Nodules perforated by boring 
MoUusca, and encrusted by Serpulse and Polyzoa, have been 
noticed in the Forest Marble of this neighbourhood. f 

The railway-cuttings to the north-west of Norcott, showed 
excellent sections of the Forest Marble, in alternations of obliquely 
bedded oolitic shelly limestone with irregular bands of clay and 
stone. In one place the shelly and oolitic limestones showed a 
series of curved beds, no doubt the result of irregular deposition, 
although presenting the appearance of denuded synclinal and 
anticlinal structures.f The evidence shows the inconstant nature 
of the stone-beds in the Forest Marble, for the clays swell out at 
the expense of the limestones in a very abrupt manner. § The 
beds here shown belong to the middle and lower part of the 
Forest Marble. (See Figs. 101-103). 

The stone-beds were exposed in a quarry near the 15th 
milestone, on the high-road east of Daglingworth, and bere some 
of the limestones are more or less gritty in character- 
Beds of flaggy calcareous sandstone (usually much ripple- 
marked), and loamy sands, with concretionary masses of stone, 
are quarried here and there, near Driffield Cross, Furzen Leaze, 
&e. They appear to occur generally above the main mass of 

* Quart, journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xiv. p. 119. 

t Morris, Geol. Mag., 1875, p. 267. Morris found 39 per cent, of silica in a 
specimen of Forest Marble from near Cirencester, p. 268. 

J Similar features, on a larger scale, hare been noticed in the Frodsham Beds 
(Lower Keuper Sandstone) by Mr. A. Strahan, Geol. Mag. 1881, p. 396. 

§ See also Hull, Geol. Gheltepham, p. 69. 



shelly and oolitic limestones, evidence of which is furnished by a 
section at Pool Eoad Bridge, near Pool Keynes, south of Kemble, 
recorded by Prof Buckman.* No beds of sand or sandstone 
appear to have been met with in borings through the Forest 
Marble at Cirencester ; but Prof. Hull gives a section near Sandy 
Lane, south of Cirencester, showing " Slaty false-bedded oolite, 
with oysters," resting on " Soft yellow sands, with large blocks 
of chert."t (See Fig. 104.) 

Fig. 104. 

'^IQuarri/ near Sandy Lane, south of Cirencester. 

(Prof E. Hull.) 

Forest MarHe. 


Slaty, false-bedded oolite, -with oysters. 
Soft j-eUow sands, -with large blocks of hard siliceous lime- 
stone or calcareous sandstone. 

In a quarry south-west of Long Furlong near Ampney (or 
Eastington), there were exposed about 10 feet of oolitic shelly and 
sandy limestones, with occasional layers of fissile micaceous and 
calcareous sandstone, and a few clay-seams (see Fig. 105). A 
considerable mass of these beds had been disintegrated and 
partially dissolved by atmospheric agents, to a depth of 5 feet and 
over a breadth of 25 feet. 

West of Barnsley Church, there was a quarry showing about 3 
feet of limestone with clay-bands, resting on 9 ft. 6 in. of false- 
bedded limestone with here and there horizontal partings of clay. 
The beds are used for tiling and road-metal. 

Fig. 105. 
Section south-west of Long Furlong, Ampney, near Cirencester, 



2. Reddish-brown loam . - . _ _ 

1. Forest Marble. Oolitic shelly and sandy limestone, -with layers 
of fissile calcareous sandstone, and a few clay-seams 


* Quart. .Tourn. Geol. Soc, vol. xiv. p. 119. 
t Geol. parts Wiltshire (sheet 34), p. 15. 



Fig. 106. 

Section through the Forest Marble and Great Oolite, Crickley 

Barrow, north-east of Coin St. Denis. 

(Prof. E. Hull.) 

^ ■^— ! 

a. Forest Marble. Shelly oolite with oystev- beds. 

6. Great Oolite. Hard, grey, and white sandy limestone, regularly bedded. 

Cirencester to Fairford and Burford. 

The false-bedded layers of Forest Marble were well shown in 
a quarry at Crickley Barrow, north-east of Coin Sf. Denis, 
where the beds were seen to rest on the Great Oolite. The 
section was described by Prof. Hull.* (See Fig. 106.) 

At Talland Quarry I noted the following section : — 

Ft. In. 
r Flaggy and rnbbly stone - .40 

Forest Marble - < Clays and thin fissile beds of oolite and 

L gritty limestone - 8 

On the thin gritty layers, many trails occur ; and among the 
fossils I obtained Pecten annulatus, P. lens, P. vagans, Ostrea 
Sowerbyi, atjd Rhynchonella. 

At Poulton Quarry (see Fig. 107) we find beneath from 2 to 
4 feet of brown clay (2), an alternating series, 12 feet thick, of 
obliquely-bedded bands of oolitic limestone and grey clays (1). 
The limestone or "blue stone," occurs in thin flags which are 
lai'gely employed for roofing-purposes, under the name of 
" Poulton Slates." From these beds I obtained Rhynchonella 
obsoleta, Lima cardiiformis, Pecten lens, P. vagans, and a large 

Towards Fairford the Forest Marble appears to diminish in 
thickness. South of Pilham Lodge, on the road to Quenington, 
we find a quarry exhibiting the following strata : — 

* Geol. Cheltenham, p. 71. 

E 7592gi 

A A 



Soil ... 

i Clays with occasional thin bands of 
Btone .... 

Blue-hearted oolitic .limestone and 
greenish clay, of variable thickness - 
False-bedded oolitic limestones, with 
clay-galls, and seams of clay - 




The beds are very irregular, the top clays appearing to scoop 
into the lime.stones, the result probably of irregular accumulatioD. 
Westwards the clays thicken at the expense of the limestone, for 
we find no conspicuous development of stone-beds in passing 
across the outcrop of the Forest Marble towards Honeycomb 
Leaze. In this area the famous Fairford Coral-bed was discoirered, 
and referred by some to the Cornbrash, by others to the base of 
the Forest Marble (Bradford Clay). It belongs in my opinion to 
the top of the Great Oolite. (See p. 297) 

Fig. 107. 
Section at Poulton, near Fairford. 

2. Soil. 

1. Forest Marble ; quarried for " Slates." 

Some of the fissile and obliquely-bedded masses of shelly and 
oolitic limestone are quarried for "slates" and "planking," south 
of Burford Signett and east of Holwell. The details vary in each 
opening. T'he stone-beds alternate with grey racy clays, and are 
exposed to a depth of from 6 to 12 feet. Some ot the limestones 
are largely composed of spines of Echini, fragments as well as 
entire specimens of Ostrea, and fragments of Rhynchonella, 
together with lignite. From these beds I obtained some 
Gasteropoda, and the following fossils : — 

Lima cardiiformis. 
Modiola imbricata. 
Ostrea Sowerbyi (very abun- 
Peoten annulatus. 

Pecten lens. 
■ — ■ — vagans. 
Acrosalenia ? 

Other sections near Aldsworth and Bibury, have been described 
by Prof. Hull, who notices at the former locality the abundance of 



Oyster-shells, which "form lenticular layers, in one instance, two 
feet in thickness, and extending several yards."* 

At Norton Pits, N.W. of Norton Brize, an excellent section of 
the Cornbrash and Forest Marble has been exposed, indeed the 
beds have been quarried for many a year, the foreman telling me 
that in his early days (about 1845) as many as 20 teams of horses 
had been employed in carting the stone, In this and other cases, 
the introduction of railways lias largely modified the trade, and 
liere the distance from the railway has led to a great decline in 
the work done. The section was as follows : — 




Forest Marble 


Brqwn brashy clay 
r Tough rubbly rndely -bedded, pale] 
- < earthy and shelly limestone : used > 
L for road-stone and burnt for lime - J 
flrregular marly layer - - ] 

Grey clay with ferruginous > about 

seams - - - J 

Grey and buff shell3' and oolitic 
limestone and olose-giained gritty 
rocks :t false-bedded, very hard in 
places, and of irregular thickness : 
divided as follows : — 

Strong lime 
Planking vein - 
Soft bed - 
Good weatherstone 
Building-stone -, 
Paving (ripple-marked 
slabs) - 

About 6 feet more of rock occurs below, but cafmot be worked 
on account of water. Lignite is met with in the lower beds of the 
Forest Marble. In the Cornbrash I obtained Waldheimia obovata, 
Terebratula intermedia, Homomya, and Avicula echinata. 

I found an indication of the Bradford Clay, in a pit to the 
south-west of Shilton, where the following section was exposed : — 



- yn to 14 

{Brown clay - - 6 in. to about 

False-bedded, buff and grej', shelly 
oolitic limestones - 3 to 

r Pale marly bed (inconstant) : Wald- 
Bradford Clay^ heimia digona (abundant), Bhynclio- 
L nella - - - - about 

r False-bedded marly, shelly, and oolitic 
X limestone - - about 



Great Oolite 

To the east of Shilton a quarry showed the Great Oolite, 
overlaid by a bed of grey clay about 6 feet thick, with sandy 
layers at its base. It yielded Ostrea but no other fossils. 

The junction of the Forest Marble with the Cornbrash was 
shown in the "Quarry ground'' west of Kock Farm, south of 

* Geol. Cheltenham, pp. 70, 72. 

t AmoHg specimens from the Eoma a village at Silchester, some tesserae were 
formed of rook very like the gritty stone of Norton Brize. 

A A 2 


Shilton. Here there was no evidence of the hard gritty rocks 
seen at Norton Brize. The top bed of the Forest Marble 
consisted of clay, 1 ft, 8 in. thick, and beneath there were exposed 
about 17 feet of pale grey oolitic limestones and marly clays. 

Wychwood Forest to Witney and Woodstock. 

In the region of Wychwood Forest, whence the Forest Marble 
derives its name, we find few open quarries, and none of any 
magnitude. The beds here occur in outlying masses separated 
from the main outcrop. 

Near White Oak Green to the north-west of Hailej, there are 
sections showing the lower beds, as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
r Grey clays with " race'' and beds of 
Forest Marble ■ \ flaggy shelly and oolitic limestone : 

Oatrea - - 5 to 6 

Great Oolite 

Hard brown oolite - -I 

False-bedded oolitic and shelly > about 20 
limestones - - - J 

The lower beds were grouped with the Forest Marble by Prof. 
Hull,* and a similar grouping was adopted in reference to 
sections near Witney, that were noted by W. S Horton. Horton 
recorded the occurrence of Rhynchonella concinna, Terebratula 
maxillata, Waldheimia digona, spinet' of Cidaris, &c. ; an 
assemblage that indicates the Bradford Clay. He states thai 
the clay is divided by a thin band of slaty sandstone, which is 
capable of being dressed into a rough kind of roofing-tile.t 

The record of a well-boring at the Police-station, Witney 
(1892), communicated to me by Messrs. Le Grand and Sutcliff, 
gives the following sequence J: — 

Ft. In. 

Top soil - - - - - 4 

Oornbrash - - . - 10 

r Blue clay- - - - - 8 

Forest Marble - < Forest Marble - - - 23 

L Dark clay and sand - - - 3 6 

ri 4. n Ti r Grey earthy limestone - - - 7 6 

Great Oolite -i Fine oolite - - . -40 


To the north-east of Witney the outcrop of the Forest Marble 
is confined within comparatively narrow limits, although occasional 
outliers are found, as in Blenheim Park. Sections have been 
exposed near Handborough station and at Bladon, and they show 
that the Forest Marble has undergone great attenuation : this is 

* Geol. Woodstock, p. 23. 

t Geologist, vol. iii. p. 253. 

j The record of another boring at Witney, carried through alternations of rock 
and clay to a depth of 270 feet, has been commnnicated to me hy Mr. J. H. Blake. I 
leave the publication of this for the volume on the Middle ftnd Upper OoHtic rocksj 
as the record is difficult to interpret, and it may then be Qomparei} with the Wytham 



ako the case at Islip. 
following section : — 

A quarry nortli-eaat of Bladon showed the 

Soil - - Brown brashy loam 

Hard brown and grey rubbly lime- 
Cornbrftsh --i stones, with Terehratula intermedia, 
&c. ... 
'Blue and brown clay 
PiBsile oolitic limestone - 
Blue and brown laminated clay 
Clay with thin bands of shelly and 

oolitic limestone 
False-bedded brown oolitic limestones 
with Bhynehonella 
Forest Marble -< Blue clay (of irregular thickness), with 
lignite and compressed shells 
Blue and grey marly oolitic limestone 

(of irregular thickness) 
Dark blue and grey clay 
Buff and blue false-bedded oolite. Bot. 
torn beds used for building 
i_Thin clay (impersistent). 
r Buff and blue oolitic and shelly lime- 
Great Oolite - J stones without clay-partings. (Build- 
L ing-stone.) Fish-remains - about 
[" Soft limestone, not worked."] 








1 6 




The above gtouping corresponds with that adopted by Prof. Hull.* 

The lower beds here appear to be identical with the stone-beds 
worked in the quarry north-east of Handborough railway-station 
(see p. 319), and like them they contain palatal teeth of fishes. 

The entire thickness of the Forest Marble was well shown in 
the cuttings of the brancn-railway to Woodstock. (See Fig. 108.) 
The details are as follow : — 

Combrash (see p. 447). 

clay with 

and greenish-grey 
nodules of limestone - 
Shelly oolitic and marly limestone, 
false-bedded - ^ 1 . to 

Blue and grey shaly clay and marly 
oolitic beds, with irregular layers of 
blue flaggy and false-bedded oolitic 
limestone . « . . 

Great Oolite (see p. 320). 

Forest Marble >■< 

Ft. In. 



The Forest Marble is thus reduced to about 18 feet thick, and 
is in the main a clayey formation. 

The beds have again been well exposed at the famous quarries 
near Bletchington railway-station. (See p. 321). On the eastern 
side of the railway, south-east of the station, the lower beds of 
the Combrash, and the whole of the Forest Marble were exposed, 
as follows : — 

* Geol. Woodstock, p. 23. 






o -« 








<! CO 

S .2 


'T3 m 

^ o 
to^ d 

=^ .a 











a ►.§ s 

(-. " .ti . ■ 

U « o S 

•s 2 « -^ ~3 

"^' CO (N T-) 

O ci ap t^ « « 


Ft. In. 

Cornbrasli (see p. 447). 

rOark clay and rubbly marl (tapering 

away to tho north) • - - 3 

Oolitic calcareous sandstone and shelly 

Forfist Mflvhlfi J °°^^^ ' ""esting on false-bedded shelly 
J! orest mar Die -<. ^^^ ^^jj^j^. limestones, with calcareous 

sandy layers, abundant ripple-marks, 
clay-galls, lignite, &c., and imper- 
sistent clay-beds - - 13 

Great Oolite - ( ^^f'^. S^^ °°"*^' *^^ ^°^®'" P^^"^ ^'■°"- , „ 
I. stanied - - - - 4 

Here the Forest Marble is reduced to about 16 feet in thickness. 
There is a specimen of Apiocrinus from Kirtlington, in the collection 
of Mr. James Parker, of Oxford : the occurrence of this fossil is 
interesting, as no other record of it has been noted in the neigh- 
bourhood, not even at Islip where fossils indicating the horizon of 
the Bradford Clay, have been found. 

Towards'Tackley, according to Prof. Hull, tlie Forest Marble 
becomes very thin, while in the direction of Middleton Stoney it 
is represented by clays overlying 5 or 6 feet of shelly oolite, with 
bands of clay.* 

Chipping Norton to Epwell. 

Further to the north-west we find occasional outlying patches 
of Forest Marble. 

In the cutting at Pest House, south-east of Great RoUright, 
on the railway from Chipping Norton to Banbury, the Cornbrash 
and Forest Marble have been exposed, attention being drawn to 
the sections by Mr. T. Beesley, Prof. Morris, and Mr. Hudleston.t 
The beds which I noted, were as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
Comnbrash - Tough grey limestones (see p. 446) - 6 
'Band of hard calcareous sandstone, and 

sandy shale - - - - 1 

Irregular false-bedded series of bluish 
shales, with thin beds of sandy lime- 
stone, and inconstant beds of oolitic 
limestone and calcareous sandstone ; 
with much lignite - - - 15 6 

Blue shelly oolitic limestones with 

lignite - - - - - 3 

Yellowish marly clays with harder 
lumps of marl : Ostrea Sowerlyi, Oer- 
villia, &o. - ■ - - 2 6 

A number of fossils were collected by Mr. Beesley, including 
Fish-remains, Cyprina loweana, Ostrea Sowerbyi, Pecten annulatus, 
P. vagans, &c., and I obtained GervilHa crassicosta, Unicardium 
impressum, and U. varicosum ? 

Another outliet of Forest Marble has been ob?erved on the 
east of Tadmarton near Banbury. (See p. 335 ) 

* See Hull, Geol. Woodstock, pp. 80 and 24. 
t Proc. GeoL Assoc, vol. v. p. 177. 

Forest Marble -< 



Drift soil 


Forest Mai-ble -< 

The most northerly outlier of the Forest Marble in this neigh- 
bourhood is situated south-east of Broomhill Tarm, and N.W. of 
Epwell. The section was as follows : — 

Pi. In. 
r Brown clay, and irregular capping of 
< loam with pebbles of quartz, 
L quartzite, flint, and ironstone 1 6 to 6 
/ Bubble of grey shelly limestone, with. 
1 Terebratula intermedia, &c. - - 3 

Grey marly clay, with thin films of 

sandy limestone - - - 6 

Yery shelly blue limestones with grey 

marly patches, and lignite - - 8 

Hard blue and grey limestones, ob- 
scurely oolitic - • - 1 
Tough blue shelly limestone, with"! 

lignite - - - - -16 

Irregular hard blue shelly limestone, [ 
slightly oolitic - - -J 

Blue shaly beds - - - • 6 

Hard blue limestone. (Water.) 

An adjoining quarry to the south of the above pit, showed the 
following beds : — 

Ft. In. 

Brown clayey soil - - - 3 

rimpure gritty and obscurely oolitic 

Forest Marble -J limestones, flaggy and irregular - 1 8 

] Shaly beds - - - - 8 

[Blue shelly limestones, fslse-bedded - 1 10 


These quarries are opened in beds that present the general 
characters of the Forest Marble, but we do not clearly see the 
relations between the beds in the two quarries. 

IsUp, Bicester, and Buckingham, 

In the neighbourhood of Islip we have further evidence of the 
attenuation of the Forest Marble, which is shown beneath the 
Cornbrash in a quarry south-west of the church. The section 
was as follows : — 

/ Kubbly limestone with Waldheiniia 
\ dbovaia, Somomya, &o. 
Grey clay with thin bands of limestone 
(impersistent) - - - . 

Fissile layers of brown sandy and false- 
bedded limestone, ripple-marked ; 
<{ with clay -bands 
Bradford Clay. I Blue and grey laminated clay - 

I Hard grey marl with dark oolitic grains 
j and many fossils : (impersistent) 
[_G-rey marly clay - - . . 

_ / Blue and yellow oolitic limestone, much 
'\ false-bedded .... 

Ft. In. 


Forest Marble 

Great Oolite 



The £ossil-bed yielded much lignite, and I obtained Lima 
cardiiformis, Ostrea Sowerhyi, Pecten lens, P. vagans, Waldheimia 
cardium, W, diggna, Rhj/nchonella concinna, Serpula, Polyzoa, and 
spines of Echini, 



Numerous fossils were collected many years ago by Mr. J. F. 
Whiteaves, from the Forest Marble at Islip and Kidlington.* 
Many of the specimens are now in the Oxford Museum : they 
include, from Islip, Avicula costata, Corbula islipensis, Modiola 
imbricata, Terebratula maxillata, Terebellaria ramosissima, and 
Cidaris bradfordensis, forms altogether indicative of the Bradford 
Clay, as suggested by Lyoett. 

The limestone at the base is probably the same as that exposed 
near the Handborough railway-station. Another section north of 
Islip, showing about 6 feet of Forest Marble was noted by Mr, 
W. Whitaker.t 

Fig. 109. 

Section at the Brickyard, Blackthorn Hill, south-east of Bicester 
■(Prof. A. H. Green.) 

Forest Marble 

3. Nodular -white marly limestone 
Light-blue laminated claj' 
Blue flaggy Forest Marble 

Ft. In. 





Other sections of Forest Marble haye been exposed in the low 
ridges of Oddington and Charlton, north-east of Islip, where the 
thickness of the beds is from 3 to 7 feet. J 

Occasionally we find a bed of flaggy oolilic limestone, as at 
Oddington, at the top of the Forest Marble : but near Bicester 
the upper beds comprise pale greenish-grey clays, that may be 
compared with the Great Oolite Clay of districts to the north- 

Excavations at the Brickyard on Blackthorn Hill, south-east of 
Bicester, exposed some good sections of the Forest Marble ; and 
these are described in the Chapter dealing with the Cornbrash 
(p. 448). It is interesting to note that fossils suggestive of the 
Bradford Clay occur here, as at Islip. 

A boring (at Mr. W. Baker's) at Bicester, made in 1889 by 
Messrs. Le Grand and SutclifF, commenced at the bottom of an old 
dug well, 21 feet deep (Cornbrash and Forest Marble), and passed 

* Eep. Brit. Assoc, for 1860, p. 106 ; Green, Geology of Banbury, p. 29 ; Lyeett, 
Supp. to Great Oohte Mollusca, p. 64 ; and Phillips, Geol. Oxford, p. 153. 

t Green, Geology of Banbury, p. 35 ; and Hull, Explan. of Hor. Sections, Sheets 
71 and 72 (Geol. Survey), p, 3. 

J Green, Geology of Banbury, p. 36. 


through 4 feet of green clay, and 19 feet of hard rock (Great 

The Forest Marble has been traced as far as Bucknell, near 
which a small outlier, described by Prof. Green, consists of 
" coarse, reddish brown, flaggy limestone, very much false-bedded." 
He adds that "Beyond this point the Forest Marble seems to 
thin rapidly away, and traces of it have been found only in a 
few places. It nowhere reaches a thickness of more than ihree 
or four [15] feet, and as it would have been impossible to trace 
so thin a bed over a drift-covered country, it has been left out 
on the map, except at those spots where sections prove it to be 

Sandy and marly clays and hard blue fissile limestones, with 
Ostrea, spifies of Echini, &c. were seen in the valley east of 
Tingewick. These were grouped somewhat doubtfully with the 
Forest Marble by Prof. Green : but there can be little question 
that they form the commencement of the group which to the 
/iorth-oast is denominated " Great Oolite Clay." This group is 
practically equivalent to the Forest Marble. The section given 
fiy Prof. Green of the (now disused) clay-pit on the Bourton 
road, near Buckingham, showed beneath the Oornbrash, a 
thickness of about 15 feet, of blue clays with bands of sandy and 
marly limestone, that should be grouped with the Forest Marble. 

The beds were more clearly shown at Lillingsion Lovell, where 
the following strata were exposed in a quarry : — 

Ft. In. 
Dark brown clayey soil. 
TRubble and white marl - - 1 

I Clay - - - - " L 3 

Forest Marble J Ji^?^^^'i*-^"^'^?i calcareouB sandstone - T 
•>. rpj^jj^ shale with gritty lammse - -J 

I Blue shelly and oolitic limestones, 
( rotten in places - - 6 

f Pale compact and shelly limestone, 
I oolitic in places, with Oyprina, Oer- 
Great Oolite -< villia,, Terebratula, &c. 1 7 

I Greenish-grey clay - - - 4 

[_Browii oolite. 

The top bed of the Great Oolite here resembled the upper bed 
in a quarry near Akeley Brickyard, and that in the Woodstock 
railway-cutting. The beds of Forest Marble are variable in 
character, and do not exceed 10 or 15 feet in thickness. 

At Thornton to the south-west of Stony Stratford, the following 
section was noted by Prof. Greenj : — 

Ft. In. 

r Alternations of white, bluish, and 
Forest Marble - -j brown clay, white beds of Smooth, 

L evenly jointed white marl - - 10 

Great Oolite - White shelly limestone. 

* Geol. Banbury, pp. 28, 29, 31. 
t Jbid., p. 28. 


These beds .are evidently the same as those exposed in the 
valley rear Tingewick, and in the old clay-pit on the Bourton 
road near Buckingham. 

• In the Museum of Practical Geology there is a polished 
specimen of Marble from Buckinghamshire (see p. 481 ) ; and 
also some curiotis flat calcareous concretions (of the nature of 
" race ") from the Forest Marble Clay at Graves' Brickyard, near 

The blue shelly and oolitic limestones, that form the charac- 
teristic portion of the Forest Marble are now lost sight of, and 
beds resembling them are only occasionally seen further north, 
between Stony Stratford and Newport Pagnell, at Stowe-nine- 
churches, and elsewhere in Northamptonshire. These beds will 
be noticed under the heading of Great Oolite Clay ; but other 
beds resembling the Forest Marble occur in the Great Oolite 
Limestone, as at Alwalton, south-west of Peterborough.* 

* See also Judd, Geol. Rutland, p. 21fi. Some references to the Forest Marble 
and Cornbrash, near Gayhurst, are made in a paper by J. H. Macalister (Geologist, 
vol. iv. p. 215) ; be however has not distinguished between the Great and Inferior 
Oolite of the district. In a later paper (/6id. p. 481), he has given lists of fossils 
from the Great Oolite Series of North Bucks, &c., but the horizons are not clearly 



2. Northamptonshire to Lincolnshire, 
General Aococtnt of the Strata. 

In the area extending from Northamptonshire and Buckingham- 
shire, through Bedfordshire into Lincolnshire, the strata between 
the Inferior Oolite Series and the Combrash are divided as 
follows : — 

Great Oolite Clay (Blisworth Clay). 
Great Oolite Limestone. 
Upper Estuarine Series, 

In total thickness they vary from about 30 to a little over 100 

A general description of each division will first be given ; and 
the local details of the strata of the three divisions, may then most 
conveniently be described together. It may here be observed 
that for our particular knowledge of the strata in this area, we are 
indebted to Prof. Judd, whose observations were made during 
the course of the Geological Survey ; to Samuel Sharp ; and 
to the officers of the Survey who subsequently carried on the 
work in Lincolnshire. 

It will be obvious that in this conformable and variable series, 
it is not possible to correlate exactly each portion of the strata 
with the divisions found in the area to the west and south-west. 
Even the above divisions are not likely to correspond more than 
approximately in the planes of division locally taken to separate 

Upper Estuarine Series. 

The occurrence of fluvio-marine beds yielding plant-remains, 
Cyrena, &c., above the limestones of Ketton and Casterton 
(Lincolnshire Limestone), was pointed out by John Morris, in 
1853, although the age of the underlying limestones was not at that 
time rightly interpreted, and the strata in question were regarded 
as the equivalents of the Forest Marble.* 

To these strata Prof. Judd, in 1867, applied the name Upper 
Estuarine Series, and he then stated that they " appear to 
represent the Stonesfield Slate or Lower Zone of the Great 
Oolite of the South of England."t 

• Morris, Geol. Mag., 1869, p. 102. 
t Geol. Rutland, pp. 90, 189. 


The strata consist of blue, purple, white, and variegated clays 
of a more or less sandy character, with pyrites, selenite, lignite 
and occasional and irregular layers of limestone. In many of their 
characters, therefore, they resemble the Lower Estuarine Series, 
and when the two series come together it is difficult to distinguish 

Prof, Judd remarks that " Interstratified with the clays are 
bands of sandy stone, with vertical plant-markings and layers of 
shells, sometimes marine, as Pholadomya, Modiola, Ostrca, Neara, 
&c., at other times fresh 'Water, as Cyrena, Unio, [^Paludina], &c. 
Beds full of small calcareous concretions and bands of '' beef" or 
fibrous carbonate of lime, also frequently occur, and the sections 
sometimes closely resemble those of the Purbeck series. In its 
lower part this series consists usually, but not always, of white 
clays passing into sands." At the base of these clays there is 
usually found a thin band of nodular ironstone, seldom much 
more than one foot in thickness ; this "ironstone junction-band" 
is generally conspicuous, and marks the limit between the Great 
and Inferior Oolite Series in the district. " There is very decided 
evidence of a break, accompanied by slight unconformity, between 
these two series in the Midland area. All the characters presented 
by the beds of the Upper Estuarine Series point to the conclusion 
that they were accumulated under an alternation of marine and 
fresh-water conditions, such as takes place in the estuaries of 
rivers." (See Pigs. 48, 51, and 53, pp. 169, 188, and 191.) 

The break to which Prof. Judd refers, is undoubtedly a well- 
marked one ; but the unconformity is sometimes intensified by local 
dissolution of underlying calcareous beds. The ferruginous nodules, 
though generally found at the base, are not confined to that 
position; they are probably of much later date than the 
accumulations in which they occur. 

The beds vary from 15 to a little over 30 feet in thickness. 
Near Northampton the thickness is 15 feet ; near Bedford, 27 feet ; 
at Aunby, near Esaendine, .33 feet ; at Heighington, south-east of 
Lincoln, it is 35 feet; and further north the beds diminish in 

Prof. Judd remarks that, lying, as they do, upon a great mass 
of limestones (the Lincolnshire Oolite), the sandy clays of the 
Upper Estuarine Series are often found in " pipes," in consequence 
of the removal of the calcareous rock by subterranean waters, 
usually along lines of jointing, " Thus, patches of these strata are 
sometimes seen at considerable distances from their proper lines 
of outcrop ; but such " outliers," are of course, on too small a 
scale to be represented upon the map," This mode of occurrence 
is similar to that noticed in the " Kift Bed " of the area near 
Chipping Norton. (See pp. 149, 325.) In that area the basement 
beds of the Great Oolite (Stonesfield Series), that are intimately 
linked with the Fuller's Earth, comprise marls and marly lime- 
stones, and yield, among other fossils, Modiola imbricata, Ostrea 
acuminata, 0, subrugulosa, and Rhynchonella concinnat 


Prof. Judd remarks that, "The marine shells of the series 
appear to be identical with those of the Great Oolite Lime- 
stones above, into which formation the beds we are describing 
insensibly merge." 

The freshwater fossils are for the most part too badly preserved 
for specific determination ; but much useful work might be done 
by geologists living in the district, in collecting and studying 
additional specimens. The only fresh-water species identified, is 
Cyrena Cunninghami. None of the plant-remains, so far as l am 
aware, have 'been determined. The "rootlets " occur at different 
horizons, and do not in themselves mark any important break. 

The following list will show the character of the fauna of the 
Upper Estuarine Series ; it is given mainly on the authority of 
Samuel Sharp.* 

List op Fossils from the Upper Estuarine Beds. 



Natica pyramidata. 


Area rugosa. 



Cardium Stricklandi. 


CucuUasa concinna. 
Cypricardia bathonica. 


Cyprina loweana. 
Cyrena OunningliarQi. 

Modiola imbricata. 


Nesera Ibbetsoni. 

Ostrea Sowerbyi. 



Pholadomya acntlcosta. 

Tancredia angulata. 




Unicardium gibbosum. 



Rbynchonella concinna. 

Eryma (allied to) elegans. 

Modiola gibbosa. | Acrosalenia. 

Great Oolite Limestone. 

This division, which was so named by Prof. Judd to dis- 
tinguish it from other local members of the Great Oolite Series, 
consists of grey, white, and sometimes pinkish limestone, with 
bands of marl, yielding Ostrea Sowerbyi, and O. subruguiosa. 

Prof. Judd remarks that, " Sometimes the limestones con- 
sist of comminuted shells and then split up into thin flags like 
the Forest Marble of the South of England, for which they have 
been mistaken. Beds of this character are seen at Castor, 
Alwalton, &c. More usually the limestones are soft, white, and 
marly, abounding in casts of shells, those of the Myada being 
especially abundant." 

Layers of rock that resemble the Forest Marble occur also at 
a higher horizon in the Great Oolite Ulay. 

" The limestones at the bottom of the series sometimes attain to 
a considerable thickness, and very occasionally, as near Brigstock 
and Stanion, exhibit traces of oolitic grains ; but, as a general 

. * Quart. Journ. Qeol. Soc, vol. xxix. p, 263. 



rule, the Great Oolite of tliis district is everywhere distinguished 
from the Inferior by the total absence of oolitic structure. When 
dug under a considerable thickness of clay, all the beds are blue 
and of great hardness. Occasionally these beds become nomewhat 
ferruginous, and are then, in their general aspect, scarcely distin- 
guishable from the Oornbrash." This is more especially the case 
in seme parts of Lincolnshire. 

The thickness of the Great Oolite Limestone is from 25 to 
30 feet near Bedford, about 25 feet at Northampton, and from 
12 to 20 feet in Lincolnsliire. 

" There are many local variations in the character of its beds 
and in tl>e general assemblage and facies of its fossils, which seem 
to indicate numerous changes in the depth and other conditions 
of the seas in which the beds were deposited. The graduation 
of the strata of the Great Oolite Limestone Series downwards 
into the Upper Estuariue Series, and upwards into the Great 
Oolite Clays is most perfect."* 

Prof. Judd comments on the general similarity between the 
organic remains of the Great Oolite Limestone and those of the 
Oornbrash. The more abundant fossils of the Great Oolite 
Limestone, some of which are locally preserved, are Nautilus 
Baberi, Cyprina loweana, Homomya gibbosa, Isocardia minima, 
Modiola gibbosa, M. imbricata, Ostrea Sowei-byi, O. subrugulosa, 
Pholadomya deltoidea, P. Heraulti, and Clypeus Mullcri. 

Remains of Cetiosaurus have been found at Blisworth, and 
elsewhere, and other remains of Saurians and Fish-remains are 
to be found. 

List of Fossils fkom the Great Oolite Limestone. 


'Mesodon (Pycnodus). 
StrophoduB magnus. 
Nautilus Baberi. 


Natica globosa 


Nerinffia Voltzi. 
Anatina siliqua. 
Area Pratt i. 
Astarte angulata. 
Oardium snbtrigonum. 
Oeromya concentrica. 

■ Symondsi. 

Oorbicella bathonica. 
OucullsBa concinna. 
Oypricardia bathonica. 


Cyprina loweaiia. 
Gervillia crassicosta. 

Hinnites abjectus. 
Homomya gibbosa. 


Isocardia minima. 
Lima cardiiformis. 
Lima duplicata. 
Lncina bellona. 
Macrodon hirsonensis. 
Modiola gibbosa. 



Myacites calceiformis. 


Myacites tumidus. 
Mytilus snblasvis. 
Nucula Menkei. 
Ostrea acuminata. 



Pecten annulatus. 

* Judd, Geol. Rutland, pp. 202, 20.3 ; see also Aveline and Trench, Geol. part of 
Northamptonshire, p. 13; Morris, Geol. Mag., 1869, p. 101 ; Sharp, Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc, xxvi. p. 382, vol. xxix. p. 287. 


Peoten lens. 
Perna rugosa. 

var. quadrata. 

Pholadomya deltoidea. 
■ — — Heraulti. 



Pinna ampla. 
Pteroperna costatula. 


Quenstedtia lasvigata. 
Tancredia axiniformis. 
Thracia curtansata. 

Trigonia costata. 


Unicardium varicoaum. 
Bhynolionella concinna. 


Terebratula masillata. 
Acrosalenia hemicidaroides. 
Olypeus Mulleri. 
Echinobrissus Griesbachi. 

Woodward! . 


Great Oolite Clay (Blis worth Clay). 

These beds, so named by Prof. Jiidd,* present many characters 
similar to those of the Upper Estuarine Series. They comprise 
variegated, blue, green, yellow, purplish, and black clays, with 
irregular sandy, ferruginous, and shelly bands. Layers of "beef" 
occur, also crystals of selenlte ; and lignite, nodules of " race " and 
also of ironstone are met with. Very often there is a layer of 
ironstone-nodules at the base, but ferruginous bands occur also 
higher up. The beds are from 5 to about 40 feet thick — but 
usually a thickness of about 20 feet may be expected. 

The term Blisworth Clay was introduced for the strata in 
1870, by Samuel Sharp : at the same time he employed the name 
Great Oolite Clay for the beds known as the Upper Estuarine 
Series.t Later on he used the term Great Oolite Clay instead 
of Blisworth Clay. If, however, a distinctive local term be used, 
that of Blisworth Clay should be adopted. 

Fossils, as a rule, are rarely to be obtained, but all those 
recorded are marine forms. Nevertheless, as remarked by Prof. 
Judd, it is not improbable that the strata are, in part at least, of 
estuarine character. The coloured clays which charaterize the 
strata, are suggestive of fluvio-marine conditions. 

Oyster-beds with Ostrea suhrugulosa occur ; and it is notice- 
able that Placunopsis socialis, which is locally abundant, is else- 
where common in the Stonesfield Series. The beds are inti- 
mately linked with the Great Oolite Limestone below, and the 
division between them is mainly a lithological one that is not 
likely to be taken on a constant horizon. 

The beds may be regarded as generally equivalent to the 
Forest Marble. They are, however, of little economic value, and 
sections are consequently scarce. 

Allusion has been made to the attenuation of the strata in 
parts of Oxfordshire; and Prof. Judd remarks that, further 
to the north and north-east, in South Northamptonshire, &c., " it 
was found Impracticable by the Geological Survey to map them 
separately, and hence they are in those districts grouped with the 
Great Oolite. As we go northwards into North Northampton- 

* Geol. Rutland, pp. 9, 32, 186, 214. 

t Quavt. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxvi. pp. 359, 380 ; and vol. xxix. p. 3^8. 



shire and Lincolnshire, these beds of clay again thicken, and 
become of greater importance." Here and there, as at Stowe- 
nine-Churches, there are bands of limestone that present the 
characters of Forest Marble. Nevertheless in several areas,' as 
near Oundle, the Great Oolite Clay was too thin and insignificant 
in its outcrop, to be separately shown on the Geological Survey 

List of Fossils from the Gkbat Oolite Clay. 

Ostrea gregaria. 



Placunopsia socialis. 



Bhynch-onella conoinna. 




Fig. 110. 

Ostrea subrugulosa, Jf or. and Lye., x 1|. 

Local Details. 
Aynho to Brackley and Buckingham. 

In the country from Aynho to Towcester it is difficult to make 
any satisfactory divisions in the Great Oolite, for I know of no 
continuous section of the strata ; the Upper Estuarine Series and 
the Great Oolite Clay are not often exposed, and the Great 
Oolite Limestone is shown only in shallow quarries. 

Here and there we may recogniiie at the base of the formation 
fissile and sandy beds, suggestive df the Slonesfield Slate (I.), but 
no definite correlation can be made ; and these beds rest on blue 
clay, that may be equivalent to the FuUonian Olay seen near 
Chipping Norton, but is (in the area to be described) more 
conveniently grouped with the Upper Estuarine Series. 

Broadly speaking the beds may be divided as follows : — 

Great Oolite "Ipi,^ Ft. In. 

Clay. i^^^^- 

fll. White limestones and occasional 
j oolitic and shelly limestones, sandy 
j beds, and layers of marl and greenish 
■i and dark olay ; with Nerinma, Ostrea, 
j Trigonia, PJwladomya, and Corals 12 Oto 26 
j I. Fissile and false-bedded oolite and 
L layers of marl ; Clypeut Mulhri - • 10 

.1 6 to 5 

Great Oolite 

^^''^sfrfeT^"^ } ^^'■^ ^^""^ "'^''^ 

E 75928, 

B B 



These strata rest on the Northampton Beds, in which term the 
Lower Estuarine Series and Northampton Sand may be included. 

The divisions I. and II. will be noted in some of the sections 
to be described : they may to a certain extent correspond with the 
Upper and Lower Divisions of the Great Oolite elsewhere 

In the neighbourhood of Aynho we meet with very fossiliferoua 
beds of the Great Oolite. The white limestones have been 
quarried in Aynho Park, at Souldern, and Croughton. To the 
north-east of Aynho, the following section was noted* : — 

Brow a Clay .... 
'II. Hubby oolite 

Whitisb marl, in places crowded 
with fossils. Carditm suhtrigo- 
nwm, Isocardia minima, Modiola 
imirieata, Myaoites, Ostrea 
acummata, 0. Sowerhyi, and 
Wiynchonella concinna - 
I. Brown fissile and false-bedded shelly 
oolite, with clayey galls ; spines 
of Echini - - . - 

Grey marl, with indurated and shelly 
bands - . - . - 

Brown shelly oolites, current-bedded, 
with spines of Echini and commi- 
nuted shells .... 

Great Oolite 





Many other fossils from Aynho have been obtained by Mr. 
Beesley. The beds may be compared with those noted at 
Tadmarton, and again at Kirtlington. 

South-west of Hinton-in-the-Hedges the upper beds of the 
Great Oolite Limestone are worked for road-metal, in a shallow 
quarry which showed the following section : — 

Great Oolite 

"11. White limestone (like White Lias) 
resting on hard grey shelly lime- 
stone, compact and oolitic, with 
Trigonia, MyaoUes, and Phola- 
domya ..... 

Ft. In. 

North-west of Plowmans Furze the beds have been better 
exposed, and the following section was shown : — 

'"II. Eubbly white oolite - about 3 

White limestone, imperfectly 
Great Oolite ) oolitic : . Nerinma, Corals, a,nd 

Limestone, i Spongiform bodies - - 2 

Grey marl . . - 10 to 1 

I. Brown shelly oolitic limestone - 


At Hethe the following section was recorded by Prof. 
Green : — t 

* See also section by T. R. Polwhele, in Green's Geol. Banbury, p. 18. 
t Geol. Banbury, p. 18. 


Ft. Is. 

Surface soil -with fragments of Oornbrash 3 
TGreat Oolite f Laminatod, dirty -blue clay, full of 

flioTT- 1 1 oysters - - - - 4 

*J'ay-J L White rabbly marl - . - 2 

TGreat Oolite f ^^' ^^^^' solid white limestone - 3 

Limestone 1 I Eubbly limestone and clay about 3 3 

■-' L Hard, solid, white limestone - 3 

Quarries near Evenly and Mixbury showed alternations of 
■white limestone and clay, and pale sandy limestone and sandstone, 
from 8 to 12 feet thick. These sandy beds occur likewise in the 
area between Brackley and Buckingham. 

A section on the railway at Gretworth (or Greatworth) beyond 
Farthingho, on the Banbury and Northampton line, was recorded 
as follows by Mr. Beesley* : — 

Ft. la. 
Great Oolite (white limestones and marls), 

Northampton Sand (pure sand) - - - - 12 

Upper Lias. 

At the base of the white limestones and marls, beds of dark 
blue clay (Upper Estuarine Series) were observed at Souldern, 
Newbottle, and again between Brackley and Heltnedon.f 

In the section north-east of Newbottle Spinney, the clay was 
overlaid by flaggy beds of gritty and oolitic limestone. Similar 
beds were shown to the north-east of Newbottle church. They 
yield Cardium suhtrigonum, Modiola imbricata, Ostrea Sowerbyi 
(and acuminate form), Rhynchvnella concinna, Terehratula maxil- 
lata, and Clypeus Mulleri. (See Fig. 49, p. 176). 

A number of sections between Brackley and Buckingham have 
been described by Prof. Green. Large quarries, between West- 
bury and Shalstone, showed the intercalation of sandy strata 
among the white limestones ; and shallow quarries in the white 
limestones, showing shelly and oolitic beds, were to be seen south 
of Turweston and south-east of Fulwell near Westbury. Other 
sections were to be seen on the borders of Stowe Park and 
Whittlewood Forest. 

The junction with the Forest Marble or Great Oolite day 
is difficult enough to determine, but we may confidently assign to 
that division the beds so indicated in the section at Thornborough, 
by Prof. Green. We may also group the similar beds, 8 feet 
thick, seen by Prof. Green, near Hogholes Farm west of Stowe ; 
and the 3 or 4 feet of dark-blue clay seen on top of the Great 
Oolite at Buffler's Holt to the south of Stowe Park, at Radcliff 
west of Buckingham, and on the roal to Gawcoit, near 
Buckingham. J 

The following sections will be of service iu showing the 
characters of the strata. 

* Proc. WarwicksWre Field Club, 1872, p. 87. 
t Green, Geol. Banbury, p. 16. 
X Geol, Banbury, pp. 80, 2 J, 33. 

B B 2 


A section in a clay-pit (now abandoned), on the Bourton road, 
near Buckingham, showed, below the Cornbrash, the following 
strata, which were noted by Prof. Green * : — 

("Dark blue laminated oVa,j - r, 

' White marly chalk-like limestone 










rn i n T+ Hard yellowish sandy limestone 

LGrreat Uolite ^ g^jj^ ^^^^ ^j^^^ ^j^j^ hrdken shells, 

■" y'-l lignite, and pyrites - - . 

Very stiff dark blue clay 
Blue and yellow mottled clay - 
[Great Oolite "l ^j^j^.^ Limestone. 
LimestoneJ . J 

These beds were regarded by Mr. T. E. Polwhele as about the 
horizon of the Forest Marble. 

Buckingham to Silverstone, Stony Stratford, and 
Newport Pagnell. 

At the Linae-kiln north of Boycot, the following section was 

shown t : — 

Ft. In. 
Stony Drift Clay. 
("Rubbly stone - - • • 1 

n .or. w1T''T^°\*^|0strea.bed . .16 

Great Oolite J White Marl J 

Limestone. | Bands of marl and rotten marly oolitic 

1 stone, with occasional hard beds : 

(_ Nerincea abundant in top stone - 15 

This section may be compared with that at Kirtlington, and 
with the beds 25, &c., in the railway-cutting near Hook Norton 
p. 330). 

At the Lime-kiln, east of Silverstone, the strata shown were as 
follows : — 

C Gravel - - . . . 

Drift. < Stony clay, with Boulders (in part re- 

L arranged Great Oolite Clay) - 

rRubb)y stone and marl, with Ostrea 
1 Sowerhyi, and other Bivalves 
Great Oolite J Eubbly oolitic stone ... 
Limestone. ^ Yellow oolitic limestone, rather a 
j crumbly stone ; otherwise in character 
L like the Bedford Great Oolite .90 

Ostrea acuminata occurs in the top (Drift) clay. 

In the valley south-west of Thornborough the following section 
was noted by Prof. Green J : — 

* GraeD, Geol. Banliury, p. 31. 

t See nlso Green, Geol. Banburj, p. 20 

t Geol. Banburj, p. 21. 








[Great Oolite 

Great Oolite 

Bubble . . . . , 

"White marly limestone - 

Brown clay .... 

White marl .... 

.Stiff blue clay . . . . 

'Hard grey evenly-bedded limestones, 
separated by bed of clay 

Bubbly marl, fossiliferous 

Hard whitish limestone 
j White sand and sandstone 
\ Sandy clay 








( Hard, brown limestone - 

Clay .... 
( Hard cream-coloured limestone 
L Bubbly marl, Lima ca/rdiiformis 

A small quarry by the Bam, N.E. of Akeley Brickyard, 
showed the following section. (See also Fig. 1.S3, p. 450) : — 

Ft. In. 
r Bubbly beds, and greenish, olay, with 
I Ostrea. 
Compact shelly limestone (as at Wood-") 
stock and Lillingston Lovell) 

Marl I 

Pale marly stone : Coral-bed, 
Corals and Lima cardiiformis 
■{ Marl .... 
Pale marly stone with scattered oolite 

grains - 

Oolite limestone - 

By the mUl south-east of Maid 
were noted by Prof. Green : — 

Great Oolite 

Great Oolite 




: ■ :}3 

8 Moreton the foUowinff beds 

{Bubble and brown sandy oolite 
Soft white rubbly limestones 
clays .... 
Brown sandy oolite, false-bedded 




These beds appear to belong to the upper part of the Great 
Oolite, for the Cornbrash was noted not far above. Sandy beds 
are also associated with the white limestones at South End, south 
of Leckhampstead ; and probably the beds of "Cornbrash" with 
corals, noted by Prof. Green on the Stony Stratford road near 
Buckingham, should be included with the Great Oolite.* The 
beds seem to agree with those at Akeley. 

In Long Copse, N.N.W. of Wicken, the bedi are rich da 
fossils (as noted by Prof. Green) : and Modiola imbricata, Ostrea 
Sowerbyif Trigonia, and Unicardium may be found. + There are 
faulted remnants, I believe, of Oxford Clay, hereabouts, to which 
reference will be made in the volume on the Middle and Upper 

Sections showing the junction with beds that present the aspect 
of Forest Marble, have been shown at Lillingston Lovell and 

♦ Geol. Banbury, p. 32. 
t Ibid., p. 22. 



Thornton. (See p. 378.) Hard white and shelly limestones form 
the top portion of the Great Oolite, wliile lower down there are 
alternations of hrown limestone and sandstone, the observed 
thickness at Thornton being a little over 12 feet.* 

The occurrence in this area of thin layers of sandstone alter- 
nating with the limestones is of interest. Such sandy beds, as a 
rule, characterize the Lower Division of the Great Oolite, and 
more especially the Stonesfield Series in Gloucestershire and 
Oxfordshire. Prof Green observed " beds of flaggy sandstone, 
plentifully marked by the tracks and sandy excrement of worms," 
in the quarries at Cosgrove.f 

A quarry west of Deanshanger showed the following section : — 

Ft. In. 

"Fissile oolitic limestone and rubble -"] 
Marly bed and greenish clay, with 

Ostrea - - - - - > 6 

White fossiliferous marly beds, the top | 

layer more or less oolitic - -J 

Current-bedded gritty limestone 8 to 1 
Fissile marly beds - 2 

Oolitic limestones - - 3 

Great Oolite 


These beds may be compared with those of Akeley Barn and 
Lillingston Lovell ; and they occur in the upper part of the Great 
Oolite Limestone. 

More important sections were shown in the quarries and brick- 
yard at Deanshanger, where I noted the following sequence of 
beds : — 

Great Oolite 

Upper Estuarine 

Lower Estuarine 

Eubbly beds. 

Impure and oolitic limestones and seams 
of blue clay : the former worked for 
building-stone - - 8 to 

* * * * 

Shelly bed, with Echinoderms (Clypeus 

Mulleri) and Gasteropods 
Botten marly and earthy beds - 
Clayey bed ... 

Whitish marly stone ... 
Blue clay, with Oetrea and thin calca- 
reous stone ... 
Grey marly bed - . . . 

■{ Stiff'blue, black, and greenish clay, with 
I lignite (and bones, according towofk- 
I men) 3 ft. 6 in. seen. Said to be 18 
[_ feet altogether ... 

i- White Sand (yielding water). 

Ft. In. 












The clay is said to get white and sandy towards the base. The dark 
clays burn to a white brick, and the greenish clay barns to a red brick. 

Clay for the old potteries of Potterspury, was obtained in Cosgrove 
Field ; but the works have long been closed.J 

* Geol. Banbury, p. 28. 

t These and subsequent notes by Prof. Green on the country near Stony Stratford 
and Newport Pagnell, are from his MSS., prepared for the Explanation of Sheet 46 
N.W. of the Geological Survey Map. 

t Morton, Nat. Hist. Northants, 1712, p, 72. 



Here we have a passage from the Upper Estuarine Series into 
the Great Oolite Limestone, with intermediate beds that may be 
said to represent the Stonesfield Series.* 

Prof. ■ Green (MS.) mentions, that " An old brick-pit ia 
Thornton, just opposite the tarn to Beachampton, showed rubbly 
Cornbrashj resting on pale-blue sandy clay ; the clay was said to 
be 15 or 20 feet thick." It would belong to the Great Oolite 

A boring for the Waterworks at Stony Stratford (town) 
furnished the following section, of which the details were com- 
municated by Messrs. Le Grand and SutclifE (see p. 511) : — 

Great Oolite 

Upper Estuarine 




Upper Lias. 

Soil and gravel 
J Eock 
I Sandy clay 
L Limestone 


}ciay - 

I Eock 

relay wi\h stone 
j Stone 
■( Black clay 
I Stone 

Clay and stofies 
Black clay 



- 9 

- 1 

- 7 

. 1 

- 6 

- 16 



- 51 


- 1 

- 2 

- 2 



. 6 

- 3 


. 4 

- 9 



At Old Stratford borings have been made to depths of 109 and 115 feet, 
mainly through blue clay, sand, and silt (Drift, etc.) reaching " rook " at 
depths of 109 and 113 feet respectively. 

A well-section at Brick-kiln Farm, S.E. of Stony Stratford, 
proved the following strata, the details of which were communi- 
cated by Mr. W. H. Dalton : — 

Drift ...... 

Kellaways Beds . - . - . 

Cornbrash - - - i - - 

Great Oolite Olay : Clay and stone 

Great Oolite Limestone. Stone with thin band of clay 

Upper Estuarine Series \ nUy 

Upper Lias, &c. J ^ 

Mi-HHlfi fEock, yielding scanty supply 

JVLiddle I braeiish .5,rater 

L Hard clay, with occasional rock 



- 5 

- 15 

- 88 


Lias ? 





18 6 

I hate inserted the Upper Estuarine Series, as it is no doubt 
represented, judging by the evidence obtained at Deanshanger. 

* H. B. W., Explanation of Horizontal Section, Sheet 140, p. 5. 



In parts of this area the Series appears to rest directly on the 
Upper Lias Olay, and where two clays come together, the well- 
sinkers are not likely to make a distinction. 

Prof. Green (MS.) has noted that, " between Calyerton and Stony 
Stratford, thick-bedded white limestones, which, must be very near 
the top of the series, occur in great force, and iiave been largely 

The Great Oolite at Linford Station, consists of fissile beds of 
earthy and oolitic limestone (5 feet seen), resting on an alternating 
series of grey, earthy, and more or less oolitic limestone and marly 
beds. These strata all vary a good deal in character, the softer 
marly beds becoming indurated into btone at short distances. 

A quarry N.W. of Great Linford Church showed the following 
beds : — 

Great Oolite 
Olay, &c. 

Great Oolite. 


r Brown clay - - 7 

t Pale grey clay and rubbly stone 
'^Grey earthy limestone, more or less 
oolitic, and very shelly, rubbly on- 
top and hard below ; with shells 
weathered out on faces, chiefly 
Lamellibranchs, Gervillia, Astarte, 
&c. and some Gasteropods ' - 
Marl, with Ostrea - - 10 to 

Fissile pale, earthy, and oolitic banded 
limestone .... 

Marly layer, a few inches. 
Hard more or less banded bed of tough 
fissile limestone, oolitic and shelly in 
places - ■ . - - 1 7 to 

Pale rubbly and earthy limestone, 
oolitic here and there, and clay 

1 6 to 
Ourrent-bedded shelly and oolitic lime- 
stone, pale, hard and earthy in 
places .... 
Pale earthy limestone - 
_^Tellowish earthy limestone 



1 10 

These are no doubt portions of the same beds as those seen in the large 
quarry to the west. They are also exposed in a bank further east, and 
in the railway-cutting west of Linford station. . 

The stone makes a good strong lime for mortar, and a useful lime for 
the land, if put on in small quantities. As a building-material, it is poor, 
although it has been used. 

A pit, and the adjoining railway-cutting at Bradwell, near New- 
pert Pagnell, showed the following section : — 


Great Oolite 

Brown clay, and rubble of earthy 
limestone, with Terebratula inter- 
media - - 1 to 2 

Rubbly (in places reconstructed) bed 
of white and grey marly limestone, 
crowded with Ostrea - - 1 6 to 1 

Hard marly clay, with Ostrea - 1 

Brown, blue, and greenish elaya and 
marl - - - . - 2 

Sand - . - - - 

Ft. Ik. 


Ft. In. 
Bluish-grey clay with "race" and 
decomposed pyrites, and much 
ferruginous matter at base - - 6 

^Irregular earthy band, with 0»irea - 1 6 
Massive bed of banded earthy lime- 
stone - - - - - 5 
Layer of selenite. 
Marly limestones with Ott/rea Sowerhyi 

and Modiola gibhosa ; much selenite 3 
Seam of selenite. 
Great Oolite I Pale earthy oolitic limestone - - 1 2 

Limestone "^ Layer oi selenite. 

Pale earthy oolitic and shelly lime- 
stone - . - . . - 1 
Seam of clay. 

Marly bed crowded with Ottrea - 2 
False-bedded shelly oolitic limestone, 
with veins of selenite; seen to depth 
_ of 4 

This section may be compared with that seen at Stow-nine- 
Churches (p. 398). The occurrence of so much selenite is a 
remarkable feature ; it is, however, local, and the layers are but 
an inch or two thick. On the whole it seems most probable that 
the selenite has arisen from decomposition of pyritic layers in the 
beds aboYe, and the consequent formation o£ sulphate of lime 
which was deposited along the open planes of bedding and in 
crevices of the fractured rock. 

Newpoj't Pagnell to Olney and Bedford. 

The Great Oolite limestone is quarried to the north of Gayhurst* 
The beds that have beea worked, comprise nearly 12 feet of 
limestones separated by marls. The stone-layers are much 
jointed and fissured, and the walls of the fissures are seen to be 
water-worn. The layers are slightly wedge-bedded in places, and 
some are seeit to be current-bedded on a small scale. There are 
hard bands of bluish-grey oolitic limestone, resembling beds of 
Forest Marble, and there are softer layers of marly limestone. 
The former are employed for walling, and the latter for ordinary 
building-piirposes. The stone, according to the quarryman, 
requires to "lie out" about 12 months before it is used; it must 
at any rate be well seasoned, otherwise It shatters with the frost. 
Some of the hard layers of oolitic limestone contain marly patches 
and small pebbles of marl, that are suggestive of contemporaneous 
erosion. The fissured and shattered nature of the stone-beds, 
shows that the strata might hold a good deal of water under 
favourable circumstances. 

Further northwards of Stoke Goldington, a brickyard has been 
excavated in dark grey and purplish clays. In company with 
Mr. Cameron, I visited this pit and al&o a number of exposures in 
the clay (formerly mapped as Upper Lias) along the borders of 
the Ouse valley by Weston Underwood to Olney. We found 

♦ See foot-note, p. 379. 


no evidence of Upper Lias. On the contrary, the clay is of 
a variegated character, having in places greenish, purplish, and 
reddish tints; it contains marly bands and fragments of Ostrea. 
At Stoke Goldington the clay, which was exposed to a depth 
of 5 or 6 feet, contains, at a lower level, irregular concretionary 
slabs of pj-rites, nodules of earthy limestone, and seams of 
fibrous carbonate of lime like " beef," but exhibiting well-marked 
" cone-in-cone " structure. This structure, under the name of 
nail-head spar, is frequently found in the Upper Lias Clay ; but 
layers of beef are not uncommon in the Upper Estuarine Clays, 
as in some portions of the Purbeck Beds, with which they have been 
compared in general characters. It is not unlikely that deeper 
excavations at Stoke Goldington would expose the Upper Lias. 

Mr. Cameron informs me that at the disused brickyard, south 
of Olney, the beds worked were yellow and blue clay, with a 
sand-bed 1 foot thick, at the depth of 8 feet from the surface, and 
thus beneath the level of the Alluvium. This sand-bed may 
perhaps be a representative of the Nortliampton Beds. 

A well sinking (1891) one-half mile north of Olney railway- 
station, showed the following section, of which the details were 
communicated by Mr. Camei'on : — 

G-reat Oolite f Limestone, with Modiola imhricata 
Limestone. \ and Bhynchonella conainna - 

f Grey clay .... 

Limestone .... 

Ft. In. 

Upper^Estuarine^ — -— 

Black shelly and carbonaceous clay 

Series. i -. 

l_ with lignite on top 






The character of all the clays here is more like that of the 
Upper Estuarine Series than' the Upper Lias. 

At Olney Court, according to Mr. Cameron, 20 feet of Lime- 
stone (Great Oolite) was proved, and beneath that 100 feet of 
clay. This clay would represent both Upper Estuarine Series 
and Upper Lias. Wells on the flats between the market-place at 
Olney and the river, are from 60 to 80 feet deep. It is to be 
presumed that the Marlstone must be reached ; in this case the 
Upper Lias clay would be of irregular thickness, being uncon- 
formably overlaid by the Upper Estuarine Series. (See also p. 391.) 

At Bedford County-school, a well was sunk in 1886, in the 
following strata, which are noted on the authority of Mr. 
Cameron : — 

Gravel ... 
Kellaways / Loamy sand and stone-lumps 

Beds. I Black clay 

Clay ... 

Great Oolite 

I Clay 










2 8 


r Limestone 
1 Clay - 
■^ Limestone 
Clay - 
' Greomsh sandy clay 
TT Ti i • Limestone 

P?S.,v= 1 Greyish-blue sand 

[ White sand 
L Hard and soft stone . 

G-reat Oolite 






. 10 



■ 10 



. 8 


. 1 










Mr. Cameron infoi'ms me that the thickness assigned to the 
Kellaways Beds may be too great, as the Gravel and underlying 
strata were somewhat mixed at the juaction. 

It is difficult to fix any definite division between Great Oolite 
Clay and Limestone ; iti some places near Bedford Mr. Cameron 
has noted 10 feet of purple and black clays that represent the 
Great Oolite Clay. At Franklin's Pit, Bedford, this Clay com- 
prised mottled red, green, yellow, grey, and purplish clay with 
selenite, resting on dark carbonaceous clay, with a concretionary 
ferruginous bed. (Sse p. 451.) 

At Cox's quarry, Bedford, I noted the accompanying eection in 
company with Mr. Topley and Mr. Cameron : — 

Ft. In. 
Loamy soil (resting irregularly on bed 

{Sandy and calcareous loam and gravel — 

Pale grey nodular marl, with nodules of 
compact grey limestone (burnt for lime) ; 
passing down into pale grey earthy lime- 
stone ; Ostrea Sowerbyi - - - 2 6 

Clay parting. 

Dark blue limestone (1 ft.) passing into 
thin flaggy, false-bedded and blue-hearted 
limestone (like Forest Marble) of irre- 
gular thickness - - 2 to 3 

Dark blue clay, crowded with specimens 
of Ostrea Sowerbyi - - - - 1 

Blue and bluish-grey limestones and shaly 
clays with Ostrea Sowerbyi ; the beds are 
slightly oolitic in places, more especially 
those near the bottom of the quarry. 
There are also layers of denser limestone 
with streaks of marly limestone. The 
beds generally are variable in thickness 
and false-bedded to some eitent. The 
full thickness is about 12 feet down to 
clay : seen to depth of - - . f q 

The limestones are quarried chiefly for lime-burning. Among 
the fossils there may be found Nautilus Baberi, Modiola 
imbricdta, M. sowerbyana, Myacites calceiformis, Ostrea Sotoerbyi, 
Pinna ampla, Trigonia, &c. 

The full thickness of the Great Oolite Limestone is from 
25 to 30 feet. 






The Great Oolite Limestone has been worked in several 
places, near Kempston, and between Bromham and Stagsden. At 
the Stagsden quarry I noted the following section, also in company 
with Mr. Topley and Mr, Cameron : — 


Cornbrash - 

Oolite Clay. 


Ft. In. 

/ Tough grey limestone, in impersistent 
\ masses : Ostrea flahelloides, &c. 
Brown, blue, and greenish clays, cal- 
careous in places, and ■with nodular 
ironstone-band near base - - 4 

Pale raarly and rabbly bed (like top-bed 

at Cox's pit) - - - - 2 6 

Pale earthy and shelly limestones, false- 
bedded - - - . - 1 8 
Great Oolite j Irregular band of earthy limestone, cur- 
Limestone. I rent-bedded: crowded with specimens 

of Ostrea Sowerhyi - - - 9 

Earthy and marly clay - - - 10 

Pale oolitic limestone. 0. Sovierlyi - 10 

|_ Clayey marl, greenish-grey and mottled. 
The Great Oolite limestone is quarried for lime-burning and for 
building-stone. Where, thickly covered by clayey beds, it is blue hearted 
and less divided than at the northern end of the quarry, where it comes to 
the surface. 

At the brickyard three-quarters of a mile N.N.W. of West 
End, Steyington, the Cornbrash rests on bluish oolitic limestone, 
with apparently no Great Oolite Clay. 

North of Olney, the workings at the Warrington stone-pit and 
lime-kiln, showed tlie following section : — 

Great Oolite / Brown clay - - - 1 to 2 


Great Oolite 






\ Marly clay 
'Pale fissile limestones - - - 

Pale rubbly and earthy limestone and 

clay --..., 
Banded marly limestone - - -^ 

Fissile beds : dense limestone with I 

scattered oolite grains - - f 

Hard oolitic limestone, with marly galls- J 
False-bedded politic and shelly beds 4 6 to 
Calcareous sandy beds . - - 

Hard limestone . - . . 

Calcareous sandstone . . - 

_Poor stone (not seen) ... 
"Water (P Upper Estnarine clay). 
Building-blocks are obtained frojn the lower beds of stone. 

The beds on the whole are irregular and more or less oolitic, 
and sandy towards the base. Among the fossils collected by 
Mr. Cameron and myself, were Ostrea, Pecten annulatus, Lima 
cardiiformiSf Modiola, Terebratula maxillata, and Ecliinobrissus. 

A great many fossils, including Pecten wollastonensis, were 
obtained by the Kev. A. W. Griesbach, from the Great Oolite 
of Wollaston ; and it is noteworthy that Waldheimia digona was 
there found in some abundance :* a fossil suggestive of the 
Bradfordian horizon. 

* See Morris, Geol. Mag. 1869, p. 102. 


Towcester to Stowe-nine- Churches. 

Referring to the country around Towcester, Mr. Aveline has 
remarked on tho unconformity belweeuthe Great Oolite and the 
Northampton Sand, observing that " the superior formation lies 
indifferently on higher or lower beds of tho inferior formation, 
indeed sometimes the Northampton Sand is entirely overlapped 
by the Great Oolite, the latter resting on the Upper Lias Clay."* 
There is no doubt that the Northampton Sand becomej very 
thin in that neighbourhood and along the borders of the Tove 
Valley and Castlethorpe, but we have evidence at Deanshanger, 
near Stony Stratford, that Upper Estnarine Clays as well as 
Northampton Sand intervene between the base of the Great 
Oolite and the Upper Lias, The same is probably the case, so far 
as regards the Upper Estuarine Series, in those areas of the Tove 
and Nene valleys, where the Great Oolite ij shown, on the 
Geological Survey Map, to rest directly on Upper Lias Olay. I 
am informed (1892) by Mr. Beeby Thompson, that Upper Lias 
Clay has been opened up in the brickyard at Grafton Regis ; that 
it is "capped by some whitish sand with much argillaceous 
matter, which. represeiTts, no doubt, the Northampton Sand of this 

Quarries have been opened in various places to obtain material 
for lime-burniog, and for local building-purposes or road-metal ; 
but a number of those marked on the Geological Survey Map 
are now closed. Among the openings, there are those west of 
Sulgrave, near Culworth, east of Wefedon Lois, and south-east of 
Maidford. At the Maidford lime-kiln the following section was 
to be seen (Fig. 1 1 1-) : — 

Ft. In. 

r3. Boulder clay, gravel and loamy 
m • 1 Ti -ft- J sand, with disturbed and contorted 

u-iaciai jjnic. ■<. masses of Great Oolite Clay and 

L rubble - - 6 to 8 

{2. Greenish rubbly stone, with. Ostrea^ 
1. Pale limestones with scattered grains I -.n n 
■ of oolite, -and with bands of marl r 
and clay . - . .J 

A deeper section, showing 16 feet of the beds, was recorded by 
Mr. Aveline, who notes the occurrence of Nerincea, Pholadomya 
Heraulti, Trigonia, and a band with Corals. 

On Grimscot Hill, north of Grimscot, and north-east of Cold 
Higham, a small area of " Forest Marble," observed by R. Trench, 
was marked on the Geological Survey Map.f This outlier is of 
interest in connection wilii the section near Stowe-nine-Churches. 
A specimen of Nautilus ohesus ? is recorded from Litchborough, 
probably from the Great Oolite Series.f 

* Aveline and Trench, Geot. part of North^mptonghirs; p. 11; see also Judd, 
Geol. Rutland, p. 31. 
t Aveline and Trench, Geol. part of Northamptonshire, p. 13. 
X Foord, Cat. Fossil Cephalopoda, Brit. Mus., Part 2, p. 218. 



Fig. 111. 
Section at Maidford, north-west of Towcester. 

n li 'rr i W'T ' I t 

An important section at Stowe-nlne-Cliurches, shows the 
sequence of beds from the bottom Oxford Clay, or Kellaways Clay, 
down to the Northampton Sand. My attention was directed to 
the quarry by Mr. Beeby Thompson, who has since described the 
beds in detail, and in whose company the following record was 




Great Oolite 








Great Oolite 

^PP«^^|J^»"^«}Dark clay. &c, 

Ft. Ik. 
r Stiff grey and brown clay and purplish 
J clay with, ochreous veins: filling 
I hollows or " Bipes " in the beds 
L below - - . 3 Oto 5 

Grey, shelly, and ferruginous lime- 
stones, with bands of white earthy 
. limestone at base ... 
Grey clay .... 

Hard fissile grey and blue limestones 
Greenish clay, with plant-remains 
Hard and fissile grey shelly limestone ; 

occurs in irregular masses . 

Dark, purplish, carbonaceous clay, 

with selenite and rusty band at 

ba«e - - - . 9 to 

Brown marly clay with veins of fibrous 

gypsum, and pebbles of white lime. 

stone - . - - - 

Impersistent layer of greenish shelly 

clay, with lignite - - - . 

'Oolitic shelly limestone ; Gasteropods, 

numerous Lamellibranohs, Terebra' 

tula maxillata, Glypeu$ 

Pale marly beds, more or less indu. 

rated, shelly and oolitic : Pholddomya 

Heraulti . . . - 

Oolitic and shelly limestones (base of 

quarry) ; Trigonia coitata 
[Other beds of limestojie, noted by Mr. Thompson, 
about 14 feet.] 



6 6 



Some of the layers in the Great Oolite Clay strongly resemble 
beds of Forest Marble, and Mr. Thompson has used the name in 
describing the upper portions of this subdivision * The pebbles of 
white limestone are probably due to some local erosion of the 
upper beds o±' the Great Oolite. Lists of fossils from the several 
formations have been published by Mr. Thompson. 

Fig. 112. 

Diagram-section to show the relations between the Great and Inferior 
Oolite Series from Northamptonshire to Lincolnshire. 

7. Great Oolite Clay. 

6. Great Oolite Limestone. 

5. Upper Estuarine Series. 

4. Lincolnshire Limestone. 
3. CoUyweston Slate. 
2. Lower Estuarine Series. 
1. Northampton Sand. 

Roade and Blisworth to Northampton. 

Cuttings on the new Towcester (Midland) Kailway, south- 
west of Eoade, showed the following section : — 

Glacial Drift. ( ^°^l^?^ ^^^'^ {^ho^^n in cutting east 
I of bridge oyer railway) - 10 to 
'Pale fissile and earthy limestone, Ostrea 
abundant in earthy" layer at base : 
0. Sowerlyi and 0. limgulata? 3 or 
Thicker beds of pale earthy limestone 
2 or 3 
Shelly and oolitic limestones, false- 
bedded - . . . 
Great Oolite J Eubbly marl with indurated bands. 
Limestone. i Ostrea, &c. sparingly ; and at base, 
marl with Ehynohonella, Ostrea, 
Modiola, Lima, &c. - - - 
Eotten marly limestones, with Bhyn- 
ehonella, &c. - - . . 
Rubbly marl, with Pholadomya (in 
position), Ostrea Sowerhyi, Bhyn- 
[_ ehonella ; very shelly ia places 5 to 

Upper Estuarine /^'■^^^^^^ ^rey and brown clay, with 
^^ L many specimens of Ostrea 

(Beds not Been) * # * 

{Stiff blue clay, shoivn in foundations 
for bridge over stream, by junction 
with L. & N.W. EaUway. 






* See Journ. Northamptonihire Nat. Hist. Soc, voj. vi. 1891, p. 294. 



A quarry opened to the south-east of Roadf, for ballast on the 
railway, showed 8 feet of pale, flaggy, and shelly false-bedded 
oolite, yielding no fossils, and with a crumbly marl on top. The 
same beds were exposed at the base of the cutting on the south, 
capped by 6 or 7 feet of rubbly beJs, with broken-up marly stone 
on top, with Ostrea, &c. These are evidently the same as the 
higher beds of tlie section above recorded. 

The Great Oolite has been well exposed in the cuttings of the 
L. & N.W. Railway at Roade, and also in quarries to the south- 
east. The general section is as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
f Clay and fissile beds of grey oolite, 

Iwith Ostrea Bowerbyi. 
Fossil Bed : Grey marly limestone, 
witti caloitio Corals, Terebratula 
maxillata, Bhynchonella varians, Tri- 
gonia, Myacites tv/midus, Pecten annu- 
latus, Lima eardiiformis, Ceromya 
Bymondsi, Modiola imbricata, G-aa- 
teropods and Nautilus - 1 to 3 6 

False-bedded oolite, shelly in places, 
and with thin marly beds (8 feet 
seen in quarry) - - about 15 

Pale earthy and oolitic limestone, 
passing down into dense grey oolite, 
with white marly kernels ; full thiek- 
_ ness about - - - - 3 6+ 

Upper Estuarine. — Green clays, &c. 
Northampton Sand. 
Upper Lias Clay. 

We have in the Great Oolite Limestone, a false-bedded series 
overlaid and underlaid by even beds of limestone : these are well 
shown in the cutting north of Roade Station. The fossil-bed, 
where at the surface of the ground (as shown in one of the 
quarries), weathers to a rubbly marl, Avhich is piped. 

At Bliswortli, a quarry in the Great Oolite showed the 

Great Oolite 


following section : — 

Glacial Drift. - Boulder Clay, &c. 

Ft. In. 

Great Oolite 


Great Oolite 

/ Green and bluish grey clay with Ostrea 
\ suhrugulosa, and lignite 
Flaggy limestone (Pendle), with Acro- 

salenia, &o. - - 

Grey earthy and oolitic limestone : 

Pholadomya - - - - 

Banded earthy limestone, flaggy in 

places and minutely current-bedded 

2 Oto 
Hard shelly oolite - - 5 to 

Clay with Ostrea 
■^Fossil-bed: Lima, Terebratula manil-') 

lata - - ■ " L 

Pale marly beds, with scattered oolitic f 

grains - - - - -J 

Oolitic limestone ("Blocks") with 

Nautilus Baberi, N. subtruncatus, 

Clypeus Miilleri (stone used for 

window sills, &c.) 
Alternations of hard blue-hearted stone 

and clay ■« . . about 



The Banded bed is similar to a layer seen at Deanshanger and 
Newport Pagnell. The details below the fossil-bed and the names 
of fossils are given from the account published by S. Sharp.* 
He records from the '•' Blocks," a specimen oi Ammonites gracilis, 
16 in. in diameter. 

Many Sauiian-remains, including bones of Cetiosaurus, were 
obtained during the construction of the railway at Blisworth.f 

At the Iro